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Topic: 221 BCE

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In the News (Tue 18 Jun 19)

 [No title]
479 BCE: China - The philosopher Mo-tzu, founder of Mohism, is born.
373 BCE: China - The Confucianist Meng-tzu (Mencius) is born.
141-87 BCE: China - Han Wu-Ti is emperor of the Han Dynasty.
eawc.evansville.edu /chronology/chpage.htm   (937 words)

 The Warring States Period of Ancient China
The wasteful and bloody conquest of the separate states was justified as an unfortunate necessity to end the era of anarchy, but the wars were primarily those of empire-building.
The kingdom of Qin of the northwest finally conquered the southeastern kingdom of Chu in 223 BCE.
The last opponents were conquered two years later in 221 BCE, thus creating the Empire of Qin (China).
www.sjsu.edu /faculty/watkins/warringstates.htm   (596 words)

 Ancient Chinese Dynasties :: Chou Dynasty (Zhou) 1027 BCE — 256 BCE and the Ch’in Dynasty (Qin) 221 BCE
Chou Dynasty (Zhou) 1027 BCE — 256 BCE and the Ch’in Dynasty (Qin) 221 BCE
Chou Dynasty (Zhou) 1027 BCE — 256 BCE
Ch’in Dynasty (Qin) 221 BCE — 206 BCE
www.freewebs.com /ancientchinesedynasties/index.htm   (498 words)

 Exploring Chinese History :: History :: Ancient Chinese History :: Comprehensive
The years from 403 BCE to 221 BCE became known as the Warring States Period because the conflicts were particularly frequent and deadly.
By the 3rd century BCE, Chu was on the forefront of cultural innovation.
Much of what came to constitute China Proper was unified for the first time in 221 BCE In that year the western frontier state of Qin, the most aggressive of the Warring States, subjugated the last of its rival states.
www.ibiblio.org /chinesehistory/contents/01his/c01s03.html   (5704 words)

 Chinese Cultural Studies: A brief chinese chronology   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
Zhou [Chou] Dynasty 1111 BCE ~ 249 BCE [or 1027-249 BCE?]
Qin [Ch'in] Dynasty (255-) 221 BCE ~ 206 BCE
The warlike, China of the sixth to eighth centuries turned towards central Asia and succeeded in extending its authority to the regions beyond the Pamirs, while China of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries was a maritime, trading land threatened by the advance of the empires of the steppe.
academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu /core9/phalsall/texts/chron.html   (2132 words)

 BCE Proxy Management Circular
BCE is one of the first major Canadian companies to comply with recently enacted legislation and offer you the choice to receive future annual reports.
The board of directors approved the contents of this management proxy circular and authorized it to be sent to each shareholder who is eligible to receive notice of and vote his or her shares at our annual and special shareholder meeting, as well as to each director and to the auditors.
BCE’s board of directors has recently determined that all audit committee members are financially literate and that the audit committee is composed of at least one financial expert, its Chairman, Mr.
www.bce.ca /en/investors/reports/circular/bce/2004   (11467 words)

 Chronofile: BCE (Biblical Lands)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
The Sumerians flourished until around 2340 BCE when the Akkadian invaders took over and were slowly joind by a steady stream of semitic and indo-european invaders over a period of about a thousand years.
By 800 BCE and certainly by 796, Assyria had to have a direct impact on Syria and Adad-nirari III (also, 'Ramman-nirari III') was beginning to invade to the west.
Close to the year 745 BCE in divided Israel, Jeroboam II in the north and Uzziah in the south reached the end of their reigns in Judah.
hometown.aol.com /eilatlog/chronofile/chronofile_biblical.html   (19723 words)

 Qin Shi Huang at AllExperts
After conquering the last independent Chinese state in 221 BCE, Qin Shi Huang was the king of a state of Qin ruling over the whole of China, a previously unprecedented accomplishment.
The competition was extremely fierce and by 260 BCE there were only a handful of states left (the others having been conquered and annexed), but Zheng's state, Qin, was the most powerful.
Zheng ascended the throne in 247 BCE at the age of 12 and a half, and was king under a regent until 238 BCE when, at the age of 21 and a half, he staged a palace coup and assumed full power.
en.allexperts.com /e/q/qi/qin_shi_huang.htm   (4975 words)

 Introduction to the Zhou Dynasty and the Age of Confucius
The Zhou dynasty (c.1100-256 BCE) conquers and succeeds the Shang; later generations seek to reclaim and preserve the idealized peace of the early Zhou (or Western Zhou) period.
The Zhou is divided into the Western Zhou (1027-771 BCE), when the capital was near Xian, and the Eastern Zhou (770-221 BCE), when the capital was moved eastward to Luoyang.
BCE), whose philosophy is often called that of "universal love," and the School of Yin and Yang and the Five Agents.
www.columbia.edu /itc/eacp/japanworks/webcourse/key_points/kp_2.htm   (624 words)

 China to 306 CE
In 108 BCE, for the sake of control in the northeast, Wudi conquered an iron-using kingdom in northern Korea.
This was a kingdom equal in many ways to the Chinese states before the unification of China in 221 BCE, and a kingdom with many Chinese refugees from the previous century.
In 6 BCE, Chengdi was succeeded by Ngaidi, who lived in the company of homosexual boys, one of whom he appointed commander-in-chief of his armies.
www.fsmitha.com /h1/ch14.htm   (10369 words)

 Handout 5. The Great Unification: The Qin Emperor’s Terracotta Army   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
As soon as the First Emperor became king of the Qin [in 246 BCE] work was begun on his mausoleum at Mount Li.
After he won the empire [in 221 BCE] more than 700,000 conscripts from all parts of China labored there.
After they were duly buried an official suggested that the artisans responsible for the mechanical devices knew too much about the contents of the tomb for safety.
www.lclark.edu /~claypool/webhandouts/5qin.html   (384 words)

 Egyptian History: Graeco-Roman Dynasties   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
Ptolemy II Philadelphus, (reigned 284-246 BCE), married to his full sister, Asinoe II, and sharing power with her, continued the reorganisation of Egypt, basing his decisions on facts gathered during extensive censuses.
The Roman general Pompey, pursued by Julius Caesar, came to Egypt in 48 BCE and was murdered by Ptolemy's courtiers.
At the sea battle of Actium the Egyptian navy was decisively defeated and Antony and Cleopatra fled to Alexandria.
nefertiti.iwebland.com /history-g-r.htm   (1674 words)

 Qin Shi Huangdi - free-definition   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
In 221 BCE he unified China and proclaimed himself the First ( shi) Emperor ( huangdi) of the Qin Dynasty, as he was the first Chinese sovereign able to rule the whole country.
He reigned from 246 BCE to 238 BCE as king of Qin under a regent, to 221 BCE without a regent, and as emperor of China from 221 BCE to 210 BCE.
The competition was extremely fierce and by 259 BCE there were few states remaining (the others having been conquered and annexed), but Zheng's state, Qin, was the most powerful.
www.free-definition.com /Qin-Shi-Huangdi.html   (2635 words)

 Qin Dynasty | Encyclopedia of Modern Asia
Although lasting for only fifteen years, the Qin dynasty (221–206 BCE) brought centralized administration to China and introduced a model of government that Chinese emperors followed until the abdication of the emperor of China's final dynasty, the Qing, in 1912.
By 221 BCE, with a final military victory over the Zhou, the Qin had unified all the states of the feudal Zhou rule.
Fearing the power of intellectual debate, in 213 BCE Zheng ordered that all texts, except for those on the subjects of divination, medicine, forestry, and agriculture, be burned, aside from a single copy of each, which was held in the imperial library (itself burned to the ground by the invading Han forces in 206 BCE).
www.bookrags.com /research/qin-dynasty-ema-05   (1210 words)

 Xunzi Biography | ema_06_package.xml
Although often overlooked by Western scholars, Xunzi (Hsun-tzu) was an important systematizer of pre-Qin (before 221 BCE) philosophy and considered to rank third after Confucius (Kong Qiu, 551–479 BCE) and Mencius (Mengzi, c.
Commonly known as Minister Xun or Xun Qing, Xunzi was born in the state of Zhao.
BCE, who used rationalism to evaluate the truth) and sharpened his own skills.
www.bookrags.com /biography/xunzi-ema-06   (579 words)

Egypt was raided, invaded, occupied by, and self-liberated from the Nubians and their northern allies the Hyksos in 1800-1600 BCE; the People of the Sea, 1200-1170 BCE; Philistines and Ethiopians in 730 BCE; and Assyrians and Libyans in 671 BCE.
  In 373 BCE the ancient city of Helike on the Gulf of Corinth, was destroyed by an earthquake and submerged under the sea by a tsunami.
In 48 BCE the inhabitants of Alexandria blockaded Caesar.
peaceworld.freeservers.com /130BURNINGLIBRARIES1.htm   (9363 words)

 Providing For the Afterlife: ‘Brilliant Artifacts’ From Shandong
In the year 221 BCE, after many years of subjugating competing kingdoms, Qin Shihuangdi succeeded in uniting China and proclaimed himself the First Emperor.
Stamped on the side of the measure is an edict dated to the twenty-sixth year of Qin Shihuang, 221 BCE, the year he unified China.
The sacred Mount Yi is also located in Zoucheng in southern Shandong, and the First Emperor made his political pilgrimage there in 219 BCE to erect one of his stelae.
www.asianart.com /exhibitions/shandong/9.html   (594 words)

 Cloudband Magazine : Qin Dynasty China and the Terracotta Army of Qin Shihuang   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
A recent exhibition at the National Museum of History in Taipei – which has since moved to the National Museum of Natural Science in Taichung due to popular demand – aims to present a fuller picture of the arts of this short-lived dynasty.
The concept that the deceased should be served in the same way as the living has existed in China since Neolithic times.
There was a tremendous expansion in the scale of burials from the Neolithic period, which normally comprised daily household items, to the Qin dynasty, whose first emperor reputedly reproduced his entire royal court and even empire or tianxia (the lands beneath heaven) in his mausoleum.
www.cloudband.com /magazine/articles1q01/exh_li_terracotta_0301.html   (1014 words)

 Vintage Catalog | The Anchor Book of Chinese Poetry by edited by Tony Barnstone and Chou Ping
The Zhou dynasty is the longest of China's many dynasties, and is divided into the Western Zhou (1122-771 BCE) and the Eastern Zhou (771-256 BCE), as the Zhou were forced out of their capital at Xian by barbarian invaders from the north, and moved east to found their new capital in Luoyang.
In 221 BCE, the ruler of a western state emerged triumphant from the ongoing warfare and unified China, naming himself Shi Huangdi (the "first emperor") and beginning the Qin dynasty.
The traditional Laozi is said to have been an older contemporary of Confucius (551-479 bce), who instructed the younger sage in the rites, but this story seems not to have circulated until the third century bce.
www.randomhouse.com /vintage/catalog/display.pperl?isbn=9780385721981&view=excerpt   (1762 words)

 Confucius [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
Better known in China as "Master Kong" (Chinese: Kongzi), Confucius was a fifth-century BCE Chinese thinker whose influence upon East Asian intellectual and social history is immeasurable.
Such mythmaking was very important to the emerging imperial Chinese state, however, as it struggled to impose cultural unity on a vast and fractious territory during the final few centuries BCE and beyond into the Common Era.
After the initial persecution of Confucians during the short-lived Qin dynasty (221-202 BCE), the succeeding Han emperors and their ministers seized upon Confucius as a vehicle for the legitimation of their rule and the social control of their subjects.
www.iep.utm.edu /c/confuciu.htm   (4364 words)

 Arts of Asia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
BCE a follower of Confucius named Dong Zhong Shu provides an overarching cosmological framework for its moral philosophy (drawing from other school of thoughts):
The emperor acts as link between heaven and hearth (the emperor rules with mandate of heaven, thus if an emperor is overthrown it is because he lost the mandate of heaven).
In 136 BCE during the Han dynasty an exam system that tested one’s knowledge of the Confucian classics was set up in order to provide access to the bureaucratic structure (Power can be acquired through knowledge and not exclusively through birth).
www.temple.edu /Art_History_India/16-arts-asia/h-12-zhou-qin.htm   (554 words)

 China Institute Programs for Educators
The first ruler of Qin established the title that we refer to in English as "emperor." In theory, the power of a Chinese emperor was absolute; in reality, however, he was subject to various checks on his authority by both high officials and members of the imperial family.
During the first millenium BCE, the concept of the "Mandate of Heaven" was applied to the ruler: If an emperor oppressed the people, Heaven could withdraw a dynasty's right to govern.
The multi-state system that preceded the unification of China in 221 BCE encouraged people to assert separate ethnic identities as well as to display cultural allegiance to the so-called "Central States" along the Yellow River valley in the north.
www.chinainstitute.org /educators/curriculum/han/comparative.html   (1934 words)

 Tales of Emperor Qin Shihuang (Insights into Chinese History)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
He was born in 259 B.C. and became king of the state of Qin at the age of 13.
In 221 B.C. he established the Qin Dynasty, the first centralized and unified regime in the history of China.
Emperor Qin Shihuang ended the Warring States period of China in 221 BCE by defeating, one by one, the armies of the various rulers of those states.
www.enotalone.com /books/711902101X.html   (589 words)

 Ancient Chinese and Mediterranean Empires
BCE), and was subsequently accelerated by the conquests of Alexander the Great (334-330 BCE), followed by the creation of Hellenistic successor states to the Persian empire (3rd to 1st c.
BCE, the Mediterranean had come to consist of five principal warring states (Rome, Carthage, Macedon, the Seleucid empire, and Egypt) surrounded by a few smaller polities (such as Syracuse and Pergamon) and an otherwise largely tribal periphery.
Rapid unification was brought about by the Qin state (221-210 BCE) which soon turned into the Han empire (206 BCE to 220 CE), and then continued expansion into its tribal periphery (in the 2nd and 1st c.
www.stanford.edu /~scheidel/acme.htm   (3228 words)

 [No title]
The name Confucius is a Latinized version of Kong Fuzi, meaning Master Kong.?Kong Qiu (551-479 BCE) taught a system of moral wisdom that would become a predominant social force in China, from the second-century BCE until the mid-twentieth-century BCE.
Better known in China as “Master Meng” (Chinese: Mengzi), Mencius was a fourth-century BCE Chinese thinker whose importance in the Confucian tradition is second only to that of Confucius himself.
Obscure historical allegories, discussing events from the Warring States Period (475-221 BCE) and the subsequent founding of the (first Chinese) Qin dynasty (221-207 BCE), were used to support the Gang of Four (which sympathized with the Legalist philosophers).
www.lycos.com /info/confucius--china-park.html?page=2   (596 words)

 "Transcendental...."   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
3,000 BCE -- Legendary founding of Chinese civilization by Huangdi, the Yellow Emperor, who invented mathematics, medicine, and agriculture, and used his knowledge to unite China's tribes.
1900 BCE -- Destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah by earthquake and subterranean fires; geological evidence.
922-722 BCE -- Prophets Elijah, Elisha, Jonah, Amos and Hosea preach against idol worship and social injustice in northern Israel.
www.stoertz.org /discourses/prehistoric.html   (5730 words)

 Chronology of Asian maritime history
C11th BCE: After collapse of the Shang dynasty, Chinese general You Houxi led 250,000 troops to the South Pacific and the Americas.
C4th BCE: A lodestone compass was mentioned in the Chinese Book of the Devil Valley Master, 'they carry a south-pointer with them so as not to lose their way'.
C1st BCE: A blue glass bowl excavated in a Han tomb in Guangzhou is probably Roman, made on the southern shores of the Mediterranean in the C1st BCE.
www.maritimeasia.ws /topic/chronology.html   (14225 words)

 CNN.com - China 'had express post' in 221 BC - August 2, 2002
BEIJING, China -- China had an express postal service as long ago as 221 BC according to archaeologists studying recently discovered Imperial documents, state media reported Friday.
The revelation is the latest discovery by archaeologists studying the contents of a Qin Dynasty (221- 207 BC) archive found in a disused well in the southern province of Hunan.
The archive, written on some 20,000 slips of bamboo, has already given important clues about the evolution of China's writing system and could prove to be one of the most important archaeological discoveries of the past century, experts say.
asia.cnn.com /2002/WORLD/asiapcf/east/08/02/china.archaeology/index.html   (372 words)

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