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Topic: ATP synthase

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 Encyclopedia: ATP synthase   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
A model is proposed of the assembly of ATP synthase dimers, taking into account the oligomerization of the yeast enzyme and earlier data on the ultrastructure of mitochondrial cristae, which suggests that the association of ATP synthase dimers is involved in the control of the biogenesis of the inner mitochondrial membrane.
Lane 1, purified yeast wild-type ATP synthase; lane 2, oligomer (digitonin/protein ratio of 0.75 g/g); lanes 3 and 4, higher and lower bands of dimers, respectively (digitonin/protein ratio of 2 g/g); lane 5, monomer (digitonin/protein ratio of 2 g/g).
ATP synthase, the main role of which is to provide energy to the cell, is also involved in mitochondrial morphology.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/ATP-synthase   (579 words)

 Encyclopedia topic: ATP synthase   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
In the 1960s through the 1970s, Paul Boyer (additional info and facts about Paul Boyer) developed his binding change, or flip-flop, mechanism, which postulated that ATP synthesis is coupled with a conformational change in the ATP synthase generated by rotation of the gamma subunit.
John E. Walker (additional info and facts about John E. Walker) crystallized the ATP synthase and was able to determine that Boyer's conformational model was essentially correct.
In plants ATP synthase is also present in chloroplasts (Plastid containing chlorophyll and other pigments; in plants that carry out photosynthesis) (CF -ATP synthase).
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/a/at/atp_synthase2.htm   (616 words)

 Adenosine triphosphate - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
ATP molecules are also used to store the usable energy that plants convert in cellular respiration.
ATP can be produced by various cellular processes: Under aerobic conditions, the synthesis occurs in mitochondria during the oxidative phosphorylation and is catalyzed by ATP synthase; to a lesser degree, under anaerobic conditions, this is done through substrate phosphorylation catalyzed by two enzymes: PGK and Pyruvate kinase.
ATP is also synthesized through several so-called "replenishment" reactions catalyzed by the enzyme families of NDKs (Nucleoside diphosphate kinases), which use other nucleoside triphosphates as a high-energy phosphate donor, and the ATP:guanido-phosphotransferase family, which uses creatine.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Adenosine_triphosphate   (691 words)

 ATP synthesis by F-type ATP synthase is obligatorily dependent on the transmembrane voltage   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Closely related ATP synthases are found in the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane, the inner membrane of mitochondria and the thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts.
ATP synthesis was abolished in the presence of 2 mM sodium tetraphenylboron.
However, the capacity of thylakoids to develop a membrane potential and to synthesize ATP with fumarate as acidic buffer in the 'acid bath procedure' is not shared by liposomes (Table I) or proteoliposomes reconstituted with purified ATP synthases (Kaim and Dimroth, 1998b,c).
www.nature.com /cgi-taf/DynaPage.taf?file=/emboj/journal/v18/n15/full/7591827a.html   (7719 words)

 ATP: The Perfect Energy Currency for the Cell   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
ATP is a complex nanomachine that serves as the primary energy currency of the cell (Trefil, 1992, p.93).
ATP is formed as it is needed, primarily by oxidative processes in the mitochondria.
ATP could have been created only as a unit to function immediately in life and the same is true of the other intricate energy molecules used in life such as GTP.
www.trueorigin.org /atp.htm   (4806 words)

 Press Release: The 1997 Nobel Prize in Chemistry
During the 1940s and 1950s it was clarified that the bulk of ATP is formed in cell respiration in the mitochondria and photosynthesis in the chloroplasts of plants.
ATP synthase has a mode of function that is unusual for enzymes, and this required much time and extensive studies to establish.
part of ATP synthase from cows, determined chiefly in collaboration with the Dutchman J.P. Abrahams and the Englishman A. Leslie, shows partly that the alpha and beta subunits are related in terms of structure and evolution and partly that they have clearly differing structures and therefore differing abilities to bind ADP and ATP.
nobelprize.org /chemistry/laureates/1997/press.html   (2851 words)

 ATP Synthase   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
He said that the most efficient way to provide such energy is to form a proton gradient which is generated between the inner and outer membranes of the mitochondrial membranes and the mitochondrial matrix and between the lumen of the grana and the stroma of the chloroplast.
He explained that ATP synthase was a complex that resembles a lollipop on a stalk.
Also, ATP synthase is so very important in the study of photosynthesis and respiration, and many students in their study miss it.
www.classtech2000.com /bdm/lollipop/lollipop.htm   (718 words)

 ARN Molecular Museum: ATP Synthase Molecule
ATP captures the chemical energy released by the combustion of nutrients and transfers it to reactions that require energy, e.g.
ATP synthase molecules located within mitochondria stick out on the mitochondria, attached to their inner surfaces in mushroom-like clusters.
The researchers captured the image of the ATP synthase cap while all of its sites were in some stage of making ATP, which is essential for the constant recycling of its precursors.
www.arn.org /docs/mm/atpmechanism.htm   (496 words)

 ATP Synthase   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
This release of energy is usually coupled to other biological processes, to do work, for example, in the contraction of muscle and in the synthesis of the essential macromolecules of life, nucleic acids and proteins.
In eubacteria, chloroplasts and mitochondria, the synthesis of ATP is carried out by a molecular machine known as ATP synthase.
We are also pursuing an alternative approach of establishing an accurate outline structure by electron microscopic examination of single ATP synthase complexes.
www.mrc-dunn.cam.ac.uk /research/atpase.html   (684 words)

 Torque Application to ATP Synthase Central Stalk
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the fuel of life; every living cell must use ATP to carry out its functions.
This synthesis is performed by ATP synthase, a complex of two joined rotating molecular motors.
ATP synthase can also function in the reverse direction, hydrolyzing ATP and utilizing the released energy to pump protons across the membrane.
www.ks.uiuc.edu /Research/f1atpase   (484 words)

 Bil 255 ATP Synthase
In some bacteria, the main function is to operate in the ATP hydrolysis direction, using ATP generated by fermentative metabolism to provide a proton gradient to drive substrate accumulation, and maintain ionic balance.
The protein was crystallized in the presence of ADP, and an ATP analogue, AMP-PNP, in which the the two terminal phosphates of ATP were replaced by the non-hydrolysible imidodiphosphate group.
The ATP synthase operates through a mechanism in which the three active sites undergo a change in binding affinity for the reactants of the ATP-ase reaction, ATP, ADP and phosphate, as originally predicted by Paul Boyer.
fig.cox.miami.edu /~cmallery/255/255atp/ATPase/ATPase.htm   (1009 words)

 The Respiratory Chain and ATP Synthase 11
ATP synthase constitutes about 15% of the total inner membrane protein, and very similar enzyme complexes are present in both chloroplast and bacterial membranes.
The enzyme complex is called ATP synthase because it is normally driven by the large electrochemical proton gradient maintained by the respiratory chain (see Figure 14-20) to make most of the cell's ATP.
In many bacteria ATP synthase is routinely reversed in a transition between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism, as we shall see later.
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov /books/bv.fcgi?tool=bookshelf&call=bv.View..ShowSection&rid=cell.section.3505   (4548 words)

 atp synthase   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Microbiological, molecular genetic and biochemical techniques are used in the investigation of an unusual ATP synthase isolated from a bacterium that lives in extreme environments.
Stuart Functional Analysis of Subunit e of the F 1 F o -ATP Synthase of the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Importance of the N-Terminal Membrane Anchor Region Eukaryotic Cell 2005 4: 346-355...
Sheena Pinchin, William Sullivan, and David Ish-Horowicz The epsilon subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase is required for normal spindle orientation during the Drosophila embryonic divisions Genetics...
www.tenniswa.com /atpsynthase   (867 words)

 ATP synthesis by F-type ATP synthase is obligatorily dependent on the transmembrane voltage
ATP synthesis by F-type ATP synthase is obligatorily dependent on the transmembrane voltage
The pathway of Na during ATP synthesis is from the periplasm through the a subunit stator channel onto an empty c subunit rotor site at the rotor−stator interface.
The membrane potential thus formed is essential for the synthesis of ATP by the chloroplast ATP synthase (4).
www.nature.com /emboj/journal/v18/n15/fig_tab/7591827ft.html   (818 words)

 Molecular Motors: ATP Synthase   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
ATP synthase is certainly the most ubiquitous example of a chemi-mechanical transduction device in nature.
The Frasch lab is in the process of identifying the changes in metal coordination that occur with each sequential conformational change by monitoring changes in the EPR spectrum of VO, a functional surrogate of Mg, that are induced by site-directed mutations of the metal ligands (27).
In the absence of ATP, the mean velocity and mean vorticity are approximately zero, consistent with Brownian motion of the microspheres.
photoscience.la.asu.edu /bionano/research4.htm   (1242 words)

 ATP Synthase
This is the all-important reaction in which the protonmotive force produced by proton translocation is coupled to the synthesis of ATP from ADP and phosphate.
ATP Synthase is a complex structure consisting of two domains F
ATP synthase is thought to revolve at more than 100Hz (revolutions/sec.), which is sufficient to produce a turnover of the equivalent of the weight of our body of ATP each day.
www.tcd.ie /Biochemistry/IUBMB-Nicholson/atpase.html   (366 words)

 Untitled Document
ATP Synthase, also known as Complex V, is a large membrane protein that plays a key role in the energy metabolism of all known organisms (Nowroth, 2003).
ATP Synthase is an F-Type ATPase, one of the four categories of ATPases; all ATPases in this category share the central role of the catalytic formation of ATP from ADP and Pi.
For example, ATP Synthase is found in the thylakoid membrane of higher plants and in the plasma membrane of prokaryotes (compared to the mitochondrial membrane of eukaryotes).
www.bio.davidson.edu /Courses/Molbio/MolStudents/spring2003/Bennett/protein1.htm   (1387 words)

 Oxidative Phosphorylation--Synthesis of ATP
Oligomycin is an antibiotic which binds to the mitochondrial ATP synthase and is a potent inhibitor of ATP synthesis and electron transport.
This means that as soon as ATP forms in the mitochondria it is transported to the cytosol by the translocase.
The mitochondrial ATP synthase is a multisubunit complex with a specific orientation in the inner mitochondrial membrane
www.db.uth.tmc.edu /faculty/alevine/1521_2000/oxphos3.htm   (1367 words)

 ATP Synthase
Living cells depend on an efficient transformation of the energy derived from light and foodstuff into the chemical energy of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the universal energy carrier.
The enzyme that facilitates this type of energy conversion in bacteria, chloroplast and mitochondria is ATP synthase, a complex of two molecular motors mechanically coupled by a common central stalk.
ATP synthase can also operate in the reverse direction, utilizing the energy released in the process of ATP hydrolysis to pump protons across the membrane.
www.ks.uiuc.edu /Research/atpase   (136 words)

 ATP synthesis by F-type ATP synthase is obligatorily dependent on the transmembrane voltage -- Kaim and Dimroth 18 ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
ATP synthesis by F-type ATP synthase is obligatorily dependent on the transmembrane voltage -- Kaim and Dimroth 18 (15): 4118 -- The EMBO Journal
inhibition of ATP synthesis by chloroplast and subchloroplast
ATP synthesis in thylakoids or in reconstituted proteoliposomes
embojournal.npgjournals.com /cgi/content/full/18/15/4118   (6620 words)

 PDB Molecule of the Month: ATP Synthase   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
ATP synthase is one of the wonders of the molecular world.
ATP synthase is an enzyme, a molecular motor, an ion pump, and another molecular motor all wrapped together in one amazing nanoscale machine.
ATP synthesis is composed of two rotary motors, each powered by a different fuel.
www.rcsb.org /pdb/molecules/pdb72_1.html   (387 words)

 ATP synthase   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
F1 is the catalytic part of ATP synthase which projects inward from inner mitochondrial membranes.
Walker and coworkers have solved its structure to 2.8 A resolution.
The ATP-coupled proton transporters associated with Golgi membranes are structurally similar to the ATP synthases.
rsb.info.nih.gov /NeuroChem/biomach/ATPsyn.html   (233 words)

 Hongyun Wang's Research on Molecular Motors   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
ATP is the most important chemical energy source in all living cells.
ATP synthase consists of two portions: a membrane-spanning portion, Fo, comprising the ion channel, and a soluble portion, F1, containing three catalytic sites (see the Figure below).
Fo uses the transmembrane electrochemical gradient to generate a rotary torque to drive ATP synthesis in F1 or, when driven backwards by the torque generated in F1, to pump ions uphill against their transmembrane electrochemical gradient.
www.cse.ucsc.edu /~hongwang/ATP_synthase.html   (538 words)

 F1Fo ATP Synthase   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The F1F0 ATP synthases from all species share a common molecular architecture that extends down to the level of primary sequence homology.
Mutations in ATP synthase subunits are directly associated with a group of devastating inheritable diseases termed the mitochondrial myopathies.
Caviston, T.L., Ketchum, C.J., Sorgen, P.L., Nakamoto, R.K., and Cain, B.D. (1998) Identification of an uncoupling mutation affecting the b subunit of F1F0 ATP synthase in Escherichia coli.
www.med.ufl.edu /BIOCHEM/bcain/CainLab/F1Fo.htm   (453 words)

 ATP synthase
-ATP synthases) catalyze the formation of ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate in the membranes of mitochondria, chloroplasts and bacteria.
Endergonic ATP synthesis is coupled to proton translocation across the membrane and is thereby driven by a difference of the electrochemical potential of protons, which is generated by oxidative phosphorylation or photosynthesis.
-ATP synthase is thought to contain two rotary motors converting electrochemical energy via a mechanical form of energy to chemical energy.
www.m-boersch.org /ATP_synthase/atp_synthase.html   (125 words)

This step is energetically possible because the free energy released by tightly binding the ATP to the active centre compensates for the instability of the new phospho anhydride bond.
Energy is transmitted to the catalytic subunits in the ATP synthase F1 headpiece by the rotation of the camshaft.
Normally the energy from the proton gradient is used to manufacture ATP, but it is equally possible in vitro to do things the other way round, and use the hydrolysis of ATP to drive the camshaft, and ultimately pump protons back through the turbine and into the extramitochondrial compartment.
www.bmb.leeds.ac.uk /illingworth/oxphos/atpase.htm   (770 words)

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