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Topic: 1945 in science

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  science. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05
Mathematics, while not a science, is closely allied to the sciences because of their extensive use of it.
The physical sciences include physics, chemistry, and astronomy; the earth sciences (sometimes considered a part of the physical sciences) include geology, paleontology, oceanography, and meteorology; and the life sciences include all the branches of biology such as botany, zoology, genetics, and medicine.
Science, in the modern sense of the term, came into being in the 16th and 17th cent., with the merging of the craft tradition with scientific theory and the evolution of the scientific method.
www.bartleby.com /65/sc/science.html   (5015 words)

 Competing Modernities: Science and Education
For even as science has played a key role in the evolution of state bureaucracies, educational structures, economic change, technological developments, and even of society and the self in the process of modernization, each of these domains of life have in turn challenged and shaped science in its ideas, institutions, and social practices.
The Third Reich marked the beginning of a massive ideological distortion of science in Germany, the forced exile of scientists, and the reciprocal transformation of the scientific communities on both sides of the Atlantic as a result of the migration of German scientists.
The militarization of science and technology marked the advent of a new era of "big science," symbolized by rocket research in Germany at Peenemünde, or the Manhattan project to develop an atomic bomb at Los Alamos, Hanover, and Oak Ridge.
www.ghi-dc.org /competingmodernities/e_science.cfm   (1612 words)

 Harnessing Science To Benefit Society
Science is certainly a significant contributor to economic growth, but that narrow view ignores much of what research can accomplish.
The social outcomes of science are rarely considered in a science policy that focuses on financial support and the conduct of research.
Simply put, science policy must be supported by the same types of goal setting, analyses, and forecasts that guide other critical areas of national policy, like defense and economics, and that the private sector uses to develop business and investment plans.
www.biotech-info.net /harnessing_science.html   (1234 words)

 science education
Science departments at undergraduate colleges are necessarily small, have fewer resources, and are not able to sustain the degree of specialization seen at research universities.
Science and technology leadership is vital to the future of the nation, and highly educated people in large numbers will be needed to sustain U.S. industry...
Science education can be just as rigorous if we emphasize areas that are more relevant to the direction in which modern science is evolving.
www.stolaf.edu /people/hend/science3.html   (2130 words)

 Science the Endless Frontier
Science can be effective in the national welfare only as a member of a team, whether the conditions be peace or war.
Advances in science when put to practical use mean more jobs, higher wages, shorter hours, more abundant crops, more leisure for recreation, for study, for learning how to live without the deadening drudgery which has been the burden of the common man for ages past.
A permanent Science Advisory Board should be created to consult with these scientific bureaus and to advise the executive and legislative branches of Government as to the policies and budgets of Government agencies engaged in scientific research.
www.nsf.gov /about/history/vbush1945.htm   (14347 words)

 Muck and Mystery: As We May Fund
But the Second World War thrust America into funding military science, and by 1945 Vannevar Bush, a brilliant scientific manager, was administering a federal research budget of $1.6 billion, supporting the Manhattan and other projects.
This was because, Bush explained, pure science was a public good that the private sector would not support yet which, paradoxically, the private sector needed if it was to create applied science or technology.
Science is not a field of endeavour on which taxpayers’ money need be spent.
www.garyjones.org /mt/archives/000334.html   (1963 words)

 Science Policy & Sustainable Development
World Science Day for Peace and Development is being marked in Genoa, Italy, as hosting city of the main World Science Day for Peace and Development 2006 celebration with a conference on "Science for Peace".
The Gujarat Council of Science City (www.scity.org) is planning to organize some programmes and activities among school children, parents, teachers and the general visitors to mark the celebration of World Science Day for Peace and Development on 10th November 2006.
The main aim of the event is to bring together scientists and politicians for a dialogue on science and science policy.
www.unesco.org /science/psd/wsd06/major.shtml   (836 words)

 ASTC Dimensions: January - February 2005
Spurred by Vannevar Bush's 1945 article, "Science—the Endless Frontier," the nation began to invest heavily in science, believing it could be as valuable in peacetime as it had been in wartime.
Both institutions must help the public to set priorities for investments in science, to understand the nature of scientific uncertainty, to see the interdependence of various fields of science and technology, and to become aware of the potential benefits and social challenges new knowledge can bring.
Government agencies, such as the National Science Foundation (NSF), now insist on (and fund) public education as part of many research grants, giving researchers both the means and the motivation to seek partnerships.
www.astc.org /pubs/dimensions/2005/jan-feb/index.htm   (677 words)

 Just Answer
Physical Science - A car with a mass of 1200 kg is moving around in
Science - Why is the water less salty at the equator then
science-the periodic table - Using the symbol for mercury, "Hg".
www.justanswer.com /JA/ASP_ASK/FID_3/K_92/P_0/TR/science-fair.htm   (235 words)

 Bikini Science--1940-1945
Both before and after the early 1940s belly exposures are framed in the maillot cutout, and even after the deux-pièces is introduced bare midriff exposures are slow and deliberate, averaging about one inch per year.
Hardly a new invention and a stable of the theater for centuries, the new bandeau is thinner, highly elastic, and presents the more risky strapless alternative.
In a true Bikini Science moment, the bandeau is catapulted into national attention in 1943, when Life Magazine publishes a photo spread featuring Chili Williams, the Polka Dot Girl (CW4310), and receives 100,000 letters in response.
www.bikiniscience.com /chronology/1940-1945_SS/1940-1945.html   (1317 words)

 As We May Think
He urges that men of science should then turn to the massive task of making more accessible our bewildering store of knowledge.
Trip hammers that multiply the fists, microscopes that sharpen the eye, and engines of destruction and detection are new results, but not the end results, of modern science.
Science has provided the swiftest communication between individuals; it has provided a record of ideas and has enabled man to manipulate and to make extracts from that record so that knowledge evolves and endures throughout the life of a race rather than that of an individual.
www.theatlantic.com /doc/194507/bush   (1749 words)

 New England Anti-vivisection Society (NEAVS)
We are drowning and suffocating unanesthetized animals in the name of science.
We are producing frustration ulcers in experimental animals under shocking conditions in the name of science.
We are observing animals for weeks, months, even years under infamous conditions in the name of science.
www.neavs.org /aboutneavs/history_1945_1970.htm   (1516 words)

 Froth and Fraud in Fundamentalism
Rimmer is president of the Research Science Bureau, Inc. This bureau, it may be stated, has no scientific standing as a research center; no accredited man of science or university professor would think of consulting it on any scientific matter.
Rimmer is a busy man --far too busy, it seems, getting after those who "willfully deceive their students" and fake their science to bother about setting up a fossil collection of his own.
His "honorary degree of Doctor of Science" need astonish no one, as it was conferred on him by a Fundamentalist college (Wheaten College, Wheaten, Ill.) at its "convocation" in June,1936.
www.edwardtbabinski.us /essays/froth.html   (6172 words)

 Science PolicyScience Policy
Science the Endless Frontier: A Report to the President.
Science Policy Background Report No. 1, Task Force on Science Policy, House Committee on Science and Technology.
Toward a Science Policy for the United States: Report of the Subcommittee on Science, Research, and Development.
www.cmu.edu /coldwar/scipol.htm   (1393 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
This is the proposal that initiated the establishment of the US National Science Foundation (NSF), which is the source of most of the department's funding.
The document is linked through the CPS 300 page under "science in the public interest", at the bottom.
This was a time when the United States was just beginning to embrace the idea that we could pursue grand objectives in science in technology as a nation with government support.
www.cs.duke.edu /~chase/cps300/vannevar.txt   (543 words)

 Rise of Materialistic Scientism - Germany
Bismark set the tone of the new German empire in 1862, when he said, “Not by speeches and resolutions of majorities are the mighty problems of the age to be solved, but by blood and iron.” The “Iron Chancellor” originated these measures for the working classes; it was the foundation for state socialism.
Combine race science with Bismarkian militaristic paternalism, and we have the formula for the Third Reich, personified in Adolph Hitler.
German-American Eugenics Liaison (1919-1939): Under the highly punitive terms of the Versailles Treaty, Germany was physically contracted and stripped of her colonies.
www.trufax.org /avoid/scienger.html   (628 words)

 NSF: National Science Board: Awards   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
The annual award recognizes an individual who, through public service activities in science and technology, has made an outstanding "contribution toward the welfare of mankind and the Nation." The recipient of the award receives a bronze medal struck in the memory of Dr. Bush.
Bush was a prominent scientist, adviser to Presidents, and the force behind the establishment of the National Science Foundation.
In 1945, at the request of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, he recommended that a foundation be established by Congress to serve as a focal point for the Federal Government's support and encouragement of research and education in science and technology as well as the development of a national science policy.
www.nsf.gov /nsb/awards/bush/bush.htm   (378 words)

 Science Databases   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Science Citation Index indexes more than 5,700 journals across 164 scientific disciplines.
ScienceDirect indexes approximately 7.7 million titles in 1800 journals published by Reed Elsevier in the sciences and the social sciences.
The ISI Citation Databases index over 8,000 journals in science (1945-), social sciences (1956-), and humanities (1975-).
www.mtholyoke.edu /offices/library/databases/genscidb.shtml   (306 words)

 Harnessing Science to Benefit Society
That means that we must design RandD policies that respond to the complex societal context within which science and technology are applied.
is the executive vice provost and a professor of science policy at Columbia University.
He is the Chair of Columbia's Center for Science Policy and Outcomes.
www.cspo.org /products/articles/harnessing.html   (1232 words)

 NSF, National Science Foundation
The National Science Foundation (NSF) managed the Internet from 1990 to 1995 when it was known as the NSFNET, including management of the network backbone and oversite of Network Solutions, and is described here for its historical role.
The first politician to realize the benefit of an ongoing relationship was a senator from West Virginia named Harley Kilgore, who introduced legislation to create a national research funding organization in 1942, 1943, and 1945, and conducted open hearings on the subject which attracted the interest of the science community.
After several years of discussion and compromise between the US congress and the administration, the National Science Foundation was finally established in 1950.
www.livinginternet.com /i/iw_mgmt_nsf.htm   (583 words)

 Can science get by without your tax money?
Without that science given by the Brits (And being Irish I have little love for my former neighbours), the advances of the US would have come at a much higher price and delay.
If we are talking about science for science sake, then private donors and private businesses have enough resources to fund science projects.
Yes, pure science that has immense theoretical value but little immediate practical value and almost all of which is funded by govt.
www.freerepublic.com /focus/f-news/1729625/posts   (3813 words)

 Teachers Discovery :: Modern Science 1896-1945 $7.00   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Examining the first half of the 20th century, this volume surveys the most significant scientific discoveries of an era that witnessed dramatic and unsettling changes in science.
Articulating the development and impact of science from one century to the next, Modern Science: 1896-1945 deals with the significant work of scientists such as Bohr, Einstein, and Planck.
It also looks at key discoveries in the physical and biological sciences and discusses the questions raised by two world wars about the humanity and the ethical use of the products of scientific discovery.224 pages Grades 6-12 © 200
www.teachers-discovery.com /store/comersus_viewItem.asp?idProduct=3171   (106 words)

 LCS/ AI Lab Timeline
It is, at the moment, quite incomplete, and needs help from those interested in rounding out the story.
Computer-related research at MIT has been conducted by many different Laboratories and Departments, including the Whirlwind project, the Research Lab of Electronics, the Computer-Aided Design project, Project MAC and its descendants (the Lab for Computer Science and the Artificial Intelligence Lab), the Information Technology program at the Sloan School, and the Media Lab.
Indeed, at the turn of the millenium, computing is becoming an important focus of many other engineering departments as well.
timeline.lcs.mit.edu   (152 words)

 Science Lesson Plans and Technology Lesson Plans
The Development of Lorenzo's Oil, Strange Twists of Fate, and the Scientific Method -- a mental exercise in applying the scientific method and developing hypotheses in a real world situation -- Middle School/Jr.
They are designed to allow you to quickly create great lesson plans in science and technology.
TeachWithMovies.com helps teachers and parents make lessons plans in science and technology that will create a vivid and lasting classroom experience for children.
www.teachwithmovies.org /science-technology-subject-list.htm   (497 words)

 Jan van Leeuwen
`Science for the Information Age', at ICT Congress Delft 2005: (ppt).
Bolzano Honorary Medal, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague (1999).
Science - The endless frontier (Vannevar Bush, 1945).
www.cs.uu.nl /~jan   (366 words)

 Science Museum - 1945 to present: New particles   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Science Museum - 1945 to present: New particles
During the 1950s and 1960s physicists discovered large numbers of new particles in experiments carried out using accelerators.
© Science Museum and Institute of Physics, 1997.
www.sciencemuseum.org.uk /on-line/electron/section3/1945b.asp   (144 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
"Giessen on the Charles." In The Emergence of Agricultural Science: Justus Liebig and the Americans, 1840-1880, chap.
"The Two Sciences and Religion in Antebellum New England: The Founding of the Museum of Comparative Zoology and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology." Ph.D. dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1978.
Walter, Maila L. "Science and Cultural Crisis: An Intellectual Biography of Percy Williams Bridgman." Ph.D. dissertation, Harvard University, 1985.
www.math.harvard.edu /history/science/biblio/index_text.html   (1784 words)

 Gerald Pearson
Gerald Pearson was one of the few scientists at Bell who worked on the transistor almost every step of the way.
He was one of the first researchers transferred into the solid state science group which invented the transistor, and Pearson continued to work on the transistor's development throughout the next 12 years he worked at Bell.
In 1945, when science groups at Bell were reorganized, he was put into a lab dedicated to studying solid state physics.
www.pbs.org /transistor/album1/addlbios/pearson.html   (323 words)

 Bayer: Science For A Better Life - 1945 — 1951
In November 1945, the Allied Forces confiscated the I.G. and placed all its sites under the control of Allied officers.
The company was to be dissolved and its assets made available for war reparations.
The Leverkusen, Dormagen, Elberfeld and Uerdingen sites were allocated to the new company, and in 1952 Bayer also received as a subsidiary the newly established Agfa "joint stock company for photofabrication."
www.bayer.com /about_bayer/history/1945_1951/page1211.htm   (233 words)

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