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Topic: 13th century BCE

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Their period as a distinct people lasted from the 13th century BCE until the 3rd century CE, while their kingdom lasted only until the 6th century BCE.
The Ammonite heartland lay between the Syrian Desert and the Jordan River, with Rabbath Ammon as its principal city.
There are reports of one incident of Ammonite influence on Israelite culture, when the worship of the Ammonite god, Milcon, was introduced during Solomon's reign in the 10th century BCE.
lexicorient.com /e.o/ammon.htm   (454 words)

 NationMaster - Encyclopedia: 13th century BCE   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
In the second millennium BCE, Tel Mikne was a large Canaanite city, at first covering all parts of the tel, but later confined to a settlement on the acropolis, where a public building destroyed by conflagration in the 13th century BCE was uncovered.
The Philistines were of the Sea Peoples who had wandered, at the beginning of the 12th century BCE, from their homeland in southern Greece and the Aegean islands to the shores of the Mediterranean.
At the end of the 7th century BCE the city’s fortunes declined and in 604 BCE, it was conquered and destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar, King of Babylon.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/13th-century-BCE   (306 words)

 Reinstating the Divine Woman in Judaism by Jenny Kien
In the fourth century BCE, the Jahweh-alone Levites, and the priests, who were not necessarily Jahweh-aloners, were forced to reach a compromise, as they had to live together in the Temple.
In the third century BCE, Greek was the language of the upper class, and Aramaic was the language of the ordinary people throughout the Levant.
Centuries later, when the Jahweh-alone movement had long become the sole position of Judaism and when all polytheism had disappeared, a description of Jahweh in terms of the sun god was unthinkable.
www.pinn.net /~sunshine/book-sum/kien.html   (8728 words)

 Judaism 2 - Crystalinks
At the Exodus from Egypt (13th century BCE), YHWH showed his faithfulness and power by liberating Israel from bondage and punishing their oppressors with plagues and drowning at the sea.
Jeroboam I (10th century BCE), the first king of the north (now called Israel, in contradistinction to Judah, the southern Davidic kingdom), appreciated the inextricable link of Jerusalem and its sanctuary with the Davidic claim to divine election to kingship over all Israel (the whole people, north and south).
King Jeroboam II (8th century BCE) was able to undertake to restore the imperial sway of the north over its neighbour, and a prophecy of Jonah that he would extend Israel's borders from the Dead Sea to the entrance to Hamath (Syria) was borne out.
www.crystalinks.com /judaism2.html   (4125 words)

 ArtLex on Greek Art (via CobWeb/3.1 planetlab2.cs.virginia.edu)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
Mycenaean Greece, 13th century BCE, Mycenian Triad, terra cotta, height 13 cm, Louvre.
Homer (Greek, 8th century BCE) in his Iliad, was fought between Troy and Mycenae in the 13th century.
Roman, Piombino (Italy), 1st century BCE, Apollo, bronze, height 115 cm, Louvre.
www.artlex.com.cob-web.org:8888 /ArtLex/g/greek.html   (999 words)

Ancient country of modern southwestern Jordan and southern Israel, from about 13th century BCE until 4th century BCE.
13th century BCE: The emergence of the Edomites in the lands south of the Dead Sea.
Either they immigrated to the area, or they were the original people forming societies sufficiently advanced to be noted and identified by their neighbours.
lexicorient.com /e.o/edom.htm   (357 words)

 Anatolia: Shaw's Outline of Ancient History
Idriaeus (351-344 BCE)- he died of disease and was succeeded by his sister and wife Ada (who later became Queen of Alinda), but she was expelled by her brother Pixodarus, who threw in his lot with the Persians inviting in a Persian Satrap Othontapates (Orontobates?) This satrap was ruling when Alexander arrived in 334.
In 500 BCE the tyrant of Mylasa was Oliatus, son of Ibanollis.
In 167 BCE they revolted from the Rhodians and were soon thereafter declared free by the Romans once more.Under the Pax Romana Mylasa flourished and brought under her control in the name of 'Sympolity' the cities of Euromos, Chalcetor, Hydae, Olympos and Labraynda, and their citizenry were alloted to her own tribes.
www.juyayay.com /outline/anatolia   (9235 words)

Hattusas (modern Bogazköy in north-central Turkey) was the capital of the Hittite empire in the 2nd millenium BCE.
It was destroyed around 1380 BCE (during the reign of Amenhotep III), but soon rebuilt and refortified by Suppiluliumas.
One of his successors, Muwatallis (ruled approximately during the reign of Horemheb) moved the capital to the south "upon command of the gods", but his successor returned to Hattusas, which remained the capital until the fall of the empire.
www.geocities.com /Athens/Acropolis/7987/hattus_1.html   (924 words)

 information about hattusas,history about hittites, hattusas near ankara, transfer to Hattusas from ankara, hattusas ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
The largest Assyrian trading center in Anatolia was at Kanesh, which flourished from 1950 BCE to 1850 BCE (end of First Intermediate Period and beginning of Twelfth Dynasty), was destroyed, and then became active again around 1820 BCE and lasted another two generations (late 12th Dynasty).
In the 13th Century BCE (Nineteenth Dynasty) the city wall was further extended across the gorge to complete enclose the great hill.
The city was destroyed around 1190 BCE (beginning of Twentieth Dynasty) and remained empty until the Phrygians captured the region in the 8th century BCE.
www.ezoptravel.com /ezopnew/turkey/ankara/hattusas.htm   (1187 words)

 peoples of the ancient Near East
In the late 19th century, the French scholar Gaston Maspero suggested that the Shardana were a migratory people originating in Sardis who eventually settled in Sardinia, giving their name to both places.
In the 14th-13th centuries BCE, the Shardana also had a reputation as pirates, and it is possible that their success in this occupation provided one of the motivations for the activities of other groups of Sea Peoples.
However, this idea is tied to the theory that the primary factor in the Late Bronze Age-Iron Age transition was massive pillaging and piracy on the part of certain groups in the Aegean (Redford 1992: 244).
www.libraries.psu.edu /artshumanities/ancientpeoples/shardana.html   (1250 words)

 13th century   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
Twelfth and 13th century poetry on the other hand is ultra-tortuous in form -- the extreme old age of a literature, when thought and inspiration are gone, and only delight in curious form remains -- while the subject matter is practically always the Bard's praise of his chieftain.
Sri Madhvacharya, the 13th century dvaita philosopher, is believed to have his divine origin from Mukhyaprana or Vayu, who had in earlier yugas been born as Hanuman, the attendant of Lord Rama and Bhimasena, celebrated in the Mahabharata as the mightiest man, the destroyer of asuras born as kings.
Rumi, 13th century Iranian mystic poet, considers ahu (jan) conscious life, in which the immutable divine knowledge is reflected.
www.experiencefestival.com /13th_century   (1710 words)

 HazorFallsToJoshua   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
1175 BCE in the reign of Ramesses III.
The first expulsion was of the Asiatic Hyksos in the mid-sixteenth century BCE by Pharaoh Ahmose I founder of the 18th Dynasty.
The 1st century CE Jewish historian, Flavius Josephus, who preserved Manetho's account in his "History of the Jews," argued that the Hyksos expulsion was probably the Exodus because its chronology most closely aligned with the Exodus chronology preserved in the Bible.
www.bibleorigins.net /HazorFallsToJoshua.html   (6579 words)

In fact, it was during the period of the 16th century BCE (1500's) that the Egyptian state furthered its power by instituting slavery.
The Assyrians moved in; by 722 BCE they had conquered and destroyed the state of Israel, and placed the kingdom of Judah under their repressive rule.
Under Roman rule (in particular between 100 BCE and 200 CE), the Hebrews were increasingly repressed and a number of violent conflicts erupted between the Romans and the Hebrew population.
www.hcc.hawaii.edu /distance/hist151/hebr.htm   (2643 words)

 zoananachronisms   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
We are informed by some Conservative scholars that 1 Kings 6:1 suggests that the Exodus occurred approximately 1446 BCE, providing a "historical marker" that the narrator understands that Zo'an and Hebron "predate" the Exodus of the mid 15th century BCE.
Scholars have determined that the earliest mention of Zo'an in Egyptian records is of the 13th century BCE, and that it appears again as a minor provincial town in the 12th century.
In 727 BCE the capital was moved to Sais under Pharaoh Tefnakht, founder of the 22nd Dynasty who reigned ca.
www.bibleorigins.net /zoananachronisms.html   (1969 words)

This library was in operation from the 17th century BCE to the 13th century BCE.
This library existed in the 7th and 8th centuries B.C.E. The books included the reignal year of the king, and the month and the day that they were written.
This library was used by Eusebius in 30 CE and by Jerome in the 4th century CE.
www.innvista.com /society/education/info/asia.htm   (3457 words)

 Eve and the Identity of Women: 4. Genesis, Patriarchy, & Matriliny
From the 13th century to the time of the Babylonian Captivity in the 6th century BCE, the same people are known as Israelites.
Properly speaking, it is only after the conquest of Canaan in the 13th century that "Hebrews" are speaking Hebrew, which was a dialect of Canaanite, a Semitic language heavily influenced by Egyptian and spoken in the kingdoms of Israel, Judah, and Moab between 1500 and 500 BCE.
When state formation did occur, around the middle of the 11th century BCE, it can be argued, based on other historical examples, that it involved a process which increasingly excluded women from public and religious activities and introduced a stricter regulation of female sexuality.
witcombe.sbc.edu /eve-women/4patriarchy.html   (682 words)

 Hatzor Archeology in Israel
However the Israelite city was destroyed again by the Arameans from Syria in 885 BCE.
To the entrance of the street was a monumental entrance with beautifully carved capitals, one of the trademarks of Israelite royal architecture, copied from Syrian examples.
In the eighth century BCE the threat of the upcoming Assyrian invasion inspired a fortification of the northwestern corner of the fortress section.
www.jewishmag.com /58mag/hazor/hazor.htm   (1226 words)

 Jesus As Political Dissident by Jeffrey J. Peshut
century BCE, Jewish social prophets had protested what was at the time the most common form of economic and political order – the ancient domination system.
These domination systems were marked by political oppression (they were hierarchal and patriarchal), economic exploitation (they owned the land and taxed their subjects) and religious legitimacy (the social order reflected the will of God).
Of course, the situation of the oppressed and exploited only became worse when the Romans invaded Judea in 63 BCE, making it a client-kingdom not unlike the client-state of Vichy France during World War II or the client-state that the U.S. is attempting to create in Iraq today.
www.lewrockwell.com /orig6/peshut1.html   (1095 words)

 MapKadeshMasosBeersheba   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
The Iron Age I site, late 13th-11th century BCE, embracing 15 acres (the largest ever Iron I site in the Negev) is in the upper right quadrant.
The Iron Age III 7th century BCE Fortress is probably the Kadesh "in existence" at the Fall of Judah in 586 BCE.
The Iron I city which began as a late 13th century TENT ENCAMPMENT is probably Moses' Kadesh Barnea of the Wilderness Traditions.
www.homestead.com /bibleorigins*net/MapKadeshMasosBeersheba.html   (195 words)

 Ancient Scripts: Elamite
From as early as the 8th millenium BCE, clay tokens of different shapes were used to represent commodities such as grain, livestock, alcohol, and manufactured goods for economic record-keeping and transactions.
Only starting from the 13th century BCE onward did the Elamite language reappear in the archaeological record, but at this point in time the Elamite had borrowed and adapted the cuneiform script to write their language.
While important during the early history of the Persian empire, Elamite gradually faded from history after the 5th century BCE as Aramaic became increasingly important as the "international" language of the Persian empire.
www.ancientscripts.com /elamite.html   (1005 words)

 Recent Archaeological Discoveries at Hazor
After several centuries of limited occupation, Hazor was rebuilt in the 10th century BCE, probably as part of King Solomon’s building activities described in 1 Kings 9:15.
The Late Bronze Age city was destroyed sometime during the 13th century BCE in a fire so intense that it cracked the basalt architectural elements of the palace, the gate shrine, and other structures and left a layer of ash up to three feet deep in places.
The recent excavations at Hazor have shown definitively, however, that the six-chambered gate and casemate wall were built in the mid-10th century BCE, along with a large public building connected to the earliest phase of the casemate wall by a paved street.
www.bibleinterp.com /articles/Hazor_Ebeling.htm   (2059 words)

 The Israel Museum, Jerusalem | Archaeology | New in the Galleries
The new study shows that although the object itself dates to the Late Bronze Age (14th-13th century BCE), its inscription is not ancient.
The Israel Museum believes that it is important for the public to understand the process of authentication, and the techniques involved, as well as the interplay of scholarship, connoisseurship, and science which informs archaeological research.
Six statues of officials from the 2nd and 1st millennia BCE that were set up in temples in Ancient Egypt, where they represented their owners in rituals.
www.imj.org.il /eng/archaeology/newingalleris.html   (596 words)

century BC or after, so hundreds or (in case of Genesis) thousands of years after the events they relate.
Abraham was said in the Hebrew Bible to have migrated from Ur (a city in Mesopotamia) to the land of Canaan (Palestine).
This conflict forms the historical kernal to the Iliad of Homer, which was composed in its final form centuries later (8th century BC).
www.luc.edu /faculty/ldossey/earlygreeks101h.htm   (1617 words)

 The Megiddo Expedition   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
Area H is designed as the main sectional trench on the northern sector of the mound, immediately to the west of Area AA of the University of Chicago excavations.
The assemblage does not include even a single bichrome Philistine vessel and must therefore date later than the bichrome phase in the sequence of Philistine pottery chronology.Fifteen samples of charred beams from Level K-4, which were extracted in the 1998 season, were sent to the Weizmann Institute in Rehovot, Israel, for radiocarbon dating.
Area M was explored in two different sectors [see picture at right]: a lower one, inside the trench dug by Gottlieb Schumacher in the early 20th century, and an upper one, to the east of the trench.
www.tau.ac.il /humanities/archaeology/megiddo/excavations3.html   (1430 words)

There is however nothing in religious sources that specifically contradict a historical Moses, but the time between his life and the first written versions on his life is several centuries and over such a time span, there is ample space for creation of legends, an amalgamation of myths and a distortion of facts.
A further example of this is that in 622 BCE during the reign of King Josiah the High Priest Hilkiah discovered an ancient and mysterious and theretofore unheard of, “Book of the Law” attributed to Moses, this document became the inspiration for a religious reform of unprecedented severity.
1540 BCE by Pharaoh Ahmose I. In the royal court Moses was raised by his birth mother (who coincidentally was a slave of the very same Pharaoh's daughter).
personalpages.tds.net /~theseeker/Moses.htm   (3326 words)

 5th century BC - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The 5th century BC started on January 1, 500 BC and ended on December 31, 401 BC.
The 5th and 4th centuries BC are a period of philosophical brilliance among advanced civilizations, particularly the Greeks.
In Athens and elsewhere in the Mediterranean world, the 5th century marks a high point in the development of political institutions, art, architecture, and literature.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/5th_century_BCE   (2620 words)

 Center for Archaeoastronomy: A&E News Archive
About twenty years later mythological tablets (13th century BCE) were found at Ras Shamra (ancient Ugarit) on the coast of Syria in 1929.
The language and syntax of the Ugaritic tablets are similar to the Bible, and mythological motifs of the Ugaritic texts reflect motifs of biblical and extra-biblical texts.
They were written in the 2nd century BCE, and described the heavens as they were perceived by the ancient Jews.
www.wam.umd.edu /~tlaloc/archastro/ae24.html   (695 words)

 The Shardana on the Web
BCE), serving as part of an Egyptian garrison in Byblos, where they provided their services to the mayor, Rib Hadda (EA 81, EA 122, EA 123 in Moran 1992: 150-1, 201-2).
This theory of a migrating group of Sea Peoples was generally accepted in the 19th to early 20th centuries, but, according to Robert Drews (1995: 49-72), it has since come to be disputed.
There is no evidence in the texts or archaeological record that the Shardana were a migratory people, nor that they were migrating to Sardinia from any other place.
www.courses.psu.edu /cams/cams400w_aek11/www/shardana.htm   (840 words)

 [No title]
Add this to 966 BCE when the Temple was begun, and we have 1540 BCE for the Exodus date, on the "testimony of the sacred writings" of the Jews and Early Christians.
I have argued elsewhere that the Pentateuch is a late composition of the 5th century BCE, full of historical errors, fictious dialogues, and fictional events.
The presence of the town Ramses was a marker allright, a marker that the text was composed after 1290-1224 BCE, not that the Exodus event must be in the 13th century BCE.
oi.uchicago.edu /OI/ANE/ANE-DIGEST/2000/v2000.n031   (3636 words)

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