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Topic: ATM Adaptation Layers


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  RFC 2761 (rfc2761) - Terminology for ATM Benchmarking
ATM layer traffic control refers to the set of actions taken by the network to avoid congestion conditions.
ATM layer congestion control refers to the set of actions taken by the network to minimize the intensity, spread and duration of congestion.
The points at which the ATM cell payload is passed to, or received from, the users of the ATM Layer (i.e., a higher layer or ATM-entity) for processing signify the endpoints of a VCC.
www.faqs.org /rfcs/rfc2761.html   (7045 words)

  
 Asynchronous Transfer Mode - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
ATM was intended to provide a single unified networking standard that could support both synchronous channel networking (PDH, SDH) and packet-based networking (IP, Frame relay, etc), whilst supporting multiple levels of quality of service for packet traffic.
ATM sought to resolve the conflict between circuit-switched networks and packet-switched networks by mapping both bitstreams and packet-streams onto a stream of small fixed-size 'cells' tagged with virtual circuit identifiers.
ATM will remain deployed for some time in higher-speed interconnects where carriers have already committed themselves to existing ATM deployments; ATM is used here as a way of unifying PDH/SDH traffic and packet-switched traffic under a single infrastructure.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Asynchronous_Transfer_Mode   (2698 words)

  
 Encyclopedia article: ATM Adaptation Layers   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-25)
The use of Asynchronous Transfer Mode (A means of digital communications that is capable of very high speeds; suitable for transmission of images or voice or video as well as data) (ATM) technology and services creates the need for an adaptation layer in order to support information transfer protocols, which are not based on ATM.
This adaptation layer defines how to segment and reassemble higher-layer packets into ATM cells, and how to handle various transmission aspects in the ATM layer.
AAL Type 5 (additional info and facts about AAL Type 5) is similar to AAL 3/4 with a simplified information header scheme.
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/a/at/atm_adaptation_layers2.htm   (361 words)

  
 atm   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-25)
ATM has been designed to provide a fast, general-purpose transfer mode for many services and is intended to be used to form a seamless connection across LANs and WANs and enable organisations to connect these networks without having to go through complex speed-conversion exercises.
The three key layers of ATM are the Physical Layer, the ATM Layer and the ATM Adaptation Layers (AALs).
This is known as the ATM cell and is of 53 bytes in length.
www.scit.wlv.ac.uk /~c9461964/mnsl1/atm.html   (1086 words)

  
 Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Switching
ATM is a cell-switching and multiplexing technology that combines the benefits of circuit switching (guaranteed capacity and constant transmission delay) with those of packet switching (flexibility and efficiency for intermittent traffic).
The ATM physical layer has four functions: Cells are converted into a bitstream, the transmission and receipt of bits on the physical medium are controlled, ATM cell boundaries are tracked, and cells are packaged into the appropriate types of frames for the physical medium.
ATM signaling uses the one-pass method of connection setup that is used in all modern telecommunication networks, such as the telephone network.
www.cisco.com /univercd/cc/td/doc/cisintwk/ito_doc/atm.htm   (7582 words)

  
 atm_utrc.html   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-25)
ATM is a communication architecture based on switching or relaying small fixed-length packets called cells.
The ATM address is determined by the switch and port to which a host is connected, a host discovers its address by listening to its switch.
Fore accomplishes this by encapsulating IP packets in ATM packet data units (PDUs) - this is done by the adaptation layer to segment, reassemble, and frame the IP packet.
archive.ncsa.uiuc.edu /General/CC/netdev/atm/atm_utrc.html   (2417 words)

  
 ipedia.com: Asynchronous Transfer Mode Article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-25)
ATM remains useful and widely deployed as a multiplexing layer in DSL networks, where its compromises fit the needs of the application well.
The ATM solution was to break all packets, data and voice streams up into 48 byte chunks, adding a 5 byte routing header to each one so that they could be re-assembled later, and to multiplex these 53 byte cells instead of packets.
Which AAL is in use for a given cell is not encoded in the cell: instead, it is negotiated by or configured at the endpoints on a per-virtual-connection basis.
www.ipedia.com /asynchronous_transfer_mode.html   (1703 words)

  
 ATM Adaptation layers   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-25)
In order for ATM to support many kinds of services with different traffic characteristics and system requirements, it is necessary to adapt the different classes of applications to the ATM layer.
It is a substantially lean AAL compaired with AAL3/4 at the expense of error recovery and built in retransmission.
SAR segments higher a layer PDU into 48 byte chunks that are fed into the ATM layer to generate 53 byte cells (carried on the same VCI).
cell-relay.indiana.edu /cell-relay/FAQ/ATM-FAQ/d/d1.htm   (725 words)

  
 The ATM model   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-25)
The ATM layer describes how cells are transported through the network and how quality of service is enforced so that connections operate within their contracted service levels.
The adaptation layer resolves any disparity between services provided by the cell-based technology of the ATM layer to the bit-stream technology of digital services (such as telephones and video cameras) and the packet-stream technology of traditional data networks (such as Frame relay and X.25 used in WANs and LAN protocols such as Ethernet and TCP/IP).
The upper layers of the ATM protocol reference model include optional protocol layers that are used to further encapsulate ATM service for use with TCP/IP and other protocols.
www.microsoft.com /WINDOWS2000/en/advanced/help/sag_ATM_und_ATMmodel.htm   (601 words)

  
 [No title]
ATM layer traffic control refers to the set of actions taken by the network to avoid congestion conditions.
ATM layer congestion control refers to the set of Dunn & Martin Informational [Page 18] RFC 2761 Terminology for ATM Benchmarking February 2000 actions taken by the network to minimize the intensity, spread and duration of congestion.
The points at which the ATM cell payload is passed to, or received from, the users of the ATM Layer (i.e., a higher layer or ATM-entity) for processing signify the endpoints of a VCC.
www.ietf.org /rfc/rfc2761.txt   (7429 words)

  
 Encyclopedia: Asynchronous Transfer Mode   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-25)
The term Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) strictly speaking refers to a generic mode of data transfer in which units of data being transmitted are not time related to each other.
The ATM layer is responsible for routing cells along the virtual path established during call setup and also performs multiplexing, de-multiplexing and header error control.
The ATM adaptation layer performs the transformation between the message format used by the higher layers and the fixed length cell format of the ATM layer.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Asynchronous-Transfer-Mode   (440 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-25)
Information Transfer: ATM is a fast packet oriented transfer mode based on asynchronous time division multiplexing and it uses fixed length(53 bytes) cells.
ATM Adaptation layers(AAL) are used to support various services and provide service specific functions.
ATM Resources: ATM is connection-oriented and the establishment of the connections includes the allocation of a VCI i.e.
cne.gmu.edu /modules/atm/bconcepts.html   (603 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-25)
ATM is also said to be the result of frame relay.By design, ATM is capable of doing continuous data transfer on high speed networks.
The layers are as follows: Physical Layer: This layer deals with physical mediums such as voltages bit timings etc. It includes the details of a transmission medium and signal encoding scheme.
AAL Type 2 It deals with variable bit-rate information & is intended for analog applications, such as video and audio, that requires timing information and does not require a constant bit rate.
iris.nyit.edu /~kkapoor/kk.doc   (2403 words)

  
 ATM - by the best providers on the web - Asynchronous transfer mode
An ATM switch gets its data from the hosts connected to it and passes this data to the destination.
This number is used by ATM switches to determine where the cell should be sent, and is used by receiving hosts to determine which buffers should receive the data (thus allowing inbound network data to be demultiplexed in hardware).
ATM includes a number of ATM adaptation layers (or AAL).  AAL5 allows a host to send and receive frames of up to 64K in size.
www.atm-atm.net   (376 words)

  
 ATM Adaptation Layer - Hill2dot0
In effect, the AAL provides a convergence function for the ATM Layer; the AAL makes the ATM Layer appear to the higher layers as the higher layers want the underlying cell relay function to appear.
AAL is the highest layer in the ATM protocol stack (under the B-ISDN umbrella) and provides the interface between the generic cell switching capability of the ATM Layer and the specific requirements of higher layer applications, protocols, and services.
The highest layer in the ATM protocol stack as part of B-ISDN, the AAL is the interface between the ATM Layer and higher layers.
www.hill2dot0.com /wiki/index.php?title=AAL   (1352 words)

  
 Seminar - ATM Adaptation Layer
ATM provides transport of packets from higher layer protocols which are variable in length and longer than the 48 payload section of the ATM cell.
To have ATM work in the communications layers, it must segment the larger packets into multiple ATM cells and later reassemble the multiple cells back into the original packet.
The ATM layer responsible for the SAR process is the ATM Adaptation Layer or AAL.
www.nextgendc.com /seminar_atm_aal.htm   (1141 words)

  
 Internetworking Terms and Acronyms - A  [Internetworking] - Cisco Systems
The AAL accepts data from different applications and presents it to the ATM layer in the form of 48-byte ATM payload segments.
AALs differ on the basis of the source-destination timing used (CBR or VBR) and whether they are used for connection-oriented or connectionless mode data transfer.
The application layer identifies and establishes the availability of intended communication partners (and the resources required to connect with them), synchronizes cooperating applications, and establishes an agreement on the procedures for error recovery and the control of data integrity.
www.cisco-systems.se /en/US/tech/tk1330/tsd_technology_support_technical_reference_chapter09186a0080759899.html   (5164 words)

  
 [No title]
Abstract The discussions of the IP over ATM working group over the last several years have produced a diverse set of proposals, some of which are no longer under active consideration.
Encapsulations and Lower Layer Identification Data encapsulation, and the identification of VC endpoints, constitute two important issues that are somewhat orthogonal to the issues of network topology and routing.
The processes of actually establishing AAL Users, and identifying them to the local UNI 3.1 management layers, are still undefined and are likely to be very dependent on operating system environments.
www.ietf.org /rfc/rfc1932.txt   (6479 words)

  
 InterOperability Laboratory: Technologies: ATM: Knowledge Base   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-25)
This paper is an attempt to provide a brief summary of ATM, its beginnings, concepts and operation, as well as serve as a tool to bring the reader up to speed on what ATM is. Several opinions and future musings are drafted.
ATM traffic between the device under test and the test system are monitored and captured using the Hewlett Packard BSTS.
Currently, The ATM Forum consists of approximately 80 member companies, and it remains open to any organization that is interested in accelerating the availability of ATM-based solutions.
www.iol.unh.edu /training/atm.html   (612 words)

  
 Layers in TutorGig Encyclopedia
Sclereids are small bundles of sclerenchyma tissue in plants that form durable layers, such as the cores of apples and the gritty texture of pears.
A lode is the metal liferous ore that fills a fissure in a Rock geology rock or a vein of ore deposited between layers of rock.
The scientific law stating that sediments settling out from bodies of water are deposited horizontally or nearly horizontally in layers that lie parallel or nearly parallel to the Earth s surface.
www.tutorgig.com /es/Layers   (866 words)

  
 INTEGRATING ATM NETWORKING INTO BSD
This number is used by ATM switches to determine where the cell should be sent, and it is used by receiving hosts to determine which process' buffers should receive the data (thus allowing inbound network data to be demultiplexed in hardware).
When transmitting data the protocol layer receives data from the socket layer, adds the necessary protocol headers, and passes a packet for transmission to the network interface layer.
The encoding of the ATM pseudo header is shown in Table 1.
www.ccrc.wustl.edu /pub/chuck/tech/bsdatm/bsdatm.html   (6327 words)

  
 ATM, Asynchronous Transfer Mode   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-25)
ATM is based on the ISDN model; however, unlike ISDN, ATM uses fixed length (53 byte) cells.
A flow control mechanism is specified which supports several types of feedback to control the source rate in response to changing ATM layer transfer characteristics.
The ILMI specification designates the switch side of the ATM link as the 'network side' and the host/router side of the ATM link as the ' user side.' The Service Registry MIB, which is outlined in Section 3, is implmented on the network side and is queried from the user side.
www.networksorcery.com /enp/protocol/atm.htm   (659 words)

  
 ATM Forum   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-25)
The advantage of ATM is that it allows any bit rate for the transmission, from high to low.
ATM Adaptation Layers (AALs) tended to be associated with a particular class of ATM service.
ATM switches honor bandwidth guarantees by allocating the highest-priority queues to CBR traffic, and use statistical multiplexing, which enables unused bandwidth to be dynamically allocated to other classes of services in the network.
www2.rad.com /networks/1994/atm/videoatm.htm   (1824 words)

  
 Continuous Computing | Search | Glossary of Networking Terms
L1 - Layer 1 in OSI Model (Physical layer)
L2 - Layer 2 in OSI Model (Data Link layer)
UNI 3.1, 4.0 - ATM User-to-Network Interface Standard version 3.1 or 4.0
www.ccpu.com /search/glossary   (305 words)

  
 ATM Software   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-25)
The BSD ATM source code provides support for TCP/IP and native mode ATM over PVCs with minimal changes to the kernel.
Trillium's ATM software is licensed by hundreds of computer and communications equipment manufacturers worldwide.
Trillium ATM software is known for it's reliability, peformance, interoperability and ease of use.
cell-relay.indiana.edu /cell-relay/publications/software/software.html   (513 words)

  
 Adaptation Layers   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-25)
Also, within the past year a fifth type of AAL has been proposed.
Briefly the four ATM adaptation layers (AAL) have/are being defined:
This AAL is intended for both connectionless and connection oriented variable bit rate services.
www.ou.edu /class/telecomm/lect08_atm_f.htm   (212 words)

  
 Articles sur ATM
Impact of ATM Switching and Flow Control on TCP Performance: Measurements on an Experimental Switch (November 1995)
ATM Forum slide show that gives an overview of ATM
ATM performance Measurement: Throughput, Bottlenecks and Technology Barriers (1995)
www.lirmm.fr /atm/articles.html   (1799 words)

  
 Syllabus: Introduction to ATM   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-25)
Estimated Time of Completion: 7 hour(s) 20 minutes
In this course, you will explore the business reasons for adopting ATM and some common alternatives, the technologies that define ATM, the fundamental benefits of cell switching and how ATM supports those benefits, and how ATM is used in a campus environment.
Class of Service Modeling-CBR, UBR, VBR, and ABR
www.gatlineducation.com /ccac/info/ATMIntro.htm   (92 words)

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