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# Topic: 1000000000 (number)

###### In the News (Fri 24 May 13)

 10 (number) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Ten is the eighth Perrin number, preceded in the sequence by 5, 5, 7. The number of carbon atoms in decane, a hydrocarbon. The number of spacetime dimensions in superstring theory. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/10_(number)   (1273 words)

 Computer Arithmetic When a number is represented only as a string of bits, with no other symbols, special conventions must be adopted to represent a number that is negative, or one with a radix point indicating a binary fraction. Another is one's complement notation, in which, when a number is negative, in addition to this being indicated by setting the first bit of the number to a one, the other bits of the number are all inverted. In these calculations, instead of dealing in numbers which must always be exact in terms of a whole unit, whether that unit is a dollar or a cent, a certain number of digits of precision is sought for a quantity that might be very small or very large. www.quadibloc.com /comp/cp02.htm   (1112 words)

 Divisors   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10) For instance, they consider 945 to be an interesting number, since it is the first odd number for which the sum of its divisors is larger than the number itself. To help them search for interesting numbers, you are to write a program that scans a range of numbers and determines the number that has the largest number of divisors in the range. For each range, find the number P which has the largest number of divisors (if several numbers tie for first place, select the lowest), and the number of positive divisors D of P (where P is included as a divisor). acm.uva.es /p/v2/294.html   (257 words)

 Arithmetic, Numeration, Number Theory - Numericana Recall that a number is divisible by 3 or 9 iff (if and only if) the sum of its digits is. It is divisible by 11 iff the difference between the sum of its odd digits (units, hundreds, etc.) and the sum of its even digits (tens, thousands, etc.) is so divisible. Since the number 9N divides the number which consists of P nines followed by a certain number J of zeroes, N divides the number consisting of P ones followed by J zeroes, and also the integer composed of P sevens followed by J zeroes. The next two numbers in the list, the 13th and 14th Mersenne primes, are much larger (corresponding to n=521 and n=607) and were both discovered the same day (January 30, 1952, around 22:00 PST and shortly before midnight) by Raphael Mitchel Robinson (1911-1995), at the dawn of the computer age. home.att.net /~numericana/answer/numbers.htm   (7666 words)

 Lesson 2 In representing a number in floating # point the relative error should be at most 5 * 10^(-Digits). # When two numbers are multiplied or divided, the relative error of the result is # at most (approximately) the sum of the two relative errors. # When two numbers are added or subtracted, the absolute error of the result is # at most the sum of the two absolute errors. www.ugrad.math.ubc.ca /coursedoc/m210/lesson2.html   (1554 words)

 TTree The number of entries in the friend must be equal or greater to the number of entries of the original tree. AutoSave is automatically called by TTree::Fill when the number of bytes generated since the previous AutoSave is greater than fAutoSave bytes. nentries is the number of entries to process (default is all) first is the first entry to process (default is 0) This function returns the number of selected entries. root.cern.ch /root/html302/TTree.html   (7020 words)

 Sun - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia For many years measurements of the number of neutrinos produced in the Sun were much lower than theories predicted, a problem which was recently resolved through a better understanding of the effects of neutrino oscillation. The number of sunspots visible on the Sun is not constant, but varies over a 10-12 year cycle known as the Solar cycle. For many years the number of solar electron neutrinos detected on Earth was only a third of the number expected, according to theories describing the nuclear reactions in the Sun. www.a013.com /wiki/Sun   (7220 words)

 A Rule-Based Approach to Number Spellout   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10) Number spellout can also have great utility in text-to-speech and speech recognition systems, where it would be much more natural for the user to say "three thousand four hundred twenty-six dollars and fifty-two cents" than, say, "command dollar three comma four two six point five two end command." Numbers with fractional parts are handled similarly: We define a decimal rule that is used to format numbers that have fractional parts. In the same way, the way negative numbers are handled works well in the most common cases, but becomes rather unwieldy when a negative number is rendered as something other than the absolute value with an added string at the beginning or ending. www.concentric.net /~rtgillam/pubs/NumberSpellout.htm   (6958 words)

 x386.net - Riding the Wake of Technology A prime number is one that is only evenly disvisible by itself and 1. Using a very simplistic feedback loop based on the number of nslookups a second, it adjusts how hard it test numbers to see if they are prime. I also need to decide if building a DB of all unique 10 digit numbers in the first 5 million digits of e and using that as a quick exclude list is worth while. www.x386.net /google1.html   (898 words)

 Exercise 1 The target of this assignment is to convert a number from one base to another base. Each number in Pascal triangle is the sum of the two numbers above it in the previous line. In the first line (n=0) and in the last line of this rhombus there is only one number that is printed at the center of the line. www.cs.bgu.ac.il /~prog021/assignments/assignment1/ass1.html   (586 words)

 Binary Numbers The numbers we normally use are based on the decimal number system. The binary number system is based on 2 (or powers of 2) rather than the normal decimal numbers that we are used to. Each digit in a binary number is either a 0 or 1, and is stored as a single "bit" in the computer. icogsci1.ucsd.edu /~cg3x/cg3.binary.html   (1165 words)

 The Voyager Interstellar Record The binary numbering system, with just two symbols, 0 and 1, is the simplest numbering system, and is more likely to be understood by other civilizations than our decimal system adopted simply because humans have 10 fingers. The symbols around the periphery of the record are a binary representation of the time required for one revolution of the record where a binary 0 is represented by a dash and a binary 1 is represented by the same vertical symbol used with the hydrogen transition above. The number around the periphery is 100110000110010000000000000000000 which converts to 5,113,380,864 in decimal. www.cedmagic.com /featured/voyager/voyager-record.html   (2242 words)

 PHP: Manual: Numbers Functions and Management Actually the best way to check the numeric nature of a number is to use is_numeric: this function, in fact, would return true also if the number is actually a numeric string: that is, a number but in between quotes. If the input number is a stringed version of a number (in between quotes, that is), it works as well, and of course it still returns the output in the string version. Also, it is very likely that if the number is too long, it is already passed as a string to override the limits that computer have to store too many digits expressed as numbers (whereas no limit is in place when you store a string: it could be as long as a book!). www.unitedscripters.com /phps/manual3.html   (1846 words)

 xTuringMachine Lab The numbers to be added must be next to each other on the tape, and they must be separated by a single blank space. The machine should write a string of \$'s, where the number of \$'s is given by the binary number that was initially on the tape. For example, if the number on the tape was 10110, which is 22 in binary, then the machine should halt with a string of twenty-two \$'s on the tape. math.hws.edu /TMCM/java/labs/xTuringMachineLab.html   (4113 words)

 Floating-Point Computing: A Comedy of Errors? Entry number 2, shows a result that in decimal representation, is in error by -.00096259382529338. Entry number 3 presents not the result of a run, but rather serves to illustrate the error in the decimal representation when the hexadecimal number varies by 1 bit, or unit in the last place, denoted ULP. The complexity is inherent in the attempt to model arithmetic with real numbers, which in "true" arithmetic have infinite precision, by a finite precision approximation. developers.sun.com /sunstudio/articles/fp_errors.html   (1711 words)

 Result Analysis and Discussion The last two columns list the number of taken conditional branches and their percentage with respect to the total number of conditional branches traced from the third column. The less frequent the number of branches in the middle, the better the performance of the perfect static predictor. The number of instructions between context switches for these lightweight processes sometimes is much shorter than conventional context switches. www.cs.ucdavis.edu /~su/Berkeley/cs252/result.html   (2268 words)

 TChain This second mode is interesting in case the number of entries in the file is already stored in a run data base for example. return absolute entry number in the chain the input parameter entry is the entry number in the current Tree of this chain The input argument entry is the entry serial number in the whole chain. root.cern.ch /root/html300/TChain.html   (1010 words)

 The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences Number of labeled rooted trees with n nodes: n^(n-1). Also the number of connected transitive subtree acyclic digraphs on n vertices. For any given integer k a(n) is also is the number of functions from {1,2,...,n} to {1,2,...,n} such that the sum of the function values is k mod n. www.research.att.com /~njas/sequences/A000169   (355 words)

 How high can you count? It is equal to the number 1 followed by 3*21 = 63 zeros, which is the same value. The prefix that is in front of "llion" is derived from something called the Latin cardinal number which is one less than something we call a Latin power. I had been attempting to memorize the numbers by brute force, and had made it up to 117. www.isthe.com /chongo/tech/math/number/howhigh.html   (4772 words)

 undifined 1/0 ?!!! "infinity" is not a standard real number and if you are talking about the real numbers, "1/infinity= 0" and "1/(-infinity)= 0" are short hand for "the limit of 1/x as x goes to infinity is 0" and "the limit of 1/x as x goes to -infinity is 0". If you are using one of the several "extended number systems" in which infinity is defined, then you should say so. So if zero is the equivalent of infinity and -infinity then the numberline as a whole is not just a straight line, but a loop that resembles the sign for infinity. www.physicsforums.com /showthread.php?p=118348   (975 words)

 ridiculous_fish » Blog Archive » Float Floating point numbers are just like that, except the parts are all represented in binary and the base is 2. To represent a number with floating point, we multiply or divide by 2 until the number is at least 1 but less than 2, and then that number becomes the mantissa, and the exponent is the number of times we had to multiply (in which case it’s negative) or divide (positive) to get there. We also need to represent positive and negative numbers (remember, a negative exponent means a small but positive number; we don’t have a way of representing actual negative numbers yet). ridiculousfish.com /blog/?p=24   (1868 words)

 Scalable Simulation Framework The seeds for the random number generators are formed from such a root string, concatenated with other SSFNet-provided strings, using the cryptographic message digest techniques (currently the MD5 function). controls how many separate instances of a random number generator will be created in the running model, and how the output of these generators will be shared by various consumers of random numbers. The only difference in the DML fragment above is that a server must know its port number, and that we may wish to limit the number of clients that are simultaneously connected to the server (for instance, if we wished to run a denial of service attack scenario...). www.ssfnet.org /InternetDocs/ssfnetTutorial-1.html   (2219 words)

 Coding Challenge - Vampire Numbers Challenge - Results- Developer Zone - National Instruments This could be integers with a small number of digits, or integers with more digits than many data types can hold. All parts with an odd number of digits or less than 4 digits are eliminated. Christian's VI was the only submission which found all Vampire Numbers for each range tested in reasonable time. zone.ni.com /devzone/cda/tut/p/id/5303   (572 words)

 1000000000 (number) at AllExperts One thousand million (1,000,000,000) is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001. (A milliard can also be used to refer to 1,000,000,000, though this terminology is much rarer). See Orders of magnitude (numbers) for larger numbers. en.allexperts.com /e/0/1000000000_(number).htm   (449 words)

 1000000000 (number) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The term milliard can also be used to refer to 1,000,000,000, though this terminology is rarely used in the English language, but often in other languages. Physical quantities can be expressed using the SI prefix giga. See Orders of magnitude (numbers) for larger numbers; and long and short scales. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/1000000000_(number)   (442 words)

 generation5 - Beetles, beetles, everywhere beetles The number is the current number of that beetle in a specific run, the serial number is the unique beetle number. The age is the number of runs the beetle has survived. On the horizontal axis in the graph is the number of runs (unit is 100!) on the vertical axis is the age (in runs). www.generation5.org /content/2005/beetles.asp?Print=1   (1034 words)

 How many primes are there? The Prime Number Theorem: The number of primes not exceeding x is asymptotic to x/log x. The prime number theorem was stated with a=0, but it has been shown that a=1 is the best choice: Clearly Legendre's conjecture is equivalent to the prime number theorem, the constant 1.08366 was based on his limited table for values of pi(x) (which only went to x = 400,000). primes.utm.edu /howmany.shtml   (1731 words)

 TTable AsString represents the value provided via "void *b" with type defined by "name" void *buf - the pointer to the value to be printed out. Delete one or several rows from the table Int_t indx - index of the first row to be deleted Int_t nRows - the total number of rows to be deleted = 1 "by default nentries is the number of entries to process (default is all) first is the first entry to process (default is 0) Saving the result of Draw to an histogram ========================================= By default the temporary histogram created is called htemp. www.usatlas.bnl.gov /computing/software/db/htmldoc/TTable.html   (2030 words)

 NUMBER_TOOLS: Eiffel class interface If some -- error occurs (like for example a division by zero), the Result -- is Void and the error report is left in the parser_buffer. -- The Base is the grater number which is like 10^x and -- which is inferior to the Maximu_integer value. -- A number has a value between 0-9 so a number in a -- item of a FIXED_ARRAY[INTEGER] must be a succession -- of 9 so the value of the greater item is 999999999. cs.anu.edu.au /student/eiffel/libraries/_NUMBER_TOOLS_number_tools.html   (320 words)

 DBAzine.com: Automated Data Encryption Management   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10) The first number (37) is the base number or starting value for the hashing algorithm; I recommend that you use a small prime number for it. The second number (1000000000) is the hash size, and the bigger it is, the bigger the chance to generate a unique string, so in this case, you normally use a value like 2^30. If we have a client database, we want to encrypt names, phone numbers (that could be stored as character strings or as numbers), birth or joining dates, and some comments (perhaps stored as LONG strings, which need special handling). www.dbazine.com /oracle/or-articles/hordila10   (2410 words)

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