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Topic: Levellers

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In the News (Tue 21 May 19)

  Levellers - LoveToKnow 1911
The germ of the Levelling movement must be sought for among the Agitators, men of strong republican views, and the name Leveller first appears in a letter of the 1st of November 1647, although it was undoubtedly in existence as a nickname before this date (Gardiner, Great Civil War, iii.
Levellers, for they intend to sett all things straight, and rayse a parity and community in the kingdom." The Levellers first became prominent in 1647 during the protracted and unsatisfactory negotiations between the king and the parliament, and while the relations between the latter and the army were very strained.
During the twelve months which immediately preceded the execution of the king the Levellers conducted a lively agitation in favour of the ideas expressed in the Agreement of the people, and in January 1648 Lilburne was arrested for using seditious language at a meeting in London.
www.1911encyclopedia.org /Levellers   (782 words)

THE LEVELLERS: A CHRONOLOGY AND BIBLIOGRAPHY By Roderick Moore The members of the political movement known to history as the Levellers were active for four years in the 1640s, during the English Civil War.
Colonel Thomas Rainsborough (M.P. for Droitwich) emerges as the highest-ranking Leveller sympathiser in the Army.
Levellers present the second Agreement of the People to the General Council of Officers, which rejects it because of proposals for religious toleration.
www.diggers.org /diggers/levellers.htm   (2537 words)

  Statement of the Levellers
The Leveller movement reached its height in the middle of the seventeenth century.
The community amongst the primitive (1) Christians was voluntary, not coactive; they brought their goods and laid them at the Apostles' feet; they were not enjoined to bring them; it was the effect of their charity and heavenly mindedness which the blessed Apostles begat in them, and not the injunctions of any constitution.
We profess that we never had it in our thoughts to level men's estates, (3) it being the utmost of our aims that the commonwealth be reduced to such pass that every man may with as much security as may be enjoy his property.
www.wsu.edu:8080 /~wldciv/world_civ_reader/world_civ_reader_2/levellers.html   (636 words)

 Levellers Historical Information
The Levellers were an informal alliance of agitators and pamphleteers who came together during the English Civil War (1642-1648) to demand constitutional reform and equal rights under the law.
Levellers believed all men were born free and equal and possessed natural rights that resided in the individual, not the government.
In the spirit of John Lilburne, the Levellers, and their radical ideas: levellers.org is born.
www.levellers.org /lev.htm   (476 words)

  The Levellers
They had no special name for themselves; the term "Levellers" was coined by their enemies to imply that they favoured the abolition of property rights and the equalisation of wealth, which they strenuously denied — unlike the Diggers or "True Levellers".
Leveller ideas took hold in the New Model Army in 1647 when Agitators were appointed to lobby Parliament for arrears of pay and to protest at Parliament's plans for disbanding part of the Army and committing the rest to an invasion of Ireland.
Unrest amongst the Levellers in the Army, fanned by opposition to the Council of State's plans for the invasion of Ireland, led to the Leveller mutinies of April and May 1649.
www.british-civil-wars.co.uk /glossary/levellers.htm   (778 words)

  The Levellers
The Levellers were one of the largest factions on the Parliamentarian side during the English Civil War.
The Levellers political ambitions were fundamentally middle-ground, and involved a remodelling of the English political process along the lines of a more egalitarian and less class-driven regime.
Their views were in stark contrast to groups such as The Diggers, also known as The True Levellers led by Gerrard Winstanley[?], which called for a total destruction of the existing order and replacement with a communistic and agrarian lifestyle based around the precepts of the early Christians[?].
www.ebroadcast.com.au /lookup/encyclopedia/le/Leveller.html   (225 words)

 1642-1652: The Diggers and the Levellers | libcom.org   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The Levellers were essentially radical idealists; their demands could be seen as a form of early socialism [they were pretty much the same as the demands of the Chartists some two hundred years later], but they had little or no understanding of the workings of a capitalist economy.
Leveller ideas mainly appealed to the dispossessed in society; that is, those who were most threatened by what the Levellers were proposing were unlikely to be persuaded by appeals to the ‘common good’.
Since the Levellers were unable to mobilise their followers to any great degree and, given their defeat at Burford, they lacked the ability to challenge the army or government, it is almost inevitable that they were unable to pose any future threat to the ruling class or [restored] Monarchy.
libcom.org /history/articles/diggers-levellers-1642-52   (1831 words)

 The Levellers
In 1646 Leveller supporters were elected from each regiment of the army to participate in the Putney Debates.
When these reforms were opposed by officers in the New Model Army, the Levellers called for the soldiers to revolt.
Oliver Cromwell agreed with some of the Leveller's policies, including the abolition of the monarchy and the House of Lords.
www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk /STUlevellers.htm   (2086 words)

 Tension Levelling Line - Dassnagar Tension Levellers
Precision flatness is obtained when the metal's fiber lengths are made uniform across the entire width of the strip by elongating the metal beyond its yield point.
The degree of elongation required to level the strip is primarily determined by the differential in speed or tension generated between the two bridles.
With others, the entire upper frame of the leveller can be pivoted open to allow access for cleaning and maintenance.
www.dassnagar.com /Line/dpe_TLeveling.html   (369 words)

 Channel 4 - History - Tony Benn: The legacy of the Levellers
The Levellers developed and campaigned – first with Cromwell and then against him – for a political and constitutional settlement of the Civil War which would embody principles of political freedom that anticipated by a century and a half the main ideas of the American and French revolutions.
The ideas of the Levellers were thought to be so dangerous because of their popularity then that, as now, the establishment wanted to silence them.
If the Levellers were here today, they might be surprised to find so much attributed to their movement, which, for them, must have seemed to have ended in abject failure.
www.channel4.com /history/microsites/H/history/a-b/benn.html   (1409 words)

 Levellers - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Levellers were a mid 17th century English political movement, who came to prominence during the English Civil Wars.
Levellers tended to hold fast to a notion of "natural rights" that had been violated by the king's side in the Civil Wars.
His funeral was the occasion for a large Leveller-led demonstration in London, with thousands of mourners wearing the Levellers' ribbons of sea-green and bunches of rosemary for remembrance in their hats.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Levellers   (1548 words)

Support for Leveller radicalism both in the army and amongst their London artisan allies diminished rapidly once the Army occupied London and ensured that their material demands were met.
Levellers, their enemies asserted, "intend to set all things straight, and raise a parity and community in the kingdom." They were accused of intending to level property and social position - hence their name.
The Levellers thought that everyone should be free to accumulate wealth and that the laws should protect all men in their possession of it.
history.wisc.edu /sommerville/367/367-07.htm   (1409 words)

 Levellers history   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Headed by political agitator John Lilburne, the Levellers presented to their commander a petition, The Case of the Armie Truly Stated, calling for the dissolution of Parliament and for changes in the structure of future parliaments.
The Levellers advocated a representative assembly to meet biannually, based on a redistribution of seats according to density of population, and with the franchise extending to all Englishmen 21 years of age or over and wealthy enough to be "housekeepers".
The Levellers are sometimes confused with the Diggers, a strongly religious and pacifist group that advocated the abolition of private ownership of land.
www.sccs.swarthmore.edu /users/99/dwt/Levhistory.html   (320 words)

 LEVELLERS - Online Information article about LEVELLERS
But no success attended these and similar efforts, and their only result was that the Levellers regarded Cromwell with still greater suspicion.
Early in 1649, just after the death of the king, the Levellers renewed their activity.
They were, however, soon dispersed, and their leaders were arrested and brought before Fairfax, when they took the opportunity of denouncing landowners.
encyclopedia.jrank.org /LEO_LOB/LEVELLERS.html   (1244 words)

 Three Levellers: Walwyn (1600-81), Lilburne (1614-57) and Overton (birth and death dates unknown)
The term "Levellers" was an epithet of their enemies, who included not only Royalists but the more conservative wings of the Puritan movement, especially the Presbyterians and the non-separatist Congregation alists (also called Independents).
Flourishing 1646-49, from the time of their unified action to their repression, The Levellers were a significant voice within the Puritan army, constituting at least a vigorous minority within the lower ranks, where arre ars in soldiers' pay was always part of their discontent.
John Wildman, a later apostate from Levelling, probably wrote much of the 1647 "The Case of the Army Truly Stated," whic h included this demand: "That all Monopolyes be forthwith removed, and no persons whatsoever may be permitted to restrain others from free trade." Some monopolies had been created to the advantage of Royal cronies.
www.wsu.edu /~tcook/doc/WalwynLilburneOverton.htm   (2803 words)

 Levellers Day   (Site not responding. Last check: )
It was published jointly by the Branch and the Spokesman's Press Pamphlets and sold in the churchyard as The Levellers and the English Democratic Tradition for 20p.
Levellers Day in 1985 was a busy event, with speakers in the morning, workshops in the afternoon, and a barn dance in the evening.
In the 1980's Levellers Day evolved into a national public education forum for ordinary people with different themes appropriate to public interest and became a notable event in the calender of the Labour movement.
www.levellers.org.uk /levellersdayhistory.htm   (2454 words)

 The National Archives | Exhibitions & Learning online | Citizenship | Rise of Parliament
This dramatic episode and the media frenzy with which it was surrounded encapsulate the romance of the Leveller movement and the potency of the threat which Lilburne was perceived to represent to the political establishment.
Lilburne's radical vision was practical as well as theoretical, and the Levellers outlined a detailed plan for reform in the Agreement of the People, a written constitution to which individuals were supposed to demonstrate their allegiance by appending their signatures.
The Levellers, with Lilburne broken in body and spirit, disintegrated as a political force, and Lilburne himself died a Quaker in 1657.
www.nationalarchives.gov.uk /pathways/citizenship/rise_parliament/leveller.htm   (622 words)

 English Dissenters: Levellers
Growing concerns among the Levellers of the increasing consolidation of controls under the new government and its leadership led to a number of Leveller pamphlets.
The Leveller leaders were all soon released except for Lilburne who would face charges alone of treason and inciting the populous with his political writings.
Levellers had little or no real political support outside their own numbers, the middling-sort in London and the dissident rank and file members of the New Model Army.
www.exlibris.org /nonconform/engdis/levellers.html   (4016 words)

 The English Revolution, 1647-49
The New Model Army was hated by the religious Presbyterians as a nest of heresy, and by the parliamentary Presbyterians for the enormous expense of its upkeep and for its parvenu officers.
The Levellers were accused of wishing to institute communal ownership of property and level all ranks and estates - this was the origin of their name.
However, the Levellers did wish to undermine the monopoly of political power held by the nobility and the gentry, and this certainly would have had significant social and economic effects.
history.wisc.edu /sommerville/361/361-28.htm   (3096 words)

 Laud, Liberty, and Levellers
In April 1649, while Lilburne and other Levellers were confined in the Tower, there suddenly appeared at Cobham in Surrey a number of men, armed with spades, who commenced to dig up uncultivated land at the side of St. George's Hill, with the intention of growing corn and other produce.
The examination showed that these "true Levellers," as they called themselves, were in reality trying to found what we should now call a "collective farm." and their conviction was that, when men began to see the success of their venture, they would join it, and so establish in course of time a widespread co-operative system.
After a good deal of marching and counter-marching by the Levellers and the Cromwellians, the former were surprised at Burford in Oxfordshire, and a fight in the streets of that town ended the chances of a second revolution.
www.anglocatholicsocialism.org /laud.html   (3281 words)

 The Levellers - Associated Content
The ultimate demise of the Levellers came in 1649 after a second failed mutiny attempt by the Leveller forces against Oliver Cromwell and the parliamentarian forces.
The reality of British politics was power and posturing; while the Levellers were playing the moral high ground, the conservative groups played close to the vest and made very deliberate and broad claims on their ideas.
The Levellers were not just another radical group attempting to gain power; they were concerned citizens that wanted equal rights and a fair government.
www.associatedcontent.com /article/19500/the_levellers.html?page=3   (485 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The Levellers have stood the test of time, still with the original line-up, continuing to be successful for longer than their contemporaries from the 90’s.
The band have released eight studio albums, including the platinum-selling 'Levelling the Land' and number one album 'Zeitgeist', one Live Album and a 'Best Of.' The band's consistency is underlined by the fact that they had more platinum, gold and silver albums in the 90’s than any other act in the.
The Levellers have their own weekend music festival, Beautiful Days, 18th – 20th August 2006 will be the forth Beautiful Days Festival www.beautifuldays.org They are the first band since Fairport Convention began Cropredy in the 70s to do this, and it further underlines the unique nature of this band.
www.kvibe.com /artists/profile.aspx?id=10459   (701 words)

 "Leveller" Thinkers   (Site not responding. Last check: )
To promote their views, the Levellers had to embrace freedom of speech, freedom of the press and freedom of assembly.
Responding to the imprisonment of Leveller leader John Lilburne, Overton issued this radical attack on monarchy and presented his case for popular sovereignty and a rule of law.
The Levellers' pioneering libertarian agenda, including a rule of law, secure private property, free trade, separation of church and state and universal suffrage.
www.libertystory.net /LSTHINKLEVELLERS.htm   (1273 words)

 Tony Cliff: Class Struggle and Women's Liberation (Chap.1)
The Levellers, who looked upon themselves as “the middle sort of people”, were the representatives of the self-employed peasants and artisans.
The Levellers’ crushing defeat by Cromwell in 1649 brought to an end the apocalyptic hopes of the radicals.
On questions of family and sex, the Levellers were very attached to private property, and their leader Lilburne made clear the direct relation between monogamy and private property.
www.marxists.org /archive/cliff/works/1984/women/01-birth.htm   (1442 words)

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