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Topic: 219 BC

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In the News (Sat 25 May 19)

 Roman Timeline of the 3rd Century BC
255 BC Battle of Bagradas in Africa, in which the invading Roman army under M. Regulus was virtually destroyed by the Carthaginians under the mercenary leader Xanthippus, a Spartan.
200 BC Birth of the Greek historian Polybius, in Megalopolis, Arcadia, Greece.
It is usually assumed to have been founded at the beginning of the 3rd century BC during the reign of Ptolemy II of Egypt after his father had set up the Temple of the Muses or Museum.
www.unrv.com /empire/roman-timeline-3rd-century.php   (1273 words)

  Roman Republic - MSN Encarta
In 494 bc a secession of plebeian soldiers led to the institution of the tribuni plebis, who were elected annually as protectors of the plebeians; they had the power to veto the acts of patrician magistrates, and thus served as the leaders of the plebeians in the struggles with the patricians.
Between 201 and 196 bc the Celts of the Po Valley were subjugated, and their territory was Latinized, although they themselves were barred from acquiring Roman citizenship.
During the 3rd and 2nd centuries bc Rome was involved in a struggle with Macedonia for domination of the Aegean Sea known as the Macedonian Wars.
uk.encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_781531766/Roman_Republic.html   (1517 words)

 Hannibal - WCD (Wiki Classical Dictionary)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
In 221 BC he attacked the Olcades, a tribe of the interior, who were quickly compelled to submit by the fall of their capital, Althaea.
He was elected one of the suffetes (Livy calls him praetor), the two principal magistrates of Carthage, for 196 BC and introduced reforms weakening the power of the oligarchs and reorganising the state's finances to allow the payment of the war indemnity to Rome without additional taxation.
In 190 BC he commanded a Syrian fleet against Rhodes, but his great talent as a general—the ability to use topography against his enemy—was worthless at sea and he was defeated.
www.ancientlibrary.com /wcd/Hannibal   (1319 words)

 Tarraconesis (Hispania)
According to the historian Livy, Rome first made Spain a province in 218 BC when the senate declared that Hispania should be one of the two areas (the other being "Africa with Sicily") named for the consuls of the year.
In 221 BC the Carthaginian leader in Spain, Hasdrubal, was killed by a local tribesman.
In 215 BC Cnaeus’s brother Publius Scipio arrived with reinforcements, and in 214 the Romans advanced and recaptured Saguntum.
www.usd.edu /~clehmann/pir/tarracon.htm   (2277 words)

 Cleomenes III Summary
Less squeamish than his predecessor, in 227 BC the opposition in Sparta were removed in a coup - four of the five ephors were killed and eighty opponents were exiled.
For his last campaign in 222 BC he faced 28,000 Macedonians with 10,000 Spartans at the Battle of Sellasia on the road to Tegea, but despite a well chosen position and skillful handling the Spartans were overwhelmed.
Cleomenes was deposed and was killed in exile in Egypt in 219 BC.
www.bookrags.com /Cleomenes_III   (1235 words)

 History of ancient Olympia
In 431 BC, the Athenians with the Kerkyreans conquered the port of Pheias and plundered the sacred land of Elis.
In 364 BC and during the Olympic festival, Eleans and their ally Achaeans attacked the Arcadians and Argians at Olympia and they were winning the battle, but unfortunately the leader of the select three hundred, Stratolas, was killed and were forced to withdraw.
In 334 BC, the oligarchs overthrown the democrats and sought the friendship of Philip of Macedon.
www.sikyon.com /Olympia/history_eg.html   (2752 words)

 Lost Worlds   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
430 BC - 429 BC: Epidemic in Athens.
216 BC: Hannibal destroys a numerically superior Roman army at the Battle of Cannae; one of the survivors is Publius Cornelius Scipio.
31 BC: Marcus Antonius is defeated by Octavian at the Battle of Actium; Marcus Antonius dies.
www.hipp-avas.com /lostworlds/history.htm   (1080 words)

 Marcus Livius Salinator Information
204 BC), the son of Marcus (a member of the gens Livia), was a Roman consul who fought in both the Second Illyrian War and Second Punic War most notably during the Battle of the Metaurus.
Born in 254 BC, Livius was elected consul of the Roman Republic with Lucius Aemilius Paulus shortly before the Second Illyrian War in 219 BC.
Encountering Carthaginians near Fanum in the spring of 207 BC, Livius, reinforced by the army of his colleague Nero, defeated the Carthaginians at the Battle of the Metaurus, killing their commander, Hannibal's brother Hasdrubal.
www.bookrags.com /wiki/Marcus_Livius_Salinator   (297 words)

 Roman Project Map 4: 202 BC
In 219 BC Rome made use of it's fleet by conquering the Illyrian pirates that had been terrorizing the Adriatic coast.
Hannibal was succesful in a number of battles against his Roman enemies, and by 216 BC he had secured Campania to the south of Rome.
Hannibal was forced to hastily retreat back to Carthage in 203 BC after the Roman general Scipio marched his fresh army across Carthage's African territories.
www.travelin-tigers.com /zhs/hsrom04.htm   (298 words)

 Punic Wars - MSN Encarta
In the spring of 218 bc Hannibal swiftly marched a large army through Spain and Gaul and across the Alps to attack the Romans in Italy before they could complete their preparations for war.
In the 2nd century bc, however, Carthage continued to be commercially successful and, though only a minor power, a source of irritation to Rome.
A minor Carthaginian breach of treaty gave the pretext for the Third Punic War (149-146 bc), in which the Romans, led by Scipio the Younger, captured the city of Carthage, razed it to the ground, and sold the surviving inhabitants into slavery.
encarta.msn.com /encnet/refpages/RefArticle.aspx?refid=761562033   (672 words)

 The Qin Dynasty On-line Source Book
c.261 BC Lu Buwei, a merchant from Zhao, befriends Prince Zichu, future king of Qin and father of the First Emperor, while the latter was a hostage in Han Dan, capital of the state of Zhao.
257 BC The Qin army is forced to raise the seige of Handan, capital of the state of Zhao in the Hebei region.
249 BC The petty realm of Eastern Zhou in the Henan region is annexed, marking the end of the Zhou Dynasty.
www.geocities.com /Athens/Academy/7547/chrono.html   (725 words)

 Dodona - Pathways to Ancient Myth
The Theater, recently restored, was built in the late 3rd Century BC in the time of Pyrrhus.
It was rebuilt by Philip the V after the Aetolians destroyed it in 219 BC.
The Stadium was built in the 3rd century BC against the western wall of the Theater.
www.calvin.edu /academic/clas/pathways/dodona/nsta.htm   (78 words)

 ILLYRIA,   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
About 1300 bc, Illyrians, people of Indo-European stock who are considered ancestors of modern Albanians, settled on the northern and eastern coasts of the Adriatic Sea.
The Greeks established cities on the coast in the 7th and 6th centuries bc, and in the 4th and 3d centuries bc Macedonian kings conquered parts of Illyria.
Gradually, Dalmatia was conquered and finally added (78–77 bc) to Illyricum; then, by 35–34 bc the southern areas of the former kingdom of Illyria were added, and, in 9 bc, Pannonia in the north.
www.history.com /encyclopedia.do?articleId=212568   (374 words)

 History International - The Fall of Great Empires
By the subjugation of the Libyan tribes and by the annexation of older Phoenician colonies, Carthage in the 6th century bc controlled the entire North African coast from the Atlantic Ocean to the western border of Egypt, as well as Sardinia, Malta, the Balearic Islands, and part of Sicily.
In the 2d century bc, however, Carthage continued to be commercially successful and, though only a minor power, a source of irritation to Rome.
A minor Carthaginian breach of treaty gave the pretext for the Third Punic War (149—146 bc), in which the Romans, led by Scipio the Younger, captured the city of Carthage, razed it to the ground, and sold the surviving inhabitants into slavery.
www.historyinternational.com /greatempires/?page=history3   (1510 words)

 Europa: The History of the White Race: Chapter 12   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
By 400 BC, the Latin League had successfully overthrown all the last vestiges of Etruscan rule, and from then on the Etruscan peoples were completely absorbed into the Latini, creating a Nordic/Alpine/Mediterranean mix which became characteristic of the early and middle Roman Empire, with Nordic elements tending to form the ruling class.
The period from 133 BC to 30 BC is known as the late Republic, during which Rome itself was to experience civil strife not seen since the days of the Latini insurrection against the Etruscans.
In 44 BC, Caesar was however assassinated on the steps of the senate in Rome by a group opposed to his almost royal control of the affairs of state.
www.fortunecity.com /victorian/fowles/500/hwr12.htm   (5344 words)

 Cleomenes III - Encyclopedia.com
In his determined effort to restore the prestige of the city, he began (227 BC) a war against the Achaean League and was successful in many battles.
At home his reforms were revolutionary: the kingship was made the supreme power, the ephorate was abolished, and the citizenship was widely extended, apparently to decrease the danger of discontent and to ally the people with the king.
Cleomenes came to his downfall suddenly in 222 BC (or possibly 221 BC) when the Achaean League, allied with Antigonus III of Macedon, routed the Spartan army.
www.encyclopedia.com /doc/1E1-Cleomenes3.html   (373 words)

 Thursday, 5 April
The cult of Zeus and the sacred oak tree was brought to Dodona by the Selloi, a branch of the Thesprotian tribe, between the 19th and 14th centuries BC and soon became the prevalent cult of the sanctuary.
It was built in the 3rd century BC, during the reign of Pyrrhus, and was destroyed in 219 BC by the Aeolians.
At the end of the 3rd century BC it was restored but was again demolished by Aemilius Paulus in 167 BC During the 1st century BC it was turned into an arena by the Romans.
members.fortunecity.com /abraxas7/id105.htm   (654 words)

In the 2d century bc, however, Carthage continued to be commercially successful and, though only a minor power, a source of irritation to Rome.
A minor Carthaginian breach of treaty gave the pretext for the Third Punic War (149–146 bc), in which the Romans, led by Scipio the Younger, captured the city of Carthage, razed it to the ground, and sold the surviving inhabitants into slavery.
(264–241 bc) was the outcome of growing political and economic rivalry between.
www.history.com /encyclopedia.do?vendorId=FWNE.fw..pu153300.a#FWNE.fw..pu153300.a   (1168 words)

 Illyrians.org - Illyrians Kings, Queen   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
In 314 BC, Glaukias was defeated by Cassander, successor of Alexander the Great, who reclaimed possession of Dyrrachium and Apollonia and bound the Illyrian king by treaty not to attack the allies of Macedon.
After the death of Agron (250 BC?-231 BC) who established the first kingdom of Illyria, extending from Dalmatia on the north to the Aous (Vjosa river) River on the south with Shkodër as its capital, his widow, Teuta, acted as regent for her young stepson Pinnes.
In 219 BC (second Roman-Illyrian War), a powerful Roman army was sent against Demetrius and after fierce battle, Demetrius retreats to Macedon.
www.illyrians.org /illyriankings.html   (1736 words)

 219 BC - Encyclopedia, History, Geography and Biography
219 BC 218 BC 217 BC 216 BC
4th century BC · 3rd century BC · 2nd century BC
219 BC, Events, By place, Rome, Asia, Births, Deaths and 219 BC.
www.arikah.com /encyclopedia/219_BC   (149 words)

 Hannibal - Military History Wiki
In 189 BC the Romans, having defeated Antiochus in a war, demanded that he turn Hannibal over to them and the general fled again, this time to the court of King Prusias I of Bithynia.
Accordingly in 219 BC he used a pretext for attacking the town of Saguntum, which stood under the special protection of Rome.
In 210 BC Hannibal again proved his superiority in tactics by a severe defeat inflicted at Herdoniac (modern Ordona) in Apulia upon a proconsular army, and in 208 BC destroyed a Roman force engaged in the siege of Locri Epizephyrii.
www.militaryhistorywiki.org /wiki/Hannibal   (2632 words)

 Chinese Calligraphy in Qin Dynasty
By 221 BC, a series of wars enabled the Qin rulers to conquer the whole of China and ruled it as one state - the political chaos that lasted more than five centuries was temporarily halted.
Inscription of Mt Yi, 219 BC Inscription of Mt. Tai, 219 BC After the founding of his empire, the first emperor of Qin made five inspection tours across his vast country.
In an effort to understand the nature of the art, the first essay on Chinese calligraphy, Brush Technique, was published by Li Si, then prime minister, the editor of the primers for Children, and the first recorded master calligrapher.
www.rice-paper.com /uses/calligraphy/history/qin.html   (454 words)

 Survival Rates After the Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy Stratified by CD4 Cell Counts in Two Cohorts in Canada ...
Eligible patients (n=1,219 in BC; n=5,110 in CDC) were treatment na ve and initiated antiretroviral therapy with double or triple combination in 1994 or later.
In the cell count strata of 0-49 and 50-99 cells/mm3, the lower 95 percent confidence interval limits of the BC survival rates were 73.8 and 84.4 percent, which were higher than the CDC point estimates of 64.8 and 78.1 percent.
"Whereas all patients in the BC cohort have free access to all licensed antiretroviral therapy, plus laboratory and medical monitoring as part of the Canadian medical system, this is not necessarily the case in the United States," the authors concluded.
www.aegis.com /news/ads/2002/AD021757.html   (892 words)

 Spartanburg SC | GoUpstate.com | Spartanburg Herald-Journal
In the Illyrian Wars of 229 BC and 219 BC, Rome overran the Illyrian settlements in the Neretva river valley and suppressed the piracy that had made the Adriatic unsafe for Italian commerce.
The initial campaign in 229 BC marks the first time that the Roman Navy crossed the Adriatic Sea to launch an invasion.
In 219 BC the Roman Republic was at war with the Celts of Cisalpine Gaul, and the Second Punic War with Carthage was beginning.
www.goupstate.com /apps/pbcs.dll/section?category=NEWS&template=wiki&text=Illyrian_Wars   (444 words)

 Ethics of Roman Expansion to 133 BC by Sanderson Beck
By 348 BC social harmony was reflected in a reduction of interest to 1/24 and remission of taxes and conscription; in a treaty Carthage agreed not to capture slaves from Roman towns, while Rome restricted their maritime trade only to Carthaginians.
Across the Adriatic Sea in 219 BC a Roman navy defeated the piratical Demetrius of Pharos, who fled to the Macedonian court of Philip V. Hasdrubal had promised the Romans the Carthaginians would not cross north of the Ebro River, and south of that river Saguntum asked for Roman protection.
In 149 BC the tribune Calpurnius Piso proposed establishing a permanent court of senators for cases of extortion, and its judgments could not be appealed to the people or the tribunes.
www.san.beck.org /EC24-RomanExpansion.html   (15529 words)

 219 BC - Biocrawler   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC
Decades: 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC - 210s BC - 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC
Years: 224 BC 223 BC 222 BC 221 BC 220 BC - 219 BC - 218 BC 217 BC 216 BC 215 BC 214 BC
www.biocrawler.com /encyclopedia/219_BC   (94 words)

 History of Sucuraj (island Hvar, Croatia) - Illyrians in Sucuraj
Besides the bay was a big fertile field, and it is known that Ardians had 300 000 serfs who worked in there fields while they were at war or having fiestas with lots of beer, wine and drink sweetened with honey.
century BC the Ardians king Argon united several Illyrians tribes and extended his country from Biograd (near town Zadar) to the river Drim (in today’s Albania).
Teuta ruled until 219 BC, she was glorified by heir warlord Demetrius of Pharos (today town Stari Grad on the island Hvar).
www.sucuraj.com /h1.htm   (407 words)

 240 – 20 BC  Punic Wars and Roman conquest of Hispania
Following the battle of Ilipa in 206 BC Two Spanish Kings (Indibil of the Ilergetes and Mandonio of the Ilergavones) revolt against Rome, and invade the territories of Rome’s allies the Suessetani and Edetani.
In 205 BC Indibil and Mandonio continue to cause trouble, but Indibil is defeated and killed in battle, and Mandonio is captured and executed.
In south-west Hispania the Turdetani (under Culcas and Luxinio), supported by the cities of Sexi (Almuñecar) and Malaca (Málaga), defeat and kill C. Sempronius Tuditanis (one of the new Roman governors sent that year).
www.balagan.org.uk /war/iberia/0240bc/index.htm   (667 words)

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