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Topic: 3rd millennium BCE

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  3rd millennium BC - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The 3rd millennium BC represents the beginning of factual history, since it is the first time we do have real names to name and detailed stories to tell.
The 3rd millennium BC saw the first explosive appearances of mega architecture, imperialism, organized absolutism and… revolution.
Also by the end of the millennium, out of general exhaustion the Sumerians had finally learned the necessity of unifying and settling down into a stable form of national government, a relatively peaceful, well-organized, complex technocratic state called the 3rd dynasty of Ur.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/3rd_millennium_BC   (721 words)

 3rd millennium - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The third millennium is the third period of one thousand years in the Common Era.
September 11, 2001 attacks are one of the few events of the progressing 3rd Millennium that have had significant and polarizing effects on international affairs and relations.
Some millennialists and Christian anarchists predict the third millennium will be the millennium of peace, when mankind finally learns to live in harmony with each other and nature.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/3rd_millennium   (239 words)

 3rd millennium -- Facts, Info, and Encyclopedia article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-21)
The third millennium is the third period of one thousand years in the (The time period beginning with the supposed year of Christ's birth) Common Era.
The majority of the celebrations for the start of the third millennium occurred at (12 o'clock at night; the middle of the night) midnight on December 31 1999 / January 1 2000.
It's too early in this millennium to have enough perspective to see which of the events that have occurred so far will be considered sufficiently notable to rank as major events of the millennium, if any.
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/3/3r/3rd_millennium.htm   (322 words)

 Ancient Arad
On the summit of this hill, several fortresses were built in the period of the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah (10th-6th centuries BCE) and also later, during the Persian, Hellenistic and Roman periods (5th century BCE to 4th century CE).
Arad declined and was abandoned in the middle of the 3rd millennium BCE.
During the period of the kingdoms of Israel and Judah (10th-6th centuries BCE), successive citadels were built on the hill of Arad as part of a series of fortifications protecting the trade routes in the Negev and the southern border of the kingdom against marauding nomads.
www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org /jsource/Archaeology/arad.html   (2003 words)

 General Essay on Chinese Religions   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-21)
Tradition speaks of the origins of Chinese culture lying in the 3rd millennium BCE with the Hsia dynasty.
The religion of the Shang was principally characterised by the use of oracle bones for divination and the development of the cult of ancestors.
Although during the 4th century Mohism was strong enough to rival Confucianism, it went into decline in the 3rd century, and by the time of the unification of China in 221 had virtually disappeared.
philtar.ucsm.ac.uk /encyclopedia/china/geness.html   (2739 words)

 Semitic Museum - Nuzi - Yorghan Tepe (NF)
Early 2nd Millennium BCE: Belonging to this period are a jar decorated with triangles and horizontal bands, an example of Habur Ware, and a bird-shaped vessel.
Late 4th Millennium BCE: This period is represented by a beveled-rim bowl, characteristic of the Late Uruk Period, and by stamp seals.
The jar and bottle are typical of the Akkadian period (late 3rd millennium BCE) in Mesopotamia.
www.fas.harvard.edu /~semitic/hsm/NFNuziRest.htm   (539 words)

The Late Bronze Age (second half of the 2nd millennium BCE) is represented by a wealth of finds, many imported from the Aegean islands, Cyprus and Egypt, from both within the city and in tombs.
At the beginning of the 10th century BCE, Gezer was conquered and burned by an Egyptian pharaoh (probably Siamun), who gave it to King Solomon as the dowry of his daughter.
The conquest of Gezer by the Assyrian ruler Tiglath Pileser in 733 BCE is depicted in a stone relief found in the ruins of the palace of the kings of Assyria at Nimrud in Mesopotamia.
www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org /jsource/Archaeology/Gezer.html   (1757 words)

 Armenia’s Cradle of Civilization: MokhraBlur, AdaBlur and Metsamor   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-21)
millennium bce) of the excavation wall a perfume flask, the bottom of a large earthen hearth, and pieces of a beautiful green stone the inhabitants used to create jewelry from.
millennium bce) there was a surge of urban growth and a development of complex architectural forms which extended the boundaries of the settlement to the area below the hill.
millennium bce) and it use in the study of the cosmos.
www.tacentral.com /tourarmenia/history_thecradle.html   (8570 words)

 Pre-Classical Religion   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-21)
Chinese tradition regards the origins of Chinese culture to lie in the final centuries of the 3rd millennium BCE with the Hsia dynasty.
Under the Chou the ritualistic and ethical basis of Chinese religion was refined so that the people and state received the necessary blessings of the deities and ancestors.
This ritual would be important in the development of Confucianism in the second half of the first millennium BCE.
philtar.ucsm.ac.uk /encyclopedia/china/preclass.html   (778 words)

 Olympia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-21)
The Gymnasium, located to the northwest of the Altis, is a 2nd century BCE building that consists of an open area surrounded by stoas on all four sides.
The Palaestra, erected during the 3rd century BCE, was used for the practice of wrestling, boxing and long jumping.
The Greek Baths were built in the 5th century BCE and modified in later periods.
www.grisel.net /olympia.htm   (1403 words)

 Megiddo - The Solomonic Chariot City
A village had been established on the hill of Megiddo at the end of the 6th millennium BCE, but the first fortified urban settlement, remains of which were uncovered on bedrock in the eastern part of the tel, dates from the beginning of the 3rd millennium BCE.
Towards the end of the 2nd millennium BCE, a new Canaanite temple was built on the ruins of its predecessors; it had especially thick walls and included a small cultic chamber with two towers protecting its façade.
Toward the middle of the 2nd millennium, a new gate of unusually large dimensions, built of large ashlars on trimmed basalt foundations, was built in the city's northern wall.
www.us-israel.org /jsource/Archaeology/Megiddo.html   (2002 words)

 Canaan & Ancient Israel @ University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology
The simple phonetic alphabet enabled the spread of literacy to the masses, rather than keeping it in the hands of the educated scribes.
The cuneiform script was first developed by the Sumerians, but in the 3rd millennium BCE the Akkadians began using the script to write their language.
Unlike cuneiform, however, the hieroglyphic pictographs were never stylized into linear symbols and use of hieroglyphics continued until the late 1st millennium BCE.
www.museum.upenn.edu /Canaan/Writing.html   (601 words)

 History of Dharma   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-21)
These documents are a triumph of the Hindu thought demonstrating the dynamism of the tenets of Dharma and the ability of the Hindu to adapt in the face of external influences and internal compulsions.
millennium BCE) to honour the cremated remains of the dead.
Another extraordinary perception of divinity is noted by archaeological discoveries of terracotta images of women with extraordinary head-dresses (some with hollow oil-lamps held on either side of the head-dress, apparenty used with wicks to light an eternal flame, in a recess on the wall – as a pu_ja_ space).
www.hindunet.org /saraswati/dharma/history1.htm   (2271 words)

 11. Intro Sumerian Kinglist   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-21)
Around 2500 BCE: King Lugalanemundu of Adab extends Sumer to cover the area from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean Sea, bordering the Taurus mountains in the north, and the Zagros mountains in the east.
Most of the finds belong to the 3rd millennium BC, from the Early Dynastic, Akkad and Ur III periods, and include a large number of cuneiform tablets and many fine statues of Gudea, who was governor of Lagash in the 22nd century BC.
Before the beginning of the 2d millennium BCE the Amorites, Semitic nomads from the desert to the west of Sumer and Akkad, invaded the kingdom.
www.earth-history.com /Earth-11.htm   (9893 words)

Two cultural groups formed the principle elements in the population of Mesopotamia before the beginning of history and in the millennium thereafter (the 3rd millennium BCE - c.2350-2200 BCE).
We don't hear much about them in the first part of the 3rd millennium, because the (scholarly) language used in writing is Sumerian.
Deciphered in the 1850s, Akkadian is the medium of innumerable documents from daily life as well as a vast literature, including the famous Epic of Gilgamesh, the quest of a man for eternal life.
www.crystalinks.com /akkadia.html   (659 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-21)
However, just as clearly attested in Near Eastern documents of the second millennium BCE, chariots were used in warfare on favorable terrain (but certainly not while crossing mountainous territory!);[N.192] and, the texts frequently refer to their use in sport.
Mughal proposes that the Hakra was a perennial river in the 4th and early 3rd millennium BCE and that it had dried up about the end of the second.[N.205] Other dates range from 2500-2200 BCE to 2200-1700 BCE, and Francfort (1985 sqq.) thinks of a much earlier period.
The text is probably to be dated in the late second millennium (Pingree 1998), thus earlier than ZB but much closer to it than the supposed date of the kRttikA observation in the third millennium.
users.primushost.com /~india/ejvs/ejvs0703/ejvs0703d.txt   (9691 words)

 The Origin Of The Zodiac
The formal scheme of Babylonian constellations was established early in the 2nd millennium BCE to mark 3 equatorially-centred stellar paths.
Circa the 5th-century BCE the Babylonian skywatchers needed a suitable frame of reference to indicate the positions of the Moon and the planets between the stars along the path of the ecliptic.
Circa 420 BCE the Babylonians substituted the original 12 constellations forming the zodiacal scheme with a sidereal scheme of twelve equal divisions of the ecliptic comprising 30º segments.
members.optusnet.com.au /~gtosiris/page9a.html   (3119 words)

The extend of the Sumerian culture in the 3rd millennium was not known, but not expected to go so far west.
Ebla is situated at Tell Mardikh 65 km south of Aleppo in Syria and appeared to be an urban culture in the middle of the 3rd millennium in the far west of Mesopotamia.
From ~2600-2350 BCE a good deal of Sumerian literacy and school tradition had been assimilated by Ebla scribes and in addition they used cuneiform for their own language.
home.swipnet.se /~w-63448/mesopotam.htm   (4765 words)

 Timna: Valley of the Ancient Copper Mines
Already in the Chalcolithic period (4th millennium BCE), iron ore (available in Timna) was added as flux to the smelting charge of copper ore and charcoal, which greatly improved the smelting.
The temple was badly damaged by earthquake and rebuilt during the reign of Pharaoh Ramses II (1304-1237 BCE), with an enlarged courtyard (10 x 9 m.) and a new, solid white floor.
With the decline of Egyptian control of the region in the middle of the 12th century BCE, the mines at Timna and the Hathor temple were abandoned.
www.us-israel.org /jsource/Archaeology/timna.html   (1363 words)

As de Cardi and others noted, similar ceramics had been found in 3rd millennium BCE graves at Umm an-Nar (Omm-al-Na@r) in the emirate of Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates) and, in a context dated to the late 3rd or early 2nd millennium BCE (ca.
Because the chronology of Bampur was disputed in the late 1960s and early 1970s, with some scholars favoring a 'high' chronology beginning in the mid-4th and ending in the mid-3rd millennium BCE, and others favoring a 'low' chronology extending from the mid-3rd to the very early 2nd millennium BCE (summarized in Potts, 2003, pp.
This is consistent with the presence of fl-on-gray ware in graves on Umm an-Nar island (Frifelt, pp.
www.iranica.com /articles/ot_grp5/ot_bampur_20041116.html   (873 words)

So says a 3rd millennium BCE text, "Counsels of Wisdom," (1) a sort of Ann Landers column from the Mesopotamian (Iraqi) land of Akkad.
There is no single collection of Bronze Age (3rd and 2nd millenniums BCE) moral principles, but the concerns of pre-Biblical peoples are scattered throughout their literature.
A 15th-14th century BCE Mesopotamian town complains to a king about a gang of corrupt officials (including the mayor) committing various acts of theft, assault and battery, adultery (or rape), and kidnapping.
nosha.secularhumanism.net /essays/sierichs6.html   (3904 words)

 Read about 3rd millennium BC at WorldVillage Encyclopedia. Research 3rd millennium BC and learn about 3rd millennium BC ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-21)
Read about 3rd millennium BC at WorldVillage Encyclopedia.
Research 3rd millennium BC and learn about 3rd millennium BC here!
(4th millennium BC – 3rd millennium BC –
encyclopedia.worldvillage.com /s/b/3rd_millennium_BC   (128 words)

A Mesopotamian text of the 2d millennium BCE has the flood at a city called Shuruppak in Sumer, its king, called Ziusudra (also called Atrahasis and Utnapishtim) is warned by his god Enki to build a boat and save himself, family and animals.
Factoring this in with Roaf's, Pollock's and Leick's observation that in the 4th milllennium BCE the Euphrates split from the Tigris, we have four streams crossing the floodplain in antiquity.
The 4th/3rd millennium BCE recollection of the Euphrates having four streams was transformed in the 7th/6th century BCE into a river in Cush/Sudan and a river in the gold fields of Arabia, the Wadi Baish of Haulan/Havilah.
www.bibleorigins.net /EdensFourRivers.html   (10947 words)

 The Arabian Gulf
Written records from Sumer dated around 3,000 BCE mention a place called Magan, from where copper was obtained; possibly this was a culture in the southeastern Arabian Peninsula.
From 1,200 BCE on, the Assyrians used this road to connect the trading centre of Susa, in present-day Iran, with the Mediterranean ports of Smyrna and Ephesus, in present-day Turkey.
By the middle of the 6th century BCE the Achaemenians had established an empire which, at its height, stretched throughout the Near East from the Indus valley to Libya, and north to Macedonia.
www.sheikhmohammed.co.ae /english/history/history_gulf.asp   (1451 words)

 Proto-history - wider context
In conventional terms the peak was around 2300 BCE, and in the New Chronology interpretation about one or two centuries later.
The city was destroyed by a Mesopotamian ruler called Naram-Sin around 2250 BCE using conventional dating, and around 2000 BCE in New Chronology terms.
The tablet archive therefore dates from the closing century of the 3rd millennium in NC terms.
www.oldtestamentstudies.net /chron/protohistorycontext.htm   (833 words)

 World Civilizations   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-21)
millennium BCE that describes the heroic feats of Gilgamesh, king of the Mesopotamian city of Uruk.
The poem seems to have evolved between 1100 and 750 BCE, and to have been passed on orally from generation to generation, before finally being written down at some point after the introduction of an alphabetic script into the Greek world.
The Bhagavad Gita is a poem that was composed in India at some point between 400 BCE and 400 CE, most likely between 400 and 200 BCE, and stands as part of a much larger poem, the Mahabharata, the great epic tale of the war waged between opposing factions of the Bharata clan.
wings.buffalo.edu /courses/fa00/ugc/111d/guides   (2419 words)

 Afghanistan: Historical background   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-21)
By the 3rd millennium BCE a tradition of monumental building was already well established and in subsequent millennia fortified towns with citadels surrounded by massive outer defensive walls appeared in strategic locations throughout the country.
Hellenistic architecture arrived with the conquest of Alexander the Great in 329-325 BCE; the remains of a Greek city founded soon after Alexander’s conquest have been excavated at Ai Khanoum on the northern border with Tajikistan.
However, by far the best-known Buddhist site in Afghanistan is at Bamyan in the central Hindu Kush, where between the 3rd and 6th centuries CE some 600 to 750 artificial caves were carved out of the cliffs on the northern side of the valley.
www.culturalprofiles.org.uk /Afghanistan/Directories/Afghanistan_Cultural_Profile/-671.html   (1107 words)

 ANISTORITON: Archaeology News   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-21)
It was first built in the mid 3rd millennium BCE in a centrally located spot in the Aegean Sea and flourished until the early 2nd millennium BCE.
The total area covered by the settlement in no less than 20 stremmas (5 acres), although its eastern part has submerged in the sea.
Artifacts unearthed prove that there were contacts of the inhabitants with the Cyclades, the North Aegaean Sea islands, mainland Greece, and Troy.
www.anistor.co.hol.gr /english/enback/a012.htm   (205 words)

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