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Topic: 1995 Kobe earthquake

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  Great Hanshin earthquake - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The epicenter of the earthquake was on the northern end of Awaji Island, 20 km away from the cosmopolitan city of Kobe with a population of 1.5 million.
It was the worst earthquake in Japan since the Great Kanto earthquake in 1923, which claimed 140,000 lives, and it is listed in the Guinness Book of Records as the "costliest natural disaster to befall any one country".
This was mainly because of Kobe's higher population density and linear layout, which made infrastructure networks much less redundant, and because of the closer proximity of the epicenter to urbanized areas, which increased the amount of damage to buildings.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Great_Hanshin_earthquake   (1397 words)

 Earthquake - Simple English Wikipedia
An earthquake is a sudden shaking of the earth.
Most earthquakes are the result of plates of the earth moving.
After the January 17, 1995 Kobe earthquake in Japan, preventative measures were put in place to further enhance the safety measures that were already in place.
simple.wikipedia.org /wiki/Earthquake   (338 words)

 GeoTopics @ GeoNet
An earthquake is a sudden movement of the earth's surface.
Earthquakes are caused by the movement of the earth's tectonic plates.
At 05.46 on 17th January 1995 an earthquake measuring 7.2 on the Richter scale struck the heavily populated city of Kobe, Japan.
www.bennett.karoo.net /topics/earthquakes.html   (395 words)

 Earthquake Museum-Kobe Earthquake   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-08-18)
This 6.9 Magnitude earthquake on January 16, 1995 in Kobe, Japan caused extensive damage and loss of life.
Many buildings in Kobe were older and had heavy tile roofs that collapsed on the occupants.
The City of Kobe webpage on the disaster and reconstruction.
www.olympus.net /personal/gofamily/quake/famous/kobe.html   (140 words)

 FAQs on Pacific Northwest Earthquakes
Earthquakes are caused by the abrupt release of this slowly accumulated stress.
Earthquakes in California, Alaska and Japan are caused by the interaction of different plates than the earthquakes in the Pacific Northwest.
The Richter magnitude of an earthquake is calculated by measuring the amplitude of the maximum wave motion recorded on the seismogram.
www.geophys.washington.edu /SEIS/PNSN/INFO_GENERAL/faq.html   (2932 words)

 Geography Site: Kobe earthquake case study
The Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake was not only powerful (magnitude 6.9), but with the epicentre only 20km southwest of the city, it resulted in massive damage to property and loss of life.
Large earthquakes in remote, uninhabited areas can do relatively little damage to the human population, but when they strike in places like the Kobe / Osaka region with a population of 10 million people, the damage levels will always be significant.
Kobe was no exception and things were made even more difficult because Kobe is situated on a strip of flat land between high mountains and the sea.
www.geography-site.co.uk /pages/physical/earth/kobe.html   (891 words)

 AGU Web Site: Kobe Earthquake: An Urban Disaster
All of these earthquakes, as well as the 1995 earthquake, had strike-slip mechanisms that accommodated east-west shortening of the Eurasian plate due to its collision with the North American plate along the Izu-Itoigawa line to the east in central Honshu [Huzita, 1980].
Kobe is located on a narrow strip of land between Osaka Bay to the southeast and the Rokko mountains to the northwest.
Although the 1994 Northridge earthquake occurred within an urban region, almost all of the fault rupture occurred at depths greater than 10 km, and the great majority of the multistory buildings in the San Fernando Valley were at least 20 km from the closest part of the fault rupture.
www.agu.org /sci_soc/kobe.html   (1881 words)

 The January 17, 1995 Hyogo Ken Nanbu (Kobe) Earthquake
The rupture of this strike-slip earthquake directly into downtown Kobe, as inferred from the aftershock distribution and the waveform modeling of teleseismic and strong motion seismograms, appears to have contributed to the high level of destruction that occurred.
All of these earthquakes, as well as the 1995 earthquake, had strike-slip mechanisms that accommodated east-west shortening of the Eurasian plate due to its collision with the North American plate along the Izu-Itoigawa line to the east in central Honshu (Huzita, 1980), as illustrated in Figure 5.
In summary, the 1995 Kobe earthquake occurred on a mapped system of active faults, and had a mechanism that is compatible with the tectonics of western Japan as inferred from similar earthquakes that occurred during the past century.
www.ce.berkeley.edu /Programs/Geoengineering/research/Kobe/Somerville/qnews.html   (1861 words)

 Kobe Earthquake
The earthquake was particularly devastating because it had a shallow focus.
The earthquake caused 5100 deaths, mainly in Kobe.
The Hanshin earthquake was the worst earthquake in Japan since the 1923 Tokyo earthquake, which is also called the Great Kanto earthquake.
www.vibrationdata.com /earthquakes/kobe.htm   (395 words)

 Earthquake Effects in Kobe, Japan
It is often possible to measure the displacement and length of the exposed fault rupture to estimate the slip and area of the subsurface fault, providing an independent estimate of the earthquake's magnitude.
Most of the damage done by earthquakes is due to their secondary effects, those not directly caused by fault movement, but resulting instead from the propagation of seismic waves away from the fault rupture.
The Kobe port, having been constructed on two artificial islands made of relatively loose fill, and always water saturated, suffered widespread liquefaction and settlement, and was incapacitated for two months.
www.seismo.unr.edu /ftp/pub/louie/class/100/effects-kobe.html   (2350 words)

 Hyogo-ken Nanbu (Kobe) earthquake, Japan, 1995   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-08-18)
The strong spatial variation of rake in the Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake indicates that the initial stress direction was highly heterogeneous on the fault, possibly caused by variations in the fault geometry.
In the case of the Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake, at very long periods the NW-down motion of the Nojima fault and the NW-up motion of the Rokko fault (Figure 3) sum to nearly zero net vertical motions and contribute almost nothing to the long period moment.
However, at shorter periods viewed from many azimuths (for example, in the city of Kobe) the ground motions from these two regions arrive at distinctly different times and do not destructively interfere, leading to the possibility that the radiated energy is unusually high for the moment of this event.
www.bonus.com /contour/earthquakesafety/http@@/quake.wr.usgs.gov/~spudich/kobe.html   (8255 words)

 Radio Australia - News - Japan mourns victims of 1995 Kobe earthquake
Japan is commemorating the 10th anniversary of the devastating Kobe earthquake.
Kobe's mayor told the crowd that recent tragedies such as the Indian Ocean tsunami are reminders of the threats inherent in nature.
Japan is set to share the lessons of the Kobe disaster in a five-day United Nations conference, which opens on Tuesday, on ways to reduce damage from disasters, with the development of a tsunami warning system set to top the agenda.
www.abc.net.au /ra/news/stories/s1283461.htm   (277 words)

 Swiss Re :: Swiss Re Publication Recounts One of the Most Significant Events in Insurance History: The 1906 San ...
The publication was released today to also mark the date of two other significant earthquakes that occurred on January 17: the 1995 Kobe, Japan Earthquake and the 1994 Northridge, California Earthquake.
The 1994 Northridge Earthquake, for example, caused direct economic losses of USD 41.8bn and approximately 4,000 buildings were destroyed or severely damaged.
The 1995 Kobe Earthquake, which still ranks today as one of the costliest earthquake of all time, resulted in economic losses of approximately USD 100 billion.
sev.prnewswire.com /publishing-information-services/20060117/NYTU00617012006-1.html   (599 words)

 Cornell shares NSF earthquake engineering grant
Earthquake researchers at Cornell will share in a $10 million grant awarded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) to the University at Buffalo's National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research (NCEER).
The earthquake research facility in Buffalo, the oldest of the research centers, has been in existence for 11 years.
O'Rourke also visited Kobe, Japan, immediately after the 1995 earthquake there as part of NSF and National Institute of Standards and Technology efforts to study geotechnical aspects and the performance of lifelines during and after an earthquake.
www.news.cornell.edu /http://www.news.corne/Chronicle/97/10.16.97/earthquake.html   (396 words)

 GeoResources - Geography website
Close to Kobe, the denser oceanic Philippines Plate is being subducted beneath the lighter continental Eurasian Plate at a rate of about 10 centimetres per year.
Earthquakes are very common here and happen because of the friction resulting from the two plates colliding along this destructive margin.
Modern buildings, designed to be earthquake proof, did quite well on the whole and suffered little damage, although some were left standing at an angle when the ground beneath them liquefied.
www.georesources.co.uk /kobehigh.htm   (1045 words)

 The January 17, 1995 Kobe Earthquake
The demands for a severe earthquake are amplified for structures with large configurational irregularities, and reductions in demand are made to account for the ductility of the construction type.
Many of the mid-rise structures in Kobe were reinforced concrete-frame buildings of two types: The older ones were of nonductile concrete frame and the newer ones were of SRC frame.
This structure was located a significant distance (32 kilometers west of Kobe) away from the area of greatest destruction, and the intensity of shaking near the building's location was not nearly as severe as the level of shaking in downtown Kobe.
www.hewett.norfolk.sch.uk /curric/NEWGEOG/Tectonic/Earth/Building.htm   (2975 words)

 Earthquake Hazard Information
In the building contest, we test model buildings on a shake table using accelerations and frequencies that are similar to those associated with actual earthquake shaking that affects buildings.
Many types of building, structure or ground failure are observed in actual earthquake damage.
Others, such as poor connection to foundation, fallen objects, or ground failure can be simulated with appropriate modification of the model building and the shake table testing.
web.ics.purdue.edu /~braile/edumod/eqphotos/eqphotos1.htm   (444 words)

 BBC ON THIS DAY | 17 | 1995: Earthquake devastates Kobe
The earthquake measured 7.2 magnitude and was the biggest to hit Japan for 47 years.
But the Kobe earthquake was one of the worst in the country's history - 6,433 people died.
Kobe struggled to overcome the huge impact of the 1995 earthquake.
news.bbc.co.uk /onthisday/hi/dates/stories/january/17/newsid_3375000/3375733.stm   (495 words)

The vertical deformation several years before the 1976 Tangshan earthquake could be caused mainly by the movement of the active faults in the region.
The 1996 earthquake fault (straight line marked by EF) is represented as a north-south trending dislocation (normal dip-slip) extending from the surface to a depth of 10 km.
Horizontal deformation before the 1995 Kobe earthquake (The dotted-line denotes the 1995 Kobe earthquake fault; the bold-line is the assumed active blind-fault; the arrows with error ellipses are the observed horizintal deformation vectors (the dashed-lines for the modelled vectors).
www.geocities.com /subduction99   (2187 words)

 Hokudan-Town Earthquake Memorial Park (Page 1)
This museum and park is a memorial to the people who died during the January 17, 1995 Magnitude 6.9 Hyogoken Nambu earthquake (also known as the "Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake Disaster", or simply the "Kobe earthquake").
As a reminder of those who lost their lives and of the destruction earthquakes cause, the fault scarp exposed in Hokudan has been enclosed inside a long greenhouse-type building for present and future generations to view.
Along the earthquake fault, the road was pushed and pulled by earthquake motion as bulges appeared in the Inland side and the shore side sank to form a large hollow.
www.scec.org /instanet/00news/feature000912.html   (660 words)

 Social Studies Assessment, KWL (KNOW/WANT/LEARNED) CHARTS   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-08-18)
The Pacific Rim region is prone to earthquakes.
Earthquakes are measured on a seismic scale of magnitude called the Richter Scale.
In the last 25 years, the worst earthquake in terms of the number of deaths was the 1988 NW Armenia earthquake with 55,000 deaths, while the largest on the Richter scale was the 1976 Tangshan, China, one at a magnitude of 8.2.
www.educ.state.ak.us /tls/frameworks/sstudies/part4a15.htm   (460 words)

 CNN - Japan mourns victims of 1995 Kobe quake - Jan. 17, 1997
KOBE, Japan (CNN) -- On the second anniversary of the powerful earthquake that killed more than 6,400 people, Japanese on Friday paused to remember the victims.
Hashimoto and most members of his Cabinet attended somber ceremonies in the port city of Kobe, where the magnitude 7.2 earthquake hit on January 17, 1995.
City officials in Kobe say nearly 70,000 people are in the families still living in temporary housing or with relatives.
www.cnn.com /WORLD/9701/17/kobe.anniv   (442 words)

 Kobe Quake Survivor Pens Charity Song for Java Relief Effort
At the time of the Kobe quake, Mr Jardine was living and working in Japan, just a few miles from the epicentre.
But what we tend to overlook is the fact that the "real" disaster is in the aftermath for those people who have lost their homes, their schools, their businesses and their families.
It was tough enough for the people in Kobe in 1995, but that was a small quake compared to the recent one in Java.
www.prweb.com /releases/2006/6/prweb400037.htm   (902 words)

 Kobe Earthquake   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-08-18)
Earthquake faults, damages to roads and railways, liquefaction at reclaimed lands, fires, crushed houses, landsides were all manifested in this very destructive seismic shift.
Seismologists have a growing conviction that a phenomena wherein the amplitude of the wave is magnified at the border between soft and hard ground increased the damage.
Kobe, which suffered much of the damage, is built on a complex formation of various hardnesses of ground, ranging from the solid Rokko Mountain to the soft reclaimed land of Port Island.
vathena.arc.nasa.gov /curric/land/kobe.html   (1238 words)

 Earthquake Protection - PowerBookSearch!
Furthermore, major earthquake disasters, such as the 1994 Northridge earthquake in California, the 1995 Kobe earthquake in Japan and the 1999 Kocaeli earthquake in Turkey have occurred.
An entirely new chapter on 'Earthquakes and Finance' This valuable book provides essential reading for earthquake and structural engineers and geoscientists, as well as insurers and loss prevention specialists, risk managers and assessors involved in managing earthquake risk, urban and regional planners, and emergency management agencies.
Furthermore, major earthquake disastersm such as the 1994 Northridge earthquake in California, the 1995 Kobe earthquake in Japan and the 1999 Kocaeli earthquake in Turkey have occurred.
www.powerbooksearch.com /booksearch0470849231.html   (1187 words)

 Federal Reinsurance for Disasters
In part, that choice may reflect the government's regulation of insurance rates, differences between risks and premiums, the taxation of capital reserves, and restrictions on market entry by foreign insurers, all of which limit the coverage that is available.
When the massive Kobe quake hit, the earthquake endorsement covered roughly 30 percent to 50 percent of a property's replacement value; claims were limited to less than $100,000 (10 million yen) for property and an additional $50,000 (5 million yen) for contents.
The earthquake fund has more than $4 billion in assets, primarily in the form of nontradable government securities (the fund can invest up to 35 percent of its balances in global equities).
www.cbo.gov /showdoc.cfm?index=3787&sequence=7   (1718 words)

 Earthquake Hazard Information
Building tilted by ground failure caused by liquefaction, Kobe earthquake.
Bending of central columns of expressway, Kobe earthquake.
Bending of columns and partial collapse of parking structure, Northridge earthquake.
web.ics.purdue.edu /~braile/edumod/eqphotos/eqphotos2.htm   (349 words)

 Kobe Earthquake of 1995 remembered at Port of Seattle
A shipping container sent from the Port of Kobe to commemorate the 10th anniversary of the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake and highlight the Port of Kobe's restoration will arrive at the Port of Seattle tomorrow.
In a letter to Port of Seattle Commission President Bob Edwards, Kobe Mayor Tatsuo Yada expressed thanks for the Port of Seattle's support and assistance in the aftermath of the earthquake and during reconstruction.
The Port of Kobe was rebuilt and fully functional just two years after the quake.
www.portseattle.org /news/press/2005/06_06_2005_42.shtml   (223 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-08-18)
In Japan, all observers are shocked by the death and destruction.
Earthquake that killed over one hundred forty-two thousand people, the extent and randomness of the massive damage is
Of course, Kobe is a port, export-hub, shipbuilding and steel-
www.warnercnr.colostate.edu /avprojects/98proj/world_volc/web_docs/kobe.html   (679 words)

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