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Topic: A posteriori

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  A Priori and A Posteriori [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy]
The a priori/a posteriori distinction is epistemological and should not be confused with the metaphysical distinction between the necessary and the contingent or the semantical or logical distinction between the analytic and the synthetic.
Two aspects of the a priori/a posteriori distinction require clarification: the conception of experience on which the distinction turns; and the sense in which a priori knowledge is independent of such experience.
Correspondingly, an a posteriori proposition is knowable a posteriori, while an a posteriori argument is one the premises of which are a posteriori propositions.
www.utm.edu /research/iep/a/apriori.htm   (5580 words)

 A priori and a posteriori (philosophy) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The terms "a priori" and "a posteriori" are used in philosophy to distinguish between two different types of propositional knowledge.
Thus, attempts to define clearly or explain a priori and a posteriori knowledge are part of a central thread in epistemology, the study of knowledge.
The nature of a priori and a posteriori knowledge first became widely debated among rationalist and empiricist philosophers during the early modern period.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/A_posteriori   (1976 words)

 Sören Bartels' Home Page
The proof of the a posteriori error estimates requires a Helmholtz decomposition of the error and is rather technical in three dimensional settings.
Moreover, as in the linear case, the averaging a posteriori error estimator serves as a good approximation of the actual error.
A posteriori error estimates for nonconforming finite element methods.
www.math.umd.edu /~sba/adaptivity/adaptivity.html   (880 words)

 A Posteriori
Knowledge is described as being a posteriori if it can only be derived from empirical evidence.
An a posteriori conclusion is achieved via information gained from sense perception in combination with principles of reason and logic.
Empiricists typically emphasize a posteriori knowledge as fundamental, and many question the signficance of the a priori.
www.iscid.org /encyclopedia/A_Posteriori   (75 words)

Kripke believes the former procedure is a case of a priori knowledge and the latter a case of a posteriori knowledge.
All the cases of the necessary a posteriori advocated in the text [of (Kripke, 1972)] have the special character attributed to mathematical statements...“ [1972: 765].
In my [1995b] I explained the theory of necessary a posteriori identities in terms of object level facts (which are necessary and a priori) and metalevel facts about the relation of statements to the fact stated by them (the metalevel fact being contingent and a posteriori).
www.qsmithwmu.com /direct,_rigid_designation_and_a_posteriori.htm   (15989 words)

 20th WCP: Knowledge by Invention: Extending a Kantian Dichotomy to a Poincaréan Trichotomy
I argue for the possibility of knowledge by invention whch is neither á priori nor á posteriori.
I suggest extending the à priori - à posteriori dichotomy to a trichotomy of à priori knowledge, à posteriori knowledge and knowledge by invention.
Poincaré implies that the à priori - à posteriori dichotomy is not exhaustive, hence any disjunctive syllogism constructed on it would be an instance of the fallacy of false dilemma.
www.bu.edu /wcp/Papers/TKno/TKnoJetl.htm   (2685 words)

 Topics in Philosophy: A posteriori
Thus, a posteriori concepts are those which are derived, explained and justified through empirical investigation and implication.
A priori truths are arrived at through purely logical or mathematical means, whereas a posteriori truths are achieved through a keen interest and investigation of human experience.
A posteriori finite element bounds for sensitivity derivatives of partial-differential-equation outputs (SuDoc NAS 1.26:208469/REV.) by: Robert Michael Lewis
www.erraticimpact.com /philosophy/topics/topics_details.cfm?ID=1   (470 words)

 [No title]
Very roughly, the idea is that a posteriori claims require that we check the world to establish their truth, but that a priori claims do not require this.
Without exhausting options for the rôle of philosophy, let alone arguing for one in particular, it seems fair to say that science requires both a posteriori and a priori claims.
For example, an answer to the question of how a given sort of claim should be justified will itself involve a priori considerations.
publish.uwo.ca /~mcintosh/ap.htm   (547 words)

 Philosophical Dictionary: Antecedent-Aquinas
Thus, an a posteriori concept is one that can only be understood in empirical terms, and a posteriori knowledge relies upon evidence as its warrant.
An a priori argument, then, is taken to reason deductively from abstract general premises, while an a posteriori argument relies upon specific information derived from sense perception.
The necessary truth of an a priori proposition can be determined by reason alone, but the contingent truth of an a posteriori proposition can be discovered only by reference to some matter of fact.
www.philosophypages.com /dy/a5.htm   (1113 words)

 Power A Posteriori
Zumbo and Bruno (1998) illustrate this for a simple case in which the probabilities before and after the data are 0.483 and 0.935 respectively.
If, as most a posteriori users do, the usual power formulas had been used after taking the data and, upon finding a significant result, judging the alternate to be true, the user would mistakenly have assessed the probability of the alternate hypothesis to be 0.483, rather than the correct value of 0.935.
Secondly, it can not be used to add something to the interpretation of the results, such as an assessment of the likelihood of the null.
core.ecu.edu /psyc/wuenschk/StatHelp/PowerAPosteriori.htm   (1005 words)

 Mathematics of Computation
As a consequence, a posteriori error estimators based on those recovery methods are asymptotically exact.
R.E. Bank and J. Xu, Asymptotically exact a posteriori error estimators, Part I: Grid with superconvergence, preprint, to appear in SIAM J. Numer.
W. Hoffmann, A.H. Schatz, L.B. Wahlbin, and G. Wittum, Asymptotically exact a posteriori estimators for the pointwise gradient error on each element in irregular meshes I: A smooth problem and globally quasi-uniform meshes, Math.
www.ams.org /mcom/2004-73-247/S0025-5718-03-01600-4/home.html   (661 words)

 Maximum a posteriori - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In statistics, the method of maximum a posteriori (MAP, or posterior mode) estimation can be used to obtain a point estimate of an unobserved quantity on the basis of empirical data.
It is closely related to Fisher's method of maximum likelihood (ML), but employs an augmented optimization objective which incorporates a prior distribution over the quantity one wants to estimate.
The method of maximum a posteriori estimation then estimates θ as the mode of the posterior distribution of this random variable:
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Maximum_a_posteriori   (463 words)

 Mathematics of Computation
Asymptotically exact a posteriori estimators for the pointwise gradient error on each element in irregular meshes.
Abstract: We extend results from Part I about estimating gradient errors elementwise a posteriori, given there for quadratic and higher elements, to the piecewise linear case.
W. Hoffmann, A. Schatz, L. Wahlbin and G. Wittum, Asymptotically exact a posteriori estimators for the pointwise gradient error on each element in irregular meshes.
www.ams.org /mcom/2004-73-246/S0025-5718-03-01570-9/home.html   (256 words)

 a priori / a posteriori
Així doncs, el que és necessari pot conèixer-se a ‘priori', mentre que el contingent només es coneix a ‘posteriori'.
Kant (veure cita) va relacionar aquesta distinció amb la seva pròpia entre analític/sintètic, admetent que els judicis analítics són a ‘priori' i els judicis a ‘posteriori' són sintètics, però que, a més a més, hi ha els judicis sintètics a ‘priori' (veure exemple).
Bunge sosté la possibilitat d'enunciats analítics i a posteriori i S.
www.pensament.com /filoxarxa/filoxarxa/apriori-aposteriori.htm   (270 words)

 Guaranteed and locally computable a posteriori error estimate -- Vejchodsky 26 (3): 525 -- IMA Journal of Numerical ...
Guaranteed and locally computable a posteriori error estimate -- Vejchodsky 26 (3): 525 -- IMA Journal of Numerical Analysis
Guaranteed and locally computable a posteriori error estimate
Please note that abstracts for content published before 1996 were created through digital scanning and may therefore not exactly replicate the text of the original print issues.
imanum.oxfordjournals.org /cgi/content/short/26/3/525?rss=1   (241 words)

 A Posteriori - Search Results - MSN Encarta
A Posteriori - Search Results - MSN Encarta
A Posteriori (Latin, “from what comes after”), relating to that which is known through experience, a central concept in epistemology.
Help with Spanish, French, German, and Italian homework.
uk.encarta.msn.com /A_Posteriori.html   (53 words)

 [No title]
A posteriori knowledge, on the other hand, is knowledge that comes directly from observation of the physical world.
a posteriori means “from what comes later” and, thus, refers to knowledge that comes as a result of experiencing the physical world.
Great debate has existed throughout the history of philosophy concerning whether our knowledge is primarily
www.theologicalstudies.org /apriori.html   (155 words)

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