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 Measures of national income and output - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Measures of national income and output are used in economics to estimate the value of goods and services produced in an economy.
In relation to greening the national accounts the United States Congressional Budget Office concludes "a gradual process of modifying measures of national economic performance is consistent with the history and development of the national accounts."[1]
Countries with a skewed income distribution may have a relatively high per-capita GNP while the majority of its citizens have a relatively low level of income, due to concentration of wealth in the hands of a small fraction of the population. /wiki/Measures_of_national_income_and_output   (1462 words)

National income, measured by statistics such as the Net National Income (NNI), measures the total income of all individuals in the economy.
To calculate a company's income, it starts with its amount of revenue, deducts all costs, including such things as employees' salaries and depreciation, and the number that results is its income, which may be a negative number.
In business and accounting, income (also known as profit or earnings) is, more specifically, the amount of money that a company earns after paying for all its costs. /default.aspx?modulo=wikipedia&arg=income   (701 words)

 national income accounting
Though not a true income because it is not a payment for services, it is part of the value of final output.
We have gone from GDP to National Income, but the economists who put together the GDP figures know how to break it down into a whole lot of other categories.
Corporate profit includes the amounts that corporations pay in the form of the corporate income tax, the amounts they pay stockholders in the form of dividends, and the amounts they "save" or retain within the business. /econ/Connections/Sources.html   (1135 words)

 Gross National Income - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Previously known as Gross National Product, Gross National Income comprises the total value of goods and services produced within a country (i.e.
For example, if a British-owned company operating in another country sends some of their incomes (profits) back to UK, UK’s GNI is enhanced.
Similarly, a British production unit of a US company sending profit to the US will affect the British GNI but will not reduce it since it is not included in the first place. /wiki/Gross_National_Income   (153 words)

 Tutor2u - measuring national income
National Income is a term used to measure the monetary value of the flow of output of goods and services produced within the economy over a period of time.
To measure how much output, spending and income has been generated we use national income accounts.
It includes the output of the many foreign owned firms that are located in the UK following the high levels of foreign direct investment in the UK economy in the 1980s and 1990s. /economics/content/topics/macroeconomy/national_income.htm   (672 words)

 GLOBAL/WORLD INCOME PER CAPITA GNI, GNP, GDP, 2005, Wealth, Rich Country Ranking, Rank, Developing Countries : Finfacts Ireland
GNI (or gross national product in the terminology of the 1968 United Nations System of National Accounts) measures the total domestic and foreign value added claimed by residents.
Turning to income poverty, the WDI presents data made public last year showing the worldwide drop in the number and proportion of people living in extreme poverty, that is, on less than $1 a day.
Luxembourg* had the highest per capita Gross National Income (GNI) in the world in 2004, followed closely by Norway, Switzerland, the United States and Denmark, according to World Bank Development Indicators from July 2005. /biz10/globalworldincomepercapita.htm   (1844 words)

 National Income
national income accounting -- the study of the methods of measuring the aggregate output and aggregate income of an economy
measures of GDP are not identical with measures of national income
GDP and GNP (gross national product) are distinguished by where the output is produced and who owns the resources producing the output. /employee/wheelerb/macro/ni/ni.htm   (901 words)

It is one of the measures of national income and output.
A measure of the economy to GDP is the Aggregate expenditure measure, which is identical to GDP except that it excludes items produced but not purchased (net inventory/stock level growth).
In economics, the gross domestic product (GDP) is a measure of the amount of the economic production of a particular territory in financial capital terms during a specific time period. /wikipedia/Gross_domestic_product   (2005 words)

 SSRN-The Health of Nations: The Contribution of Improved Health to Living Standards by William Nordhaus
It is not widely recognized, however, that conventional measures of national income and output exclude the value of improvements in the health status of the population.
Nations generally measure their economic performance using the yardstick of national output and income.
The study first discusses the theory of the measurement of national income, examines some of the shortcomings of traditional concepts, and proposes a new concept called 'health income' that can be used to incorporate improvements in health status. /sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=302579   (453 words)

 Active Skim View of: Appendix A Sustainability and Economic Accounting
Measures of national income and output would be closer to the ideal measure of sustainable income if omitted consumption and net investment were included to obtain augmented income and output measures.
One important conclusion is that to the extent that the national accounts omit important components of consumption and of net capital accumulation, they may provide misleading measures of sustainable income.
It should be emphasized that the sustainability-based approach—while deemed particularly useful and appropriate in the context of designing comprehensive national income accounts—is but one of many approaches to analyzing the sustainability of an economy or of the interactions between the economy and the environment. /nap-cgi/skimit.cgi?isbn=0309071518&chap=181-195   (774 words)

 Introduction to Macroeconomics - 4. Measuring Output of the Macroeconomy
The purpose of this chapter is not to document all the details of the NIPA (this is available from the Bureau of Economic Analysis,, but to present the basic methodology of measuring total output, income, and inflation and emphasize those components and terms that will be important to us in future chapters.
The original set of income accounts was presented to Congress in 1937 and in a research report, National Income, 1929-35.
Total output is measured by the money (dollar) value of all final goods and services produced by an economy during a given period of time, usually a year. /~tlidderd/104/ch4Lect.html   (5729 words)

 Gross Domestic Product, by Lincoln Anderson: The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics: Library of Economics and Liberty
GDP measures the output of all labor and capital within the U.S. geographical boundary regardless of the residence of that labor or owner of capital.
GNP measures the output supplied by residents of the United States regardless of where they live and work or where they own capital.
The difference, called net factor income received from abroad, is trivial for the United States, amounting to only $13 billion (0.2 percent of GDP) in 1991. /library/Enc/GrossDomesticProduct.html   (1945 words)

 American Journal of Economics and Sociology, The: Irving Fisher and the contribution of improved longevity to living standards
Attempts to measure improvements in the health status of the population--including everything from vaccinations, microsurgery, and new drugs to airbags, exercise, and anti-cigarette advertising--pose a new and difficult challenge to measuring national income.
The current approach is to measure health output primarily by the number of physician-visits, the number of hospital days, and similar measures, rather than the actual delivery of services or changes in health status.
The techniques used to measure the price and quantity of health care are highly defective, and there are no attempts to account for improvements in the length of life into current national accounts. /p/articles/mi_m0254/is_1_64/ai_n13803511   (1412 words)

 Nat' Academies Press, Nature's Numbers: Expanding the National Economic Accounts to Include the Environment (1999)
The nation's measures of national income and output can be improved by including all consumption and net investment to obtain augmented income and output measures.
A second approach to environmental accounting is the construction of comprehensive measures of national income or output to supplement the conventional GDP and NDP accounts.
The national accounts have a close relationship with measures of sustainable income, since the usual measure of NDP corresponds to the highest sustainable level of per capita consumption under idealized conditions. /openbook/0309071518/html/57.html   (697 words)

 Product measures
Product Introductions and Price Measures for Microprocessor Chips in the 1990s...
Introduction to MSSQL Server 2000 Analysis Services: Semi-Additive Measures and...
MIT OpenCourseWare Mathematics 18.125 Measure and Integration, Fall 2003 C... /math/543.html   (162 words)

Interpreting National Income and Output GDP and related measures of national income and output must be interpreted with their limitations in mind.
Personal disposable income is the amount actually available for individuals to spend or to save, that is, income minus taxes.
Personal income is income received by individuals before any allowance for personal taxes. /powerpoint/bt/lipsey-chrystal/lipsey_chrystal_summ20.ppt   (227 words)

 Tools and Hardware: Machinery Values
live article   Measures of national income and output Measures of national income and output are used in economics to estimate the value of goods and services produced in an economy.
must yield the same results because the total expenditures on goods and services (GNE) must by definition be equal to the value of the goods and services produced (GNP) which must be equal to the total income paid to the factors that...
By 1942, this vast network of slavery extended across all of German-occupied Europe, but the whole operation was run by a surprisingly small staff of bureaucrats--no more than 200 engineers and managers who worked in the Business Administration Main Office of the SS. /409.html   (975 words)

 Australian National University EPrints2 Archive - Exact Measures of Income in Two Capital-Resource-Time Economies
Australian National University EPrints2 Archive - Exact Measures of Income in Two Capital-Resource-Time Economies
Pezzey, John C.V. (2001) Exact Measures of Income in Two Capital-Resource-Time Economies.
The second economy has linear utility, a non-linear output split between consumption and investment, and exponential technical progress. /archive/00000776   (192 words)

Two years later, the aircraft project was canceled, and many of the engineers lost their jobs.
This book presents a concised history of how the politics of the Vatican allow it to survive and thrive in today's climate.
Fortunately, at the time, the National Aeronautics and Sp... /Avro   (918 words)

 Property reference help: O
* the imputed rents disappear from measures of national income and output, unless figures are added to take them into account.
Sometimes governments have attempted to tax the imputed rent (Schedule A of the U.K. income tax used to do this), but this tends to be unpopular because most people do not understand the concept of imputed rent.
In modern economies, variations in the rate of owner occupancy are a good index of the overall wealth of the nation, at least across time within a nation. /reference/o   (541 words)

 EconPapers: The Black Economy - Benefit frauds or tax evaders?
However, the relevance of this approach depends on how accurately National Income measures the output of goods and services of a country.
While it is difficult to measure, the Black Economy represents the output of goods and services that is not generally captured in the National Income Accounts.
Abstract: One answer to the question "How Rich are We?" is to compare levels of National Income either across countries or for a single country over time. /article/wejwldecn/1.htm   (208 words) - PRODUCTION, COSTS AND PRICING - MICROECONOMICS
(In macroeconomics, production is measured by gross domestic product and other measures of national income and output.)
This production information can then be combined with market information (like demand and marginal revenue) to determine the quantity of products to produce and the optimum price to charge. /01_INDEX/index_finanzas_eng/production_costs_pricing.html   (217 words)

 Accounting Formulas
ROI Planning: Predicting and Measuring the Results of SEM and... /accounting_formulas.htm   (160 words)

 National Income by Type
Chain-type measures of real output and prices in the U.S. national income and product accounts: an update.
National Bank Announces Net Income of $217 Million for the First Quarter of 2006.
Distribution of the federal tax burden, share of after-tax income, and after-tax income by presidential administration and household type, 1981-2000. /ipa/A0104648.html   (230 words)

 Chapter 5: National Income Accounting (Measuring Output)
The measurement of GDP and its components is known as national income accounting.
For example, when my family goes out to eat, the meal we purchase represents income for the waiter, the restaurant owner, the suppliers, and the sales tax on the meal is income for the government.
But spending and income are related in a circular flow: spending by someone becomes income for someone else. /~edunne/200ch5.html   (1759 words)

 Wealth Distribution: Measuring Money
Look at Measures of National Income and Output.
This will give you a good foundation on how to measure and evaluate money on a national and international scale.
Before you can really look at who has the money, you need to figure out what money is and how it's measured. /~sethm/edst114/webquest/site1.html   (129 words) >> Encyclopedia >> GNP
#REDIRECT Measures of national income and output#Gross National Product /research/encyclopedia.cgi?subject=/GNP   (38 words)

 Bureau of Economic Analysis: National Economic Accounts
Combined Effects of the Tax Acts of 2002 and 2003 on Selected Measures of Corporate Profits, XLS
Table Headers and Stubs for the 2005 Annual Revision to the National Income and Product Accounts
Estimates prepared for international comparisons based on the System of National Accounts /bea/dn1.htm   (285 words)

 FNCE 748 International/Multinational Finance WW03
Measures of national income and output, National Income and Product Accounts, IS/LM model
Measuring the Performance of Operations Subject to Fluctuating Exchange Rates, Flood and Lessard (CP)
Identifying, Measuring and Hedging Currency Risk at Merck, J. Lewent and A. Kearney, 1990 (CP) /~bodnarg/courses/nbae/nbaeoutline.html   (575 words)

 National Income
national income accounting -- the study of the methods of measuring the aggregate output and aggregate income of an economy
measures of GDP are not identical with measures of national income
GDP and GNP (gross national product) are distinguished by where the output is produced and who owns the resources producing the output. /employee/wheelerb/macro/ni/ni.htm   (901 words)

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