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Topic: 4th century BCE

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 Reference.com/Web Directory/Top/Society/Philosophy/Reference/Internet_Encyclopedia_of_Philosophy
Anaxarchus - 4th century BCE philosopher of Abdera, from the school of Democritus.
Cicero, Marcus Tullius - 1st century BCE Roman orator and philosopher of the New Academy.
Euclides - 4th century BCE native of Megara, and founder of the Megarian or Eristic sect.
www.reference.com /Dir/Society/Philosophy/Reference/Internet_Encyclopedia_of_Philosophy   (2117 words)

  Ancient Districts of Anatolia and Asia Minor   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
In the 7th and 6th centuries BCE the cities of Ionia were involved in a series of wars with the kings of Lydia, to whom Ionia yielded a nominal submission.
Early in the 1st millennium BCE it is believed to have comprised the greater part of the Anatolian Peninsula, but at the time of the Persian invasion in the 6th century BCE it was limited to the districts known as Lesser Phrygia and Greater Phrygia.
On his overthrow in 66 BCE by the Roman general Pompey the Great, the kingdom was divided, the western portion being joined to the province of Bithynia in a Roman province known as Pontus and Bithynia and the eastern region being assigned to native princes.
www.ancientanatolia.com /historical/ancient_districts.htm   (2731 words)

 NationMaster - Encyclopedia: 2nd century BCE   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
The Kingdom of Kuninda was an ancient central Himalayan kingdom from around the 2nd century BCE to the 3rd century, located in the modern state of Uttaranchal in northern India.
One the Edicts of Ashoka on a pillar is also present at Kalsi, in the region of Garhwal, indicating the spread of Buddhism to the region from the 4th century BCE.
Intense westward physical exchange at that time along the Silk Road is confirmed by the Roman craze for silk from the 1st century BCE to the point that the Senate issued, in vain, several edicts to prohibit the wearing of silk, on economic and moral grounds.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/2nd-century-BCE   (346 words)

 Mirago : Society: Philosophy: Reference: Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Caird, Edward - Nineteenth century Scottish philosopher who was one of the key figures of the idealist movement that dominated British philosophy from 1870 until the mid 1920s.
Epictetus - Eminent Stoic philosopher, born as a slave at Hieropolis in Phyrgia in 55 CE.
Pyrrho - 4th century BCE founder of the Greek school of skepticism.
www.mirago.co.uk /scripts/dir.aspx?cat=Top%2fSociety%2fPhilosophy%2fReference%2fInternet_Encyclopedia_of_Philosophy   (2090 words)

 Encyclopedia Mythica: Religions
In the 4th century BCE their influence and territories covered the length of Europe, stretching from Britain to Asia Minor.
The beliefs of Syria and Palestine between 3000 and 300 BCE.
The religion, belonging to the Semitic branch, promulgated by the Prophet Muhammad in Arabia in the 7th century CE.
www.pantheon.org /miscellaneous/religions.html   (1024 words)

 Gezer - A Canaanite City and Royal Solomonic City
In the 14th century BCE, a palace building was constructed on the high western part of the tel, its acropolis.
At the beginning of the 10th century BCE, Gezer was conquered and burned by an Egyptian pharaoh (probably Siamun), who gave it to King Solomon as the dowry of his daughter.
The conquest of Gezer by the Assyrian ruler Tiglath Pileser in 733 BCE is depicted in a stone relief found in the ruins of the palace of the kings of Assyria at Nimrud in Mesopotamia.
www.mfa.gov.il /MFA/History/Early+History+-+Archaeology/Gezer+-+A+Canaanite+City+and+Royal+Solomonic+City.htm?DisplayMode=print   (1753 words)

A central archive in the Metroon was established during the 4th century BCE and lasted for five centuries.
Early in the 4th century BCE, it was moved to the Baths of Diocletian.
In the latter half of the 4th century CE, Pope Damasus I established a library in the church of San Lorenzo.
www.innvista.com /society/education/info/europe.htm   (1323 words)

 Milton: Of Education - Notes
A 4th century BCE Athenian statesman, Demosthenes' oratory is reputed to have aroused Athens to repel Phillip of Macedon and his conquering so, Alexander.
A Greek dramatist of 5th century BCE Athens, Euripides was most famous in Milton's time for his great tragedies, nineteen of which are extant in some form.
Hughes writes about the seventeenth century English war machine: "in armies where colonels often recruited their own regiments it was not unusual for dishonest officers to keep their numbers low in order to embezzle as much of the soldiers' pay as possible" (638).
www.dartmouth.edu /%7Emilton/reading_room/of_education/notes.shtml   (3953 words)

 Velch (Roman Vulci)
By the 6th Century, Vulci had become one of the richest cities of Etruria, and, dominated by a growing aristocracy, it began to expand its influence and territory.
A testament to this phase is found in the saga of Mastarna and his comrades Aulus and Caeles Vibenna, as portrayed in the frescos of the later François tomb.
Tombs from the 6th and 5th centuries BC are generally of the hypogeal type.
www.mysteriousetruscans.com /velch.html   (1272 words)

 4th century BC - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The 4th century BC started on January 1, 400 BC and ended on December 31, 301 BC.
This century marks the height of the Classical Greek civilization in all of its aspects.
With the conquests of Alexander and the civil war of his generals that followed his death the Hellenistic age began.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/4th_century_BCE   (448 words)

 Detail Page
From the mid-2nd century the standardized arms and armor began to be abandoned, and archaeological evidence for military equipment from the 3rd century is very sparse.
It was a descendant of the square breastplate of the 4th century
In the 5th century some are portrayed with knee-length hooded scale or mail shirts that must have weighed 25 to 30 kg (55 to 66 lb), similar in style to those later worn by Norman knights.
www.fofweb.com /Onfiles/Ancient/AncientDetail.asp?iPin=HLAR0264   (1455 words)

1550/1540/1530 BCE to the Egyptians, who are understood to have destroyed it in the course of their conquest of Canaan, upon the heels of the Hyksos expulsion.
After the 14th century, occupation at Jericho is not substantially attested again until the 8th, but principally the 7th century BC...It may well be that this occupation continued until the coming of Nebuchadrezzar's army in the early 6th century BC (cf.
It is unlikely that the Heil the Bethelite narrative was composed in the 8/7th century BCE when the national memory would remember the correct foundation date of the city.
prophetess.lstc.edu /~rklein/Documents/dating.htm   (1555 words)

 NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Buddhist culture and art   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
The history of Buddhism spans from the 6th century BCE to the present, starting with the birth of the Buddha Siddhartha Gautama.
Buddhist art originated in the Indian subcontinent in the centuries following the life of the historical Gautama Buddha in the 6th to 5th century BCE, before evolving through its contact with other cultures and its diffusion through the rest of Asia and the world.
Greco-Buddhist art is the artistic manifestation of Greco-Buddhism, a cultural syncretism between the Classical Greek culture and Buddhism, which developed over a period of close to 1000 years in Central Asia, between the conquests of Alexander the Great in the 4th century...
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Buddhist-culture-and-art   (658 words)

It is said that Laozi was born after an eighty-one-year gestation period and that, having left the city of Luoyi (the capital of the eastern Zhou dynasty), he headed towards the countries of the West on the back of a buffalo in order to spread his doctrine among non-Chinese peoples.
During the 3rd and 4th centuries, Mahayana Buddhism spread throughout China during a period of extreme political instability (the country was first divided into three states and then into two: the north was ruled by foreign dynasties and the south by Chinese dynasties).
From the 4th century onward the Daoist church was rigidly organized into various levels (the lower levels were also occupied by women, who enjoyed relative equality with men).
www.tolerance.kataweb.it /eng/cap_due/uno/religioni/daoismo.html   (895 words)

 Furniture of Ancient Greece
Early Greek chests from the 6th and 7th centuries BCE were made with elongated square posts and roof-like lids.
According to Lucie-Smith (1979), in ancient Greek society from the 7th century BCE to 4th century BCE, there were 5 main types of furniture and little else: stools, couches, small tables, chests, and chairs.
In the 4th and 5th centuries, once the Greeks developed their own style, furniture became less square and rigid and more curved and flowing.
www.richeast.org /htwm/Greek/Furniture.html   (1306 words)

 Golan Heights - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In the 5th century BCE, the region was settled by returning Jewish exiles from Babylonian Captivity (modern Iraq).
In the 4th century BCE, the area came under the control of Alexander the Great and remained under Hellenistic rule until captured by the Romans.
In the 15th and 16th centuries, Druze began to settle the northern Golan and the slopes of Mount Hermon.
www.higiena-system.com /wiki/link-Golan_Heights   (2742 words)

 Confucius (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
Confucius (551-479 BCE), according to Chinese tradition, was a thinker, political figure, educator, and founder of the Ru School of Chinese thought.
century BCE were included by the Han dynasty court historian, Sima Qian (145-c.85 BCE), in his well-known and often-quoted Records of the Grand Historian (Shiji).
century, Mencius says of Confucius: “Ever since man came into this world, there has never been one greater than Confucius.” And in two passages Mencius implies that Confucius was one of the great sage kings who, according to his reckoning, arises every five hundred years.
plato.stanford.edu /entries/confucius   (3624 words)

 Hebrew language information - Search.com
Most linguists agree that after the 6th century BCE when the Neo-Babylonian Empire destroyed Jerusalem and exiled its population to Babylon and the Persian Empire allowed them to return, the Biblical Hebrew dialect prevalent in the Bible came to be replaced in daily use by new dialects of Hebrew and a local version of Aramaic.
After the 2nd century CE when the Roman Empire exiled the Jewish population of Jerusalem and parts of Roman occupied Judea, Hebrew gradually ceased to be a spoken language roughly around 300 CE, but remained a major literary language during the centuries since.
By the end of the 3rd millennium BCE the ancestral Aramaic, Ugaritic and Canaanite languages were spoken in the Levant alongside the influential dialects of Ebla and Akkad.
www.search.com /reference/Hebrew_Language   (5431 words)

 Ancient Scripts: Elamite
From as early as the 8th millenium BCE, clay tokens of different shapes were used to represent commodities such as grain, livestock, alcohol, and manufactured goods for economic record-keeping and transactions.
And like the rest of Mesopotamia, by the late 4th millenium BCE clay tokens were being stored inside bullae, oblong or spherical clay envelopes stamped with seal impressions, which most likely indicated the owners or contents of the tokens inside the envelopes.
Only starting from the 13th century BCE onward did the Elamite language reappear in the archaeological record, but at this point in time the Elamite had borrowed and adapted the cuneiform script to write their language.
www.ancientscripts.com /elamite.html   (1005 words)

 Berlin Exhibition
Most interestingly, it is here in fifth century Athens that we see the first portraits in European history, in the form of bronze or marble busts and full-length statues honoring individuals who had distinguished themselves from society as a whole.
The pioneering portraits of the fifth century are just one example of the way in which Classical art as a whole was definitively centered on the human form.
Displayed here is Polycleitus' famous Doryphoros, or Spear-Bearer, an exquisite example from 450 BCE of the contra posto pose which was to become an archetype for representations of the male nude in later artistic periods-- as illustrated by the Roman copies exhibited alongside the original.
www.helleniccomserve.com /berlin.html   (1796 words)

 Thursday April 5, 2006 Astronomy and Telescopes presents: ODP Search 1078690765   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Anaxarchus - 4th century BCE philosopher of Abdera, from the school of Democritus.
Cicero, Marcus Tullius - 1st century BCE Roman orator and philosopher of the New Academy.
Euclides - 4th century BCE native of Megara, and founder of the Megarian or Eristic sect.
www.kyes-world.com /index238.html   (2760 words)

 Ancient Scripts: Latin
Also, the direction of writing was like Etruscan, either right-to-left, boustrophedon, or even left-to-right for about a hundred years during the 6th century BCE (once again influenced by Etruscan fads).
By the 4th century CE, a semi-cursive style called uncial was being used for handwriting.
However, during the reign of Charles the Great (early 9th century CE) the Carolingian Reform forced the merging of the two styles and the creation of the "dual alphabet".
www.ancientscripts.com /latin.html   (650 words)

 "Animal Style" Art & the Image of the Horse and Rider - (The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies - CAIS)©
From early on in the study of steppe nomads of the first millennium BCE, the important role of the horse was obvious and thus thoroughly examined.
century BCE in the artistic representations on portable objects of the steppe nomads,
century BCE, when the horse and rider became part of the visual vocabulary of the steppe nomads.
www.cais-soas.com /CAIS/Art/animal_style_art.htm   (3278 words)

 Illustrated British History, Prehistoric through the Norman Conquest
century BCE: Coming from Europe, the Celts settled throughout the British isles, either replacing or intermarrying with the earlier people, who left artifacts like Stonehenge (built about two thousand years before the Celtic migration), but no written records.
Illiterate, which means that all literature was composed and passed on orally, probably in the form of song or chant, probably through the Druids.
century BCE: Julius Caesar’s forces conquered the southeast portion; peace was made, which involved the Romans taking hostages and the British sending an annual ransom.
www.tcnj.edu /~graham/earlybritain.html   (1420 words)

She is wearing an earring from Pompeii, 1st century BCE-1st century CE; a Roman ring from the 3rd century CE; and a Roman bracelet from the 1st-2nd century CE.
The image on top of the staff is from a Syrian relief found at the Sanctuary of Hera at Samos, pre-5th century BCE; relief on the throne from a Cycladic relief of Hera as the Great Goddess, 680-70 BCE, Thebes; statue of Hera from Tarentum, Italy, 460 BCE.
She is standing in front of the Gates of Ishtar, Babylonian, 6th century BCE; round image in her right hand is of Ishtar on a lion, 9th - 7th century BCE; statue of Ishtar in her left hand, 1000 BCE; bracelet and earrings, 4th century BCE; Babylonian necklace, 15th century BCE.
www.goddessmyths.com /Erzulie-Lilith.html   (1636 words)

 Museum of Classical Archaeology guidebook   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
It was mainly Hellenistic statues that were admired from the Renaissance till the early 19th century; the High Classical style only became known in modern Europe when in 1807 Lord Elgin removed much of the sculpture of the Parthenon to London.
On the right side of Bay H is the Boy strangling a Goose (no. 371), a copy of a work probably of the late second or early third century, sentimental but with an understanding of the forms of a small child which Classical sculptors would not even have considered attempting.
It was heavily restored by Bernini in the 17th century, so the "rococo" effect may be exaggerated.
www.classics.cam.ac.uk /museum/guidehellen.html   (769 words)

According to the "Homeric Hymn to Demeter" (7th century BCE), when the goddess Demeter was desparetely looking for her daughter (=Kore) Persephone -kidnapped by Aidoneus (Hades)- during her wandering she came to the city Eleusis.
Triptolemos, receiving the seeds from the hands of Demeter, has to teach mankind how to cultivate the fields, while Kore keeps her hand over his head to protect him.This main story is depicted on the great Eleusinian relief (from the half of the 5th century BCE.), exhibited in the Archaeological National Museum in Athens.
The procession of initiates with Kore and Iakchos in front of Demeter on the Ninnion Tablet (from the lst half of the 4th century BCE) in the National Archaeological Museum of Athens is showing many interesting details from the Eleusinian celebration.
www.pantheon.org /articles/e/eleusis.html   (1318 words)

 Crash Course in Jewish History #27 - The Greek Empire
The classical Greek period begins as early as 7th century BCE, though we tend to be more familiar with its history in the 5th century when Greece consists of a group of constantly warring city-states, the most famous being Athens and Sparta.
The late 5th and the 4th century are as eventful for the Greeks as it has for the Jews.
By 331 BCE the Persian Empire was defeated, the Persian Emperor Darius was dead, and Alexander was the undisputed rival of the Mediterranean.
www.aish.com /literacy/jewishhistory/Crash_Course_in_Jewish_History_27_-_The_Greek_Empire.asp   (3074 words)

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