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Topic: 16-bit

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The range of integer values that can be stored in 16 bits is 0 through 65535, or -32768 through 32767 using two's complement coding.
This adjective often refers to the number of bits used internally by a computer's CPU.
Its external data bus or address bus may be narrower.
www.serebella.com /encyclopedia/article-16-bit.html

 It's 16 bits, but is that wide or what? May of today's small computers are called 16-bit systems, but what does that actually mean?
Many of today's small computer systems are described as being "16-bit' systems, and they typically use the Intel 8086 or 8088 "16-bit' microprocessors.
The byte may represent a character, such as the letter A or the numeral 3, or it may be eight bits of an instruction in machine language or of a numeric quantity represented in one of various binary formats.
In some systems, the eighth bit is used to expand the repertoire of characters beyond the 128 ASCII characters to provide for special graphics.
www.atarimagazines.com /creative/v11n6/40_Its_16_bits_but_is_that.php

 CircleMUD List: 16 bit platform bug and binary compatibility is
After all, if CM was never 16 bit compatible it was most probably never used to any reasonable extent on a 16 bit platform, otherwise this bug would quickly have been discovered long ago.
In short, by realizing that CM never really worked on a 16 bit platform, it allows us the freedom to actually make it work on a 16 bit platform.
We never _had_ binary compatibilty for 16 bit platforms, CircleMUD was _always_ broken on 16 bit platforms.
www.circlemud.org /maillist/2001-06/0011.html

While 12 bits was tried in some of the earliest minicomputers, 16 bits seems to be the smallest integer size that is truly useful.
The systems discussed here are 16 bits wide because that is the smallest configuration that makes sense for most commercial stack processor applications.
The primary motivating factor for making Forth machines 16 bits wide is that the Forth programming model has traditionally been 16 bits.
www.ece.cmu.edu /~koopman/stack_computers/sec4_1.html

 16 Bit Processor : Analog Devices : 16 Bit Processor
Analog Devices is the manufacturer of the 16 Bit Processor and precision high-performance integrated circuits used in analog/digital signal processing applications.
ADI focuses on developing the 16 Bit Processor as well as solving the engineering challenges associated with electronic equipment.
ADI designs, manufactures and markets the 16 Bit Processor as well as high-performance, high-precision digital ICs that make pictures vibrant, voices clear, connections continuous and products portable.
www.analog.com /seo_ep_16-bit-processor.html

 QTVR.dk - 16 bit color and QuickTime VR
16 bit screen color is according to statistics from various sites used by between 30 and 50 % of the visitors.
The worst at 16 bit are those from scanning cameras which have no noise at all.
QTVR.dk - 16 bit color and QuickTime VR View the Full Screen of the week at www.panoramas.dk Featuring the worlds best VR Photographers.
www.virtualdenmark.dk /qtvr/16bit/qtvr16bit.html

 RetouchPRO - Reconsidering 16 bit
Many 16 bit files from many and many manufacters are not really 16 bit, but 10/12 or evem 14.
Dan Margulis, a noted high bit work-flow critic even changed his viewpoint after some colour scans that were converted to 8 bpc in the scanner were poor after edits, while a high bit converted to regular bit in Photoshop and then edited the same was superior.
I have read quite a bit about the pros and cons of high bit scanning in the past, and it seems that some of the biggest names in Photoshop land can't agree about the benefits or lack of benefits of high bit scanning.
www.retouchpro.com /forums/showthread.php?t=4826

 Calling 32-bit Code From 16-bit Apps
Bit 1 is corresponds to the second to last argument, bit 2 to the third to last and so on.
If the bit is set (i.e., is 1), the argument is assumed to be a far pointer and is converted to a linear address before being passed to the 32-bit side.
The bits are allocated with the least significant bit (LSB, or bit 0) corresponding to the last argument.
tenermerx.com /owlhow/items/miscellaneous/thunk

 Glossary Search Results
The 32 bits refers to the amount of information that can be transferred between the GPU on the video card and its local video memory.
The ability to address 128 bits of memory space is something that may someday be necessary for huge databases, and will speed up operations.
The first 64- bit cards must had at least 2 MB of memory, up from 1 MB of memory on 32-bit cards.
www.geek.com /glossary/glossary_search.cgi?1

 16 Bit TIFF
When we added 16 bit TIFF format to CCDOPS a year or so ago the only program that would read 16 bit TIFF was PhotoShop 2.5.1, and then only if you wrote it in IBM format (vs MAC) as I recall.
I assume the new version of Photoshop continues to support 16 bit TIFF and they have fixed the minor bug (I told them about it then), but I don't know.
For users of other cameras or for compatibility with the high-end image processing packages I recommend 16 bit FITS format.
www.astronomysite.com /mapug1/13/msg13630.htm

 dBforums - XP 16 bit subsystem error
If your object files are 16 bit the 32 bit link may happen but, windows will stop it from opperating.
Another cause could be: See message "Running Clipper or any 16 bit applications on an xp/sp1-2 16 bit subsystem Yes or No?"
- - XP 16 bit subsystem error (http://www.dbforums.com/showthread.php?t=1111648)
www.dbforums.com /printthread.php?t=1111648

 Spinwarp :: View topic - drum samples: 32 or 16 bit?
The thing is though, everyone's playback equipment (like CD players and the stuff at the cutting shops) is all 16bit.
i've got the same drum samples with 32& 16 bit.
I think it's like the sound equivalent of resolution: you can fit more info into a 32 bit sound so it is a more accurate reproduction.
www.spinwarp.com /index.php?name=PNphpBB2&file=printview&t=1692&start=0&POSTNUKESID=c4b484279b686e36c895c5fb74de43ca

 How to make use of a 16 bit division routine for 32 bit division
That means that the first 16 iterations through steps 1-5 produce 16 zero bits in quotient (because we know that higher 2 bytes of quotient are zero in that case), x was shifted 16 times to remainder, remainder was never subtracted from.
The idea is simple: you do 16 bit division as usually, but when the dividend is 32 bit, the lower two bytes are used as dividend and the higher two bytes are used as initial value for remainder (which is zero when doing 16 bit division)
For example, it is possible to divide 16 or 32 bit dividend by 16 bit divisor to 16 bit quotient in just one routine.
www.piclist.com /techref/microchip/math/div/div16or32by16to16.htm

 What is 16-bit? - A Word Definition From the Webopedia Computer Dictionary
A 16-bit microprocessor can process data and memory addresses that are represented by 16 bits.
A 16-bit bus transmits 16 bits in parallel.
Refers to the number of bits that can be processed or transmitted in parallel, or the number of bits used for single element in a data format.
webopedia.internet.com /TERM/1/16_bit.html

 3-in-1 Color Picker: web-safe + 16-bit palette + named colors
On a 'High Color' display (16 bit) most browsers will approximate them with a 'dither' pattern, but on a 256 color display (8 bit) the differences can be quite dramatic.
If you choose "16 bit palette" or "Web 216 palette", the color name will be replaced by the words "select named colors".
When color names are selected the 16 bit equivalent will be shown also.
www.webcolors.freeserve.co.uk /chooser.htm

 Digital Light & Color Message Boards: 16 Bit TIFF
If there are less than 16 bits per channel, the data are always stored in the most significant bits.
If this is correct, there is a major difference between the way PWP and Photoshop handles 48 bit files, and maybe you should talk about as a reason for using PWP.
That is, if the original pixel had a value of 65,535 and an editing function of 51% was applied to it, the resulting value of that pixel would be 33,423.
www.dl-c.com /cgi-bin/discus/show.cgi?tpc=2&post=1512

 16-bit - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In computer science, 16-bit is an adjective used to describe integers, memory addresses or other data units that are at most 16 bits (2 octets) wide, or to describe CPU and ALU architectures based on registers, address buses, or data buses of that size.
See linked articles for discussion of the meaning in other architectures.
www.leessummit.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/16-bit

 GameDev.net - 16-Bit Pixels
For reference, the first article was written by Chris Barnes of Angelic-Coders.com, and it was titled "16 Bit Pixel Plotting." The second article, "16 Bit With Directdraw," was written by Hugh Hunkin.
After a bit of searching, I came upon two different articles that helped me understand the basics of 16 bit pixels.
A bitmask is a variable that will allow us to extract the red, green, or blue component from our 16 bit value.
www.gamedev.net /reference/articles/article541.asp

 GameDev.net - 16-bit Color
We have to be able to shift the bits of the colors to the right before shifting them to the left to make a 16-bit color.
However, right now, we have 8 bits in each of Red, Green, and Blue, and we need only 5 or 6.
It had 5 bits for each R,G, or B value(using only 15 bits), so the pixel format looked something like this
www.gamedev.net /reference/articles/article863.asp

 Two's Complement and Fractional Arithmetic for 16-bit Processors
When we do the multiplication, we are primarily interested in the top 16 bits of the result, since these are the data that are actually used when we store the result back into memory and send it out to the digital-to-analog converter.
This is because the topmost bit (the sign bit) is 1, indicating that the number is negative.
When a number is written in two's complement notation, the most significant bit of the number represents its sign: 0 means that the number is positive, and 1 means the number is negative.
cnx.rice.edu /content/m10808/latest

 Applied Color Theory - 8 Bit vs 16 Bit Lighting
It wasn't necessary for Adobe to place all kinds of different values in the menu; 16 bit basically is telling you that you have more then 8 bits per color.
Photoshop considers any file with more then 8 bits pre color to be 16 bits even though it may not be.
For RGB this means it would be a 48-bit file (3 x 16 = 48) or for CMYK is would be a 64-bit file (4 x 16 = 64).
www.ledet.com /margulis/ACT_postings/ACT-8-bit-16-bit.html

 16 bit helyett 8 bit
Szoval at kene verni a progit hogy azt higgye hogy 16 bit van alatta.
A gond az hogy a X-em nem hajlando 16 bitesen futni egy Cirrus Logic GD5424-el es 16 MB val megaldott gepen.(Ha vki tud ellenszert szoljon).
Van egy programom ami nem hajlando 8 bitesen futtatott X alatt mukodni, csak 16 bitesen (legalabbis ha jol segtem a rejtelyes hibauzenetet).
mlf.linux.rulez.org /Archivum/linux-199805/msg01133.html

 Simtec Electronics - 16 bit IDE interface for Acorn Computers
The 16 bit interface is suitable for the RISC PC, A7000, A5000, A540, A400 and A300.
Introduction - A general introduction to the 16 bit IDE interface for Acorn Computers.
Resources - Documentation and software resources for the 16 bit IDE interface for Acorn Computers.
www.simtec.co.uk /products/AUIDE16

To fit into 16 bits, the MIPS-16 uses 5-bits for its major op code field and function field (they were 6-bits), 3-bits for the register fields (they were 5 bits).
And it shrinks the immediate value field from 16- to 5-bits.
The ISA mode bit can also be changed when an exception occurs.
www.redhat.com /support/wpapers/cygnus/cygnus_evaluate/mips.html

 TV Cream Themes: Adverts
Cider was going through its inferiority complex phase as new kids Colt 45 and Breaker were being barfed up by the next generation of 16 year old proto-dipsos.
It's a bit tricky to teach in a two-minute film.
But that final harmonising in the jingle's bound to bring a lump to even the most metallic throat.
tv.cream.org /specialassignments/themes/adverts.htm

 VL-12CT97 - 16-Bit Analog & Digital Input/Output Card from VersaLogic Corporation
Multifunction I/O card with 16-bit analog input, 12-bit analog output, and 16 digital I/O lines.
The analog input channels can be jumper configured as 8 differential or 16 single ended inputs, in a ±5 or ±10 volt range.
A fast 10 microsecond A/D converter is used on the VL-12CT97 and eight differential or 16 single-ended multiplexed inputs with ±5 or ±10 volt ranges are available.
www.versalogic.com /Products/DS.asp?ProductID=7

 More on the Subject of 8-bit Versus 16-bit - Photo Tips @ Earthbound Light
This is the primary reason why 16-bit support has only relatively recently become practical on home computers.
It may be a bit tedious to selectively blur only smooth, featureless parts of your image, but there's no other good remedy I know of.
A one-bit image would allow only two possible values per channel, or eight colors total.
www.earthboundlight.com /phototips/20041121.html?source=rss

 Compatibility with 16-bit Windows [Windows API]
When porting your code from 16-bit Windows to 32-bit Windows, you may need to revise code that uses functions that are no longer supported.
Pointers, handles, and graphics coordinates were widened to 32 bits.
However, some changes were mandated by the larger address space.
msdn.microsoft.com /library/en-us/winprog/winprog/compatibility_with_16_bit_windows.asp

 GollyGee Blocks: Changing to 16-bit Color
16 colors is 65,320 colors less than 16-bit color!
DO NOT choose "16 colors", be sure to choose "16-bit" color.
From the drop-down menu, choose "16-bit" color, which may be labeled 65,336 colors on some older computers.
www.gollygee.com /support/colordepth

 avr-libc: Frequently Asked Questions
Bitwise operations in Standard C will automatically promote their operands to an int, which is (by default) 16 bits in avr-gcc.
While the device documentation provides mnemonic names for the various bits in the IO registers, and the AVR device-specific IO definitions reflect these names in definitions for numerical constants, a way is needed to convert a bit number (usually within a byte register) into a byte value that can be assigned directly to the register.
With respect to the standard, this sentence is somewhat simplified (because the standard allows for machines where the actual bit pattern used differs from all bits being 0), but for the AVR target, in general, all integer-type variables are set to 0, all pointers to a NULL pointer, and all floating-point variables to 0.0.
www.nongnu.org /avr-libc/user-manual/FAQ.html

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