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Topic: 3500 BCE


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In the News (Fri 18 Apr 14)

  
  Science Timeline
In the second millenium bce, in the Rig-Veda it was maintained the Earth was a globe and in the Yajur-Veda that the Earth circled the Sun.
About 510 bce, Almaeon of Crotona, a member of the Pythagorean medical circle, located the seat of perception in the brain, or enkephalos, and maintained that there were passages connecting the senses to the brain, a position he was said to have arrived at by dissections of the optic nerve.
About 330 bce, Heraclides of Pontus said that the earth turns daily on its axis "while the heavenly things were at rest..., considered the cosmos to be infinite..., [and] with the Pythagoreans, considered each planet to be a world with an earth-like body and with an atmosphere" (Dreyer 1906:123-125).
www.sciencetimeline.net /prehistory.htm   (6591 words)

  
 whymeso
Around 1350 BCE, however, it is clear that the kingdom of Mitanni collapsed under increasing pressure from the Hittites to the West.
On his death in 668 BCE, Esarhaddon was succeeded by his son Ashurbanipal, who, though faced with trouble in Babylonia and Egypt, boasts of a peaceful and prosperous reign, allowing the king time to learn to read and write as well as engage in the royal sport of lion hunting.
In 539 BCE, the armies of the Persian king Cyrus (a member of the Achaemenid family) marched upon Babylon and captured the city and with it all the Neo-Babylonian Empire.
www.angelfire.com /tx/gatestobabylon/whymeso.html   (2938 words)

  
 Ancient 3500BCE to 587 BCE, Ted Thornton, NMH, Northfield Mount Hermon
The earliest texts, in cuneiform, date to the eighteenth century B.C.E. This epic constitutes perhaps the first literary example of a human being grappling with the problem of death.
Ramses II is traditionally regarded as the pharaoh of the biblical account of Moses and the Hebrews in Egypt, although this is disputed.
During the eleventh century B.C.E., the camel was introduced into Palestine and Syria by the invading Midianites, as mentioned in Judges 6:5.
www.nmhschool.org /tthornton/mehistorydatabase/period_3500bce_to_587_bce.htm   (2623 words)

  
 Earliest Clocks
Obelisks (slender, tapering, four-sided monuments) were built as early as 3500 BCE.
The hemicycle, said to have been invented about 300 BCE, removed the useless half of the hemisphere to give an appearance of a half-bowl cut into the edge of a squared block.
One of the oldest was found in the tomb of the Egyptian pharaoh Amenhotep I, buried around 1500 BCE.
physics.nist.gov /GenInt/Time/early.html   (1039 words)

  
 The Americas, Southeast Asia and Oceania, to 1000 BCE
Between the years 5000 and 3500 BCE, these people grew beans and an early variety of corn, which, with their squash, amounted to about ten percent of their food, the rest of their food having been acquired through hunting, fishing and gathering plants.
Also by 2500 BCE, people in a narrow strip of lowland along the coast of Peru were weaving cotton into textiles and eating fish, shellfish, sea mammals, beans and squash.
It was around 2000 BCE, give or take a century or two, that people who were ancestral to today's Malays began migrating across the ocean from the Asian mainland to what are called Indonesian islands, bringing with them the cultivation of rice and domesticated animals.
www.fsmitha.com /h1/ch29a.htm   (1633 words)

  
 New Page 1
3500 BCE-600 CE), the spread of Islam (622 CE-eighteenth century), and the impact of the west (nineteenth century-present).
3500-3000 BCE, the valley between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in Mesopotamia saw the development of one of the earliest civilizations known to man. In this fertile area, known as “the cradle of civilizations,” lived the Sumerians.
In 1000 BCE David, king of Judeah, established Jerusalem as the center of the religion and built a temple there.
www.wjh.harvard.edu /~mideast/souk/history   (3259 words)

  
 EAWC: The Complete Chronology   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-28)
Most begin their political histories as monarchies, evolve to oligarchies, are overthrown during the age of the tyrants (650-500 BCE) and eventually establish democracies in the sixth and fifth centuries.
He is condemned to death in 399 BCE on the charges of corrupting the youth and introducing new gods into Greek thought.
Both Epicurus (342-270 BCE) and Zeno, the Stoic (not to be confused with Zeno of Elea), believe in an individualistic and materialistic philosophy.
eawc.evansville.edu /chronology/index2.htm   (6231 words)

  
 Ancient Africa and Egypt
Between 9000 and 4000 BCE, northern Africa and the Sahara were grass and woodland with an abundance of rainfall, rivers, lakes, fish and other aquatic life.
By 1000 BCE, people in western Africa would be clearing portions of tropical forest with stone axes and planting yams, harvesting fruits and palm nuts and keeping goats.
From sometime around 3500 BCE the Egyptians began building a system of dikes and sluices, and around this time Egypt began growing food in greater abundance than elsewhere in Africa.
www.fsmitha.com /h1/ch02.htm   (3998 words)

  
 ArtLex on Mesopotamian art
About 3500 BCE, the rivers having flooded every year, people were building dams and growing increasing quantities of food in the area's rich soil.
The massive and highly stylized bird is shown with a plump body and flaring tail, and easily transcends its original and somewhat prosaic function.
Medes, the land she came from was green, rugged and mountainous, and she found the flat, sun-baked terrain of Mesopotamia depressing, so the king decided to recreate her homeland by building an artificial mountain with rooftop gardens.
www.artlex.com /ArtLex/m/mesopotamian.html   (1990 words)

  
 THE BIBLICAL FLOOD
In his detailed and very interesting discussion, Reade concludes that the Mesopotamian chronology for the period 2500-1500 BCE is ”distorted,” and he argues for ”much lower chronologies than are usually cited for this period.” He also demonstrates that such a lowering of the chronology is supported by recent tree-ring studies.
That an enormous Flood, at present dated by geologists to approximately 3500 BC, drowned the plain of Mesopotamia and swept away the pre-Sumerian Ubaid civilization seems now to have been clearly established by geological and geomorphological research performed in the 1960’s and 1970’s in Mesopotamia and the Persian Gulf area.
3500 BCE] and not resettled, although some may have had limited and ephemeral occupation extending into what may be termed the Early Bronze IA (EB IA).” – M. Burton and T. Levy, ”The Chalcolithic Radiocarbon Record and its Use in Southern Levantine Archaeology,” Radiocarbon, Vol.
user.tninet.se /~oof408u/fkf/english/flood.htm   (3882 words)

  
 ..:: LES DRUIDES DU QUéBEC /|\ ::..
In 390 BCE the Celts resume their expansion over Europe by invading Central Italy, where in 387 BCE, allied with Etruscans, they destroy the Roman army, capture and plunder Rome.
And in 187 BCE, the last heir of the Asokan dynasty was killed by one of his commanders.
Weakened by its isolation, Galatia became in the 2nd century BCE, the protectorate of the Pontic kingdom, and by the next century, became a province of Rome.
www.angelfire.com /folk/boutios/timeline.html   (3530 words)

  
 U.C. Berkeley History of Art   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-28)
Its earliest urban centers appeared by 3500 BCE in the region of modern-day Iraq, Iran, and Syria.
This course explores the art and architecture in terms of the social, political and cultural context of ancient Sumer, Babylonia and Assyria during the early period of urbanization and kingship.
It provides an integrated picture of the arts of Mesopotamia and neighboring regions from 3500 to 1000 BCE with an emphasis on the development of visual narrative, the use of art in the expression of authority and legitimacy, and artistic interconnections between cultures.
ls.berkeley.edu /dept/arthistory/classc120afa06.html   (139 words)

  
 From Gutenberg to the Internet: Timeline 3500 BCE to 2001 BCE
Circa 3000 B.C.E. The earliest map of the moon is carved on the passage tomb at Knowth in Ireland, built by men who had "a sophisticated understanding of the motions of the Sun, Moon and stars."
Circa 2600 B.C.E. A weight system developed in India about this time is the earliest known physical use of a decimal system of fractions: 1/20, 1/10, 1/5, 1/2 and negative numbers.
They are mostly inscriptions on the walls of tombs in pyramids, depicting the Egyptain view of the afterlife, and the ascent into the sky of the after death.
historyofmedicine.com /G2I/docs/timeline/timeline_3500BCE_2001BCE.shtml   (1360 words)

  
 Mesopotamia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-28)
It is uncertain whether the Sumerians were native to Mesopotamia or if they migrated into the region from the east or south sometime after 4000 BCE.
Damiq-ilishu (1816 to 1794 BCE) ruled as the last king of Isin.
Naplanum was king of Larsa from 2025 to 2005 BCE, but it was Samium (1976 to 1942 BCE) who established Larsa as a rival power to Isin.
www.b17.com /family/lwp/places/mesopotamia.html   (1331 words)

  
 Life Beyond the Tomb: Modern research
The traditional view was that it began with the preservation of Old Kingdom royals about 2600 BCE and developed from the observation of bodies that had been naturally preserved in hot desert sands.
Recent excavations of 'working class' burials at Hierakonpolis in Upper Egypt (dating to 3500 BCE) by the Hierakonpolis Expedition, under the direction of Dr Renée Friedman, show that a variety of complex burial practices were occurring at this time, including extracting the internal organs in a ritual fashion and wrapping specific parts of the body.
This is flax yarn, heavily soaked with resin, from a linen shroud found in a grave at one of the earliest Predynastic cemeteries.
www.amonline.net.au /life/embalmers/modern-research.cfm   (738 words)

  
 History of Music - The Method Behind the Music   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-28)
It is known that by 4000 BCE the Egyptians had created harps and flutes, and by 3500 BCE lyres and double-reeded clarinets had been developed.
This was a great step; the use of frets to change the pitch of a vibrating string would lead to later instruments such as the violin and harpsichord.
In 800 BCE the first recovered piece of recorded music was found.
www.numbera.com /musictheory/history/history.aspx   (860 words)

  
 4th millennium BC - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
4000 BC - 3500 BC - Figures of a man and a woman, from Cernavoda, Romania, were made.
3500 BC - 3400 BC - Jar from Hierakonpolis (today in the Brooklyn Museum) was created.
3500 BC - 2800 BC; First cities developed in Southern Mesopotamia.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/4th_millennium_BC   (859 words)

  
 Sandia National Laboratories: Features: National Engineering Week : Megoliths to Micromachines
About 4000 BCE, “British” engineers used the expansion of heated water, together with hammers, levers, wedges, ropes, and rollers, to quarry and move enormous megaliths to Stonehenge and Avebury.
As timekeeping devices were combined with the compass (220 BCE), astrolabe (225 BCE), and sextant (17th century), eventually overcoming the problem of longitude (1764), profound changes in our understanding of the world were made possible.
The abacus (400 BCE), in conjunction with Napier’s logarithms (1614), and Babbage’s “Analytical Engine” (1837), led to ciphering machines and eventually the computer, first applied to cryptanalysis and in the development of nuclear weapons.
www.sandia.gov /news-center/features/natl_engr_wk_mego-micro.html   (1013 words)

  
 I. Perspective
Compare that to Sumerian mythology, with events speculated anywhere from 3500 BCE (first recorded) to approximately 2000 BCE -- another 1500 year span.
Sumerian culture is believed to have existed at least since the end of the fifth millennium, pushing the social consciousness of mythological events depicted therein to a conservative 4000 BCE.
Of course, the Sumerian civilization, itself, ceased to exist sometime around the turn of the second century BCE, at which time significant alterations were made to an already extant Sumerian mythology.
home.nycap.rr.com /foxmob/sumer_pantheon01.htm   (1216 words)

  
 Mesopotamia
The most important ancient civilizations in the region were first the Sumerian (3500 BCE- 2000 BCE), the Babylonian (18th century BCE- 539 BCE) and Assyrian (1350 BCE- 612 BCE).
During the last two millenniums the Muslim Abbasids must be considered as the strongest rulers of Mesopotamia, both in might and in cultural achievements.
Around 3500: City-states in southern Mesopotamia develop, and form the culture we call Sumer.
lexicorient.com /e.o/mesopotamia.htm   (968 words)

  
 Women's Studies at SCSU
Inanna was one of the primary deities of Sumer, a civilization that flourished from around 3500 BCE to 2500 BCE.
She was known as the queen of the land, the source of the earth's life blood.
Ishtar was the great goddess of Babylonia, a civilization located in the south of present-day Iraq from around 1800 to 1000 BCE.
www.southernct.edu /womensstudies/masters/trigod.htm   (187 words)

  
 Arts & Crafts Gallery, LLC BY APPOINTMENT ONLY - CHINA JADE
China, Hong Shan Culture, 3500 BCE, Coiled Zhulong ("C Dragon"), green and yellowjade, H: 2.87" H: 2.25" W, examined and approved by Mr.
China, Hong Shan Culture, 3500 BCE, Ox God, dark green jade with iron deposits, H: 3" W: 1", examined and approved by Mr.
China, Hong Shan Culture, 3500 BCE, Giant Bird with Spread Wings,, iron stained green jade, H: 5.6" W:5.2" examined and approved by Mr.
www.artscraftsgal.com /level.itml/icOid/864   (1058 words)

  
 digNubia
As the river gradually moved westward between 5000 and 3500 BCE, the settlers moved with it.
About 3200 BCE a king of Upper Egypt conquered Lower Egypt and united 600 miles of the Nile Valley from Aswan to the Mediterranean Sea.
In 667 BCE the Assyrians (from the region of modern Iraq) invaded Egypt and captured Memphis.
www.dignubia.org /maps/timeline/timeline_axx.php   (2067 words)

  
 Online Study Guide
Evidence of a sophisticated civilization begins to appear on the banks of the Nile around 3500 BCE.
Among the earliest historical examples of Egyptian art are a wall painting that appears to record funerary practices, and a ceremonial stone palette carved on both sides, with scenes in relief commemorating the unification of Egypt.
But tantalizing remains from around 3500 BCE attest to the existence of a sophisticated civilization on the banks of the Nile.
www.wadsworth.com /art_d/templates/student_resources/0155050907_kleiner/studyguide/ch03/ch03_2.html   (535 words)

  
 index_bce_500back
in Iraq, is the home of a major, literate bronze-age civilization (c.3500 BCE onward) that becomes a vital resource for its trading partners in the Indus Valley (*British Museum*).
(c.3000-1750 BCE): This major, widespread bronze-age civilization (*wiki*) remained unknown for centuries, and was rediscovered only by accident in the 1860's, during railroad construction in the Punjab; work on it began only in the 1920's.
(from c.518 BCE to Alexander's arrival): much of what is now western Pakistan becomes the eastern border area of the Achaemenid emperor Darius the Great's (r.528-486 BCE) kingdom (*livius*).
www.columbia.edu /itc/mealac/pritchett/00routes/bce_500back/index_bce_500back.html   (824 words)

  
 AH 370/EA 355 Arts of China: #1 Neolithic China
The early phase is represented by the Banpo site, whose remains date to the early 5th millennium BCE.
Pottery made in a great variety of intricate shapes and in several types of ware, including thin-walled, fl-burnished ritual vessels.
Many Chinese archaeologists identify the Xia with remains at Erlitou (see Study Sheet #2) and date it to ca.
www.wisc.edu /arth/ah370/ah370s1.html   (443 words)

  
 Primitive Civilizations   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-28)
Kathleen M. Kenyon, director of the British School of Archeaology, led and expedition to excavate the mound at Tall As-Sultan from 1952 to 1958; this mound has been identified as Jericho.
Jericho is as yet, the oldest city found, its earliest occupation is dated to about 9000 BCE.
Jericho possessed an advanced civilization for its period of time; by 8000 BCE Jericho had stone walls and towers even though the inhabitants were still a Neolithic culture: pottery doesn't appear in Jericho until about 5000 BCE.(1)
members.tripod.com /gary_19570/id8.html   (1202 words)

  
 Earliest Clocks
The hemicycle, said to have been invented about 300 BCE, removed the useless half of the hemisphere to give an appearance of a half-bowl cut into the edge of a squared block.
One of the oldest was found in the tomb of the Egyptian pharaoh Amenhotep I, buried around 1500 BCE.
More elaborate and impressive mechanized water clocks were developed between 100 BCE and 500 CE by Greek and Roman horologists and astronomers.
www.physics.nist.gov /GenInt/Time/early.html   (1039 words)

  
 Essay   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-28)
Others are in doubt due to the question of the extent of that flood, whether or not it was a global flood affecting the entire planet.
In his detailed and very interesting discussion, Reade states that the Mesopotamian chronology for the period 2500-1500 BCE is ”distorted,” and he argues for ”much lower chronologies than are usually cited for this period.” He also demonstrates that such a lowering of the chronology is also supported by recent tree-ring studies.
THE MESOPOTAMIAN FLOOD OF C. That an enormous Flood, at present dated by geologists to approximately 3500 BC, drowned the plain of Mesopotamia and swept away the pre-Sumerian Ubaid civilization seems now to have been clearly established by geological and geomorphological research performed in the 1960’s and 1970’s in Mesopotamia and the Persian Gulf area.
www.commentarypress.com /essay-flood.html   (6035 words)

  
 The Civilizations of Africa
With his focus on precolonial Africa, Christopher Ehret provides in The Civilizations of Africa: A History to 1800 a remarkably complete and original overview of African history during the long periods sparsely covered in most other general histories of the continent.
He examines African inventions and civilizations from 16,000 BCE to 1800 CE from the northern tip of Tunisia to the Cape of Good Hope in the south.
Sahara, Sudan, and the Horn of Africa, 3500–1000 BCE
www.upress.virginia.edu /books/ehret2.html   (632 words)

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