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Topic: 1650 BC

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In the News (Sun 18 Aug 19)

  World History Timeline
485 BC Protagoras of Abdera (485-415) is born.
October 1, 331 BC Alexander's 35,000 troops fight Darius's 200,000 in the battle of Gaugamela.
Summer 326 BC At the Hyphasis river, Alexander's army refuses to march further into India and he is forced to turn back.
www.fincher.org /History/WorldBC.shtml   (1680 words)

A certain amount of astronomical observation was clearly used in the process of pyramid-building, particularly in terms of the precise alignment with the cardinal points, but there seems to be little foundation for the suggestion that the layout of the three pyramids at Giza was intended to symbolize the shape of the belt of Orion.
This practice was then taken up by the rulers of the VIth Dynasty (2345-2181 BC) and their queens, providing Egyptologists with a set of almost eight hundred early religious "utterances" that have provided a useful body of evidence with regard to the symbolism and purpose of pyramid complexes.
There is also a great deal of symbolism in the various locations of such features of the pyramid complex as the entrance to the pyramid, the mortuary and valley temples, the subsidiary pyramids, as well as more detailed features, such as the position of the sarcophagus and the orientation of the internal corridor and chambers.
library.thinkquest.org /C0121761/11.htm   (1928 words)

 Ancient Nubia -- Map and History - 25th Dynasty Egypt
Taharqa's twenty six year reign (690-664 BC) stands out from any other in the Third Intermediate Period by the extent of the building program he implemented in the first sixteen years of his reign, and the extent of the fighting with the Assyrians in the later years.
By 653 BC, Nubian 25th Dynasty dominance of Egypt was at an end, and also the old dynastic culture that the Nubians tried to restore.
Nubian dignitaries in the Tomb of Huy, 1320 BC
www.homestead.com /wysinger/mapofnubia.html   (2993 words)

 ANISTORITON: Archaeology News   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-17)
It is extremely important to Cretan archaeology that the building retains its 1600 BC design as compared to the other known palaces with mixed designs of various eras.
It was built between 1700-1650 BC but it was destroyed by fire and rebuilt fully between 1650-1600 BC.
The ceramic unearthed dates between 2000 BC and the late minoan period and includes pythi (huge vases), trays, cups, plates and various vases.
www.anistor.co.hol.gr /english/enback/a985.htm   (438 words)

 Hittites - MSN Encarta
Nothing more is known of Hittite history until, in the 17th century bc, the so-called Old Hittite Kingdom was founded by the Hittite leader Labarna (reigned about 1680-1650 bc), or Tabarna, and Hattusas became its capital.
During the 15th and 14th centuries bc their holdings extended westward to the Aegean Sea, eastward into Armenia, southeastward into upper Mesopotamia, and southward into Syria as far as present-day Lebanon.
The Hittite king Hattusili III (reigned about 1289-1265 bc) concluded a treaty of peace and alliance with Ramses years later and subsequently gave him his daughter in marriage.
encarta.msn.com /encnet/refpages/RefArticle.aspx?refid=761563583   (942 words)

Third Dynasty 2686 - 2613 BC Fourth Dynasty 2613 - 2498 BC Fifth Dynasty 2498 - 2345 BC Sixth Dynasty 2345 - 2181 BC First Intermediate Period: 7th - 11th Dynasties 2181 - 2055 BC.
Eighteenth Dynasty 1570 - 1293 BC Nineteenth Dynasty 1293 - 1185 BC Twentieth Dynasty 1185 - 1070 BC Third Intermediate Period: 21st - 24th Dynasties 1070 - 664 BC.
The 21st - 24th Dynasties is known as the Libyan Period, and the system adopted by the Libyan rulers and modified by the later 25th Dynasty Kushites was generally effective.
www.egyptologyonline.com /chronology.htm   (724 words)

 derKİ - en Kİ'li internet dergisi
But, strangely again, around 1650 BC something caused a “flout” in history and the Harappan cities were destroyed, abandoned and finally invaded by a less civilized nomadic people who apparently came from northwest.
I believe, the stories told in Biblical Exodus are the sediments of the events of 1650 BC in the collective memory of the Jews, which were written down by Jahveh priests in Jerusalem almost 7 centuries after the catastrophe.
And during the 6th century BC (the accurate time for Israelites’ Babylonian captivity) the system evolved to a very “pure” simplicity: The essential numbers, i.e 3600 and 60 were symbolized only with a “wedge” (which means Number 1) when used in their “own digit”.
www.derki.com /ingilizce/firstissue/marduk.html   (11138 words)

 Santorini Guide & Directory
The oldest signs of human settlement are Late Neolithic (4th millennium BC or earlier), but ca 2000–1650 BC Akrotiri developed into one of the Aegean's major Bronze Age ports, with recovered objects that had come not just from Crete but also from Anatolia, Cyprus, Syria and Egypt, from the Dodecanese and the Greek mainland.
A large eruption, identified in ice cores and dated to between 1650 BC and 1625 BC, was suspected to be Santorini.
Thera, the main Hellenic city of the island, on Mesa Vouno, 396 m above sea level was founded in the 9th century BC by Dorian colonists whose leader was Theras, according to tradition, and continued to be inhabited until the early Byzantine period.
www.geocities.com /ikarosstudios/cyclades/santorini.htm   (1776 words)

 Late Bronze Age in Cyprus
The Late Bronze Age (1,600-1,050 B.C.) was one of the most formative periods of the life of ancient Cyprus.
From about 1,400 B.C. a profusion of Mycenaean pottery was imported from Greece, and it is possible that Mycenaean artists accompanied the merchants.
The principal city and port was Engomi (west of Famagusta); its massive city walls and houses of hewn stone are evidence of a high degree of prosperity.
www.cypnet.co.uk /ncyprus/history/04a.htm   (142 words)

 History of Pi   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-17)
In the Egyptian Rhind Papyrus (ca.1650 BC), there is evidence that the Egyptians calculated the area of a circle by a formula that gave the approximate value of 3.1605 for pi.
The first calculation of pi was done by Archimedes of Syracuse (287–212 BC), one of the greatest mathematicians of the ancient world.
Archimedes approximated the area of a circle by using the Pythagorean Theorem to find the areas of two regular polygons: the polygon inscribed within the circle and the polygon within which the circle was circumscribed.
www.exploratorium.edu /pi/history_of_pi/index.html   (398 words)

 Formative Phases   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-17)
Locona (1650-1500 BC) - first chiefly residences; evidence for elite objects and representation of important persons in figurines.
Earliest public architecture in the form of an enclosure lined with posts and a single-room structure that may have been a temple or shrine.
Nevada (1500-1200 BC) - earliest phase at Tlatilco, with evidence for settled farming village.
www.ku.edu /~hoopes/506/Formative.htm   (252 words)

 Sacred Insects
The scarab was a common type of amulet, seal or ring-bezel found in Egypt from the 6th Dynasty (c.2345 BC) until the Ptolemaic period (c.30 BC).
In the Old and Middle Kingdom periods (2686-1650 BC), the fly was also depicted on various ritual artifacts, including the so called 'magic wands' often carved from hippopotamus ivory and probably intended to protect the owner from harm.
He was identified from a ceremonial mace-head found at Hierakonpolis (modern-day Kom el-Ahmar, about 80 km south of Luxor) [map] which depicts a king wearing the white crown of Upper Egypt with the glyph of a scorpion next to his face.
www.kendall-bioresearch.co.uk /sacredinsect.htm   (2742 words)

 DBM to DBA Armies (Book 1 -- Armies up to 500 BC)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-17)
Mesopotamian, Ur III (2112-2004 BC): 1 LCH* or Bw4, 2 Sp4 or 2 Pk4 or 2 Ax4, 4 Pk4 or 4 Sp4, 1 Ax3 or Ps2 (Highlanders), 1 Ax3 or Bw3 or Ps2 (Highlanders, Elamite), 3 Ps2.
Hittites (1380-1200 BC): 3 HCH*, 2 LCH (Syrian or Anatolian), 2 Ax4, 1 Ax3 or Wb3 (anatolian vassals), 2 Hd(ax6) (Syrian spearmen), 1 Ps2 or Bw3 (Syrian archers), 1 Ps2 (anatolian archers).
Mesopotamian, New Assyrian Kingdom (680-609 BC): 2 HCH*, 2 Cv3, 2 Sp4, 1 Ax4 or Ax3, 4 Ps2, 1 LCH or Ax4 (Kallapani chariot) or Bw4 (Elamite or Egyptian).
www.fanaticus.org /DBA/armies/dbmdbabk1.html   (2274 words)

 Ebla - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
It was an important city-state in two periods, first in the late third millennium BC, then again between 1800 and 1650 BC.
Sargon of Akkad and his grandson Naram-sin, the conquerors of much of Mesopotamia, each claim to have destroyed Ebla; the exact date of destruction is the subject of continuing debate, but 2240 BC is a probable candidate.
The city was destroyed again in the turbulent period of 1650–1600 BC, by an Hittite king (Mursili I or Hattusili I).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Ebla   (1155 words)

 Ancient Egyptian Literature
1333-1323 BC), abandoned the cult of Aten; married a daughter of Akhenaten; his tomb remained untouched and was discovered in 1922.
Alexander the Great's invasion of Egypt, 332 BC, Greek domination of Egypt, death of Alexander in 323 BC Egypt ruled by Ptolemy I (r.
250 BC Rosetta Stone (196 BC): rock inscribed with three bands of writing in hieroglyphic, demotic, and Greek--it made possible the decipherment of Egyptian hieroglyphics.
fajardo-acosta.com /worldlit/egypt   (722 words)

 Dr. Stuart Tyson Smith - Publications
New evidence from Askut shows how the Egyptian colonial communities were not abandoned but instead survived the conquest of the former colony by the king of Kush (c.
1650 BC), staying on after the Egyptian re-conquest in 1550 BC to form an ideal conduit for implementing the new policy of cultural assimilation.
As an example of culture contact, the long history of Egypt and Nubia provides evidence of many aspects of extended interaction, including not only conquest, resistance, and collapse, but also aspects of acculturation, growth and complexity, and transculturation or ethnogenesis in the periphery.
www.anth.ucsb.edu /faculty/stsmith/publications/index.html   (381 words)

 A Treatise on the Date of the Exodus   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-17)
A discussion of all the archaeological data related to the dating of the Exodus is beyond the scope of this short treatise;
Therefore, the writer is providing a succinct exposition of the data advanced in support of the 1446 BC or early date hypothesis for the Exodus.
Kathleen Kenyon indicated that there was occupation within some part of the fourteenth century BC but not in the thirteenth century.
members.tripod.com /Cameron_Moore/Exodus.html   (1510 words)

 DBA Army Variants -- The Mitanni (1650-1218 BC) -- DBA #8c   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-17)
The DBA army lists for the early bronze and iron age armies are quite far from complete, serving only to mention the most prominent armies and empires of the era.
This made the task of the unification of the Hurrians all the more easier, and around 1650 BC a confederation was formed including all the city-states.
It is interesting to note that this practice was carried down from the Sumerian armies as far back as 3500 BC, and we can therefore assume that the slingers were used in a similar fashion despite the time gap.
www.fanaticus.org /DBA/armies/var8c.html   (1201 words)

 Dynastys and Pharoahs   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-17)
2494 2345 BC 5th Dynasty pharaohs built Sun Temples, which were dedicated to the sun god Ra Pyramids are smaller and less solidly constructed than those of the fourth dynasty.
1650-1550 BC Hyksos, sometimes referred to as the Shepherd Kings or Desert Princes, sacked the old capital of Memphis and built their capital at Avaris, in the Delta.
1650-1550 BC While the Hyksos ruled northern Egypt a new line of native rulers was developing in Thebes.
hometown.aol.com /ksmith9526/SSEgyptDynastyPharoah.htm   (223 words)

 Breaking The RMP 2/nth Table Code   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-17)
This previously unsolved number theory from ancient Egypt, from 2,000 BC covers a period of over 3,000 years (before base 10 decimals) wrote fractions as noted by 2/nth table rule as used in the 500AD Akhmim Papyrus, the 1650 BC Rhind Papyrys and 2,000 BC Moscow Papyrus.
The Akhmim Paprus' full use of p/q as an elementary number theory element is easily coinnect to 2000 BC - 1650 BC Egyptian fractions by the 2/nth beginning terms.
By 1850 BC, as recorded in 1650 BC by Ahmes in the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus a hieratic form of fractions alters greatly from the earlier Horus -Eye hieroglyphic fraction.
www.ecst.csuchico.edu /~atman/Misc/horus-eye.html   (929 words)

 Ancient Egyptian Timeline
The first religious words were written on the walls of the royal tombs.
2160 BC Capitol moves from Memphis to Herakleopolis in northern Middle Egypt - Upper Egypt controlled by Theban rulers.
300 BC The Temple of Isis was built on the island of Philae in the Nile River.
library.thinkquest.org /CR0210200/ancient_egypt/timeline.htm   (933 words)

 Were ancient Minoans centuries ahead of their time?   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-17)
A geometrical figure commonly attributed to Archimedes in 300 BC has been identified in Minoan wall paintings dated to over 1,000 years earlier.
The mathematical features of the paintings suggest that the Minoans of the Late Bronze Age, around 1650 BC, had a much more advanced working knowledge of geometry than has previously been recognized, says computer scientist Constantin Papaodysseus of the National Technical University of Athens, Greece, and his colleagues.
A catastrophic eruption of the volcano on Thera, now known as Santorini, around 1650 BC, is thought to have dealt a fatal blow to the Minoan culture.
www.red-ice.net /specialreports/2006/03mar/minoansspiral.html   (689 words)

3200 BC - The area was fertile and attractive to settlement as early as 3200 BC.
Enroute he specifically orders his household to put way all their "foreign gods," and at Bethel Jacob hears a reconfirmation of the covenant with Abraham, and his name was changed to "Israel." Again, he set up a stone pillar at the place where God spoke with him (Genesis 35:2-15).
8th century BC - The prophet Amos was sent to Bethel to rebuke the kingdom of Jeroboam II for its idolatry.
www.ourfatherlutheran.net /biblehomelands/palestine/bethel.htm   (1828 words)

 Virtual Egyptian - Scarab of Sobekhotep, Dyn. 13, 1720 BC
This glazed steatite (soapstone) scarab is inscribed with a stylized representation of a wild animal that may be a walking lion.
Matouk (1971:38, 182, #225) documents one such rare scarab as a scarab-seal of King Sobekhotep V of Dynasty 13 (circa 1720 BC).
Alternately, it may be a more generic depiction of a wild animal as a force from which to be protected.
www.virtual-egyptian-museum.org /Collection/Content/STO.VS.01118.P.html   (1167 words)

 CYPRUSIVE - North Cyprus Web Guide - Late Bronze Age (1650 - 1050 BC)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-17)
The destruction of the Hyksos Kingdom and the revival of Egypt as the leading power in the eastern Mediterranean created for Cyprus, at the beginning of the Late Bronze Age, favourable circumstances for its development into a flourishing commercial centre.
The period between 1500 and 1200 BC saw the fusion of design elements from both East and West into the traditional Cypriot forms as evinced in finds at Enkomi, Akdeniz (Ayia Irini), and Toumba tou Skourou.
The prosperity of the Late Bronze Age, as reflected in tomb and city architecture as well as rich grave finds, was disrupted at the end of the 13th century by the so-called sea people, whose origin is still a matter of conjecture.
www.cyprusive.com /default.asp?CID=219   (487 words)

 Egyptian Mathematical Papyri - Mathematicians of the African Diaspora
Among the secondary sources are three payri from ~1800 BC: Egyptian Mathematical Leather Roll (a table of 26 decompositions of unit fractions); the Berlin Papyrus (two problems of simultaneous equations - one of the 2nd degree); the Reisner Papyrus (volume calculations).
It was brought to Russia during the middle of the 19th century, and is located in the Museum of Fine Arts in Moscow, and contains mathematics problems (simple equations) and solutions.
It was copied by a scribe, Ahmes (or Ahmos), (~1650 BC) from another document written ~2000 BC, which, possibly in turn, was copied from a document from ~2650 BC (the time of Imhotep?).
www.math.buffalo.edu /mad/Ancient-Africa/mad_ancient_egyptpapyrus.html   (299 words)

 Minoans - Knossos and Phaestos - Crete   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-17)
Around 1400 BC the Minoans were overwhelmed by a disaster which may have been the eruption at
After the catastrophe, the Minoan culture hung on for several centuries longer as refugees brought it to the mainland.
Construction began again in 1650 BC and went until the great Minoan catastrophe (mentioned earlier) in 1400 BC which left them permanently ruined.
www.personal.psu.edu /staff/j/x/jxf17/greece2000/minoans.html   (507 words)

 Museums of Malatya, Malatya Museums
A grave and clay pots decorated with geometric motifs found under the floor of a house during excavations in Aslantepe.
This section contains earthenware pots, discs, rythons, stone bas-reliefs, a gold necklace etc. from the Early Hittite period (1650-1450 BC), the Hittite Empire (1450-1200 BC) and the Late Hittite period (1200-700 BC).
Objects from the excavations at Aslantepe, Ottoman period clothes, embroidery, an ivory and coins found by excavations at Bayramtepe and Gelinciktepe.
www.istanbulportal.com /istanbulportal/Malatya.aspx   (185 words)

 Jerusalem to nablus - part 2
A town of considerable size developed, covering some twenty-seven acres and included a massive defensive wall with a huge rounded tower, temple, royal palace with a large hall, the roof of which was supported by wooden pillars on stone bases, and small private dwellings built of stones.
Excavations at Bethel found that the site was occupied after the destruction of Ai and was a well-built town until sometime in the 13th century BC, when it was consumed by a huge fire, leaving behind a solid mass of burned brick and ashes.
Archaeologists unearthed evidence that a Canaanite settlement with a sacred shrine existed there by 1700 BC and massive fortifications around 1650 /1600-1550 BC, including a steep slope, archaeologically known as glacis, to make a slippery surface (presumably for defense against chariots, the most formidable weapon of the time).
www.ourfatherlutheran.net /biblehomelands/palestine/ramallah-nablus.htm   (5598 words)

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