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Topic: Abbasid Caliphate

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  Abbasid - HighBeam Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
Abbasid or Abbaside, Arab family descended from Abbas, the uncle of Muhammad.
The early years of Abbasid rule were brilliant, rising to true splendor under Harun al-Rashid, the fifth caliph, and to intellectual brilliance under his son al-Mamun (see Mamun, al-), the seventh caliph.
Arabs, Persians, and the advent of the Abbasids reconsidered.
www.encyclopedia.com /doc/1E1-abbasid.html   (561 words)

The office of the caliph was nonetheless maintained as a symbol of the unity of Islam, and several later Abbasid caliphs tried to revive the power of the office.
Abbasid was the dynastic name generally given to the caliphs of Baghdad, the second of the two great dynasties of the Muslim empire.
The Abbasid caliphs officially based their claim to the throne on their descent from Abbas (AD 566-652), the eldest uncle of Muhammad, in virtue of which descent they regarded themselves as the rightful heirs of the Prophet as opposed to the Umayyads, the descendants of Umar.
mb-soft.com /believe/txh/abbasid.htm   (2390 words)

 d. The Abbasid Caliphate and Its Breakup. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History
The first Abbasid ruler, a descendant of the Prophet's uncle al-Abbas, was proclaimed caliph publicly in the mosque in Kufa on Nov. 28, 749, just months before the forces of the Abbasid Revolution brought a final end to Umayyad rule.
Abu Muslim, the former leader of the Abbasid Revolution in Khurasan, was killed by order of the caliph, who feared his power in the province.
www.bartleby.com /67/292.html   (883 words)

The 'Abbasids themselves came from their retreat at Humaymah in southern Jordan, and in 749 the first 'Abbasid caliph, as-Saffah, was proclaimed in the mosque at Al-Kufah.
This rebellion was extremely serious for the 'Abbasid government: it laid to waste large areas of agricultural land, and the great trading port of Basra was taken and sacked in 871, the rebels burning mosques and houses and massacring the inhabitants with indiscriminate ferocity.
The political catastrophe of the 'Abbasid Caliphate was accompanied by economic collapse.
www.angelfire.com /nt/Gilgamesh/abasid1.html   (1996 words)

The Abbasids were all of one big family that claimed to descend from Abbas, an uncle of Muhammad.
The Abbasids governed from Baghdad, a city the second Abbasid Caliph founded in 762, and Samara for some periods in the 9th century.
In political terms, the Abbasid Caliphs became puppets in the hands of the Turkish military troops, and in 935 the title Emiru l-Umara was transferred to the chief of the Turkish soldiers.
lexicorient.com /e.o/abbasids.htm   (403 words)

 Abbasid - TvWiki, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
Abbasid (Arabic: العبّاسيّون Abbāsīyūn) was the dynastic name generally given to the caliphs of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Muslim empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs.
The Abbasid caliphs officially based their claim to the Caliphate on their descent from Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib (AD 566-652), one of the youngest uncles of the Prophet Muhammad, by virtue of which descent they regarded themselves as the rightful heirs of the Prophet as opposed to the Umayyads.
The Abbasids also appealed to non-Arab Muslims, known as mawali, who remained outside the kinship-based society of Arab culture and were perceived of as a lower class within the Umayyad empire.
www.tvwiki.tv /wiki/Abbasid   (1293 words)

 caliphate - HighBeam Encyclopedia
The caliph had temporal and spiritual authority but was not permitted prophetic power; this was reserved for Muhammad.
In 750 the Abbasid family, descended from the Prophet's uncle, led a coalition that defeated (749-50) the Umayyad family.
A third competing contemporaneous caliphate was established by the Fatimids in Africa, Syria, and Egypt (909-1171).
www.encyclopedia.com /doc/1E1-caliphat.html   (582 words)

 Abbasid - Search Results - ninemsn Encarta
Abbasids, dynasty of caliphs who ruled the caliphate of Islam from 750 until 1258.
All of these caliphs were descended from Abbas, a member of the...
653), paternal uncle of the Prophet Muhammad and of the fourth caliph, Ali.
au.encarta.msn.com /Abbasid.html   (108 words)

 Iraq the Abbasid Caliphate, 750-1258
The Abbasids, whose line was called "the blessed dynasty" by it supporters, presented themselves to the people as divine-right rulers who would initiate a new era of justice and prosperity.
Shias from the Iranian province of Daylam south of the Caspian Sea, the Buwayhids continued to permit Sunni Abbasid caliphs to ascend to the throne.
The humiliation of the caliphate at being manipulated by Shias, and by Iranian ones at that, was immense.
www.country-studies.com /iraq/the-abbasid-caliphate,-750-1258.html   (1287 words)

Under the ¿Abbasids, it was the Khorasanian guards of the caliphs who had the dominant place in the army; and Persian officials and secretaries, as well as military commanders, played an increased role in shaping and guiding the state apparatus.
The caliphate lost its democratic character and assumed something of the nature of a despotic theocracy; access to the sovereign became more difficult, and the pomp and ceremony which we often consider a concomitant of oriental monarchy, and which the Persians had already known for over a millennium, increased.
The ¿Abbasids were content, after T®a@her's early death, to appoint his sons and other members of the family to the governorship of Khorasan; and the Taherids were equally firmly entrenched in offices and sources of wealth in the capital, Baghdad, and other parts of Iraq.
www.iranica.com /newsite/articles/v1f1/v1f1a052.html   (4028 words)

 The Art of the Abbasid Period (750-1258 A.D.) | Special Topics Page | Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
Abbasid rule were a golden age in which Baghdad and Samarra’; functioned as the cultural and commercial capitals of the Islamic world.
Abbasid political unity weakened and independent or semi-autonomous local dynasties were established in Egypt, Iran, and other parts of the realm.
Abbasid caliphate thus marked the end of the universal Arab-Muslim empire.
www.metmuseum.org /toah/hd/abba/hd_abba.htm   (600 words)

 Treasure of Baghdad: Abbasids
The Abbasids seized the caliphate following the overthrow of the Umayyad dynasty of caliphs, and held it until the Mongols sacked Baghdad and killed the last caliph of the line.
Harun ar-Rashid (766-809), fifth caliph (786-809) of the Abbasid dynasty of Baghdād.
His name is translated as “Aaron the Upright.” He was the son of the third Abbasid caliph, al-Mahdi, and succeeded to the throne on the death of his brother al-Hadi.
baghdadtreasure.blogspot.com /2005/09/abbasids.html   (1265 words)

 Royalty.nu - Royalty and Religion - The Caliphate, Fatimids, Aga Khan
The History of Al-Tabari: The Reunification of the Abbasid Caliphate, the Caliphate of Al-Ma Mun A.D. by Al-Tabari, translated by C.E. Bosworth.
The Crisis of the Abbasid Caliphate by Al-Tabari, translated by George Saliba.
Reinterpreting Islamic Historiography: Harun al-Rashid and the Narrative of the Abbasid Caliphate by Tayeb El-Hibri.
www.royalty.nu /history/religion/Caliphate.html   (818 words)

The caliph al-Mu`tasim (833-842) is credited with importing Turkish slaves to serve as soldiers; their power quickly grew and eventually reduced the caliphate to a puppet institution.
Although this caliphate was purely nominal, it served to legitimize the rule of secular dynasties.
The last Abbasid caliph was deposed by Selim I, the Ottoman conquerer of Syria and Egypt; thereafter the title of caliph was held by the Ottoman sultans.
www.princeton.edu /~batke/itl/denise/abbasids.htm   (1085 words)

 The Islamic World to 1600: The Fractured Caliphate and the Regional Dynasties (The Abbasid Dynasty)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
The Abbasids established the position of vizier in their administration, which was the equivalent of a "vice-caliph," or second-in-command.
The Abbasid leadership was strong in the last half of the eighth century, with several competent caliphs and their viziers guiding the administrative changes.
By the 9th century, Abbasid control began to wane as regional leaders sprang up in the far corners of the empire to challenge the central authority of the Abbasid caliphate.
www.ucalgary.ca /applied_history/tutor/islam/fractured/abbasid.html   (519 words)

 Abbasid Coinage System
One major element of the diversity of the first Abbasid era, before al-Ma'mun's reform, was the plethora of officials that were named on the coins, ranging from the caliphs down to unidentified local officials.
The coinage issued in mints under their control was Abbasid coinage, part of the Abbasid monetary system, and circulated throughout the caliphate along with coins issued in other places with the caliph's name only.
The right of the caliphs to be universally named on coins, and their monopoly of the right to allow others to be named, were the basis of the Islamic concept that being named on coins was an indication of sovereignty.
www.numismatics.org /collections/abbasid.html   (3113 words)

 [No title]
From: D. Margoliouth, ed., The Eclipse of the Abbasid Caliphate; Original Chronicles of the Fourth Islamic Century (The Concluding Portion of the Experiences of Nations by Miskawaihi), (London: Basil Blackwell, 1921), Vol.
The sacking of Canton coincides with the rise of the Abbasid caliphate and the subsequent establishment of their power base and capital in the eastern Islamic empire.
Lewis shows little interest in the entire period that falls between the early Abbasid caliphate of the eighth and ninth centuries and the late Ottoman period of the eighteenth century, which directly precedes the European colonization of the Middle East.
www.lycos.com /info/abbasid-caliphate--centuries.html   (471 words)

 The Abassid Caliphate
The 'Abassid caliphate was founded on two disaffected Islamic populations: non-Arabic Muslims and Shi'ites.
The Umayyad caliphate flourished in Spain for the next three centuries and the Islamic culture that grew on this fertile soil, the Moorish culture, was dramatically different from the Iranian-Semitic culture that grew up around the 'Abbasid Caliphate.
The 'Abbasids, in adopting Iranian culture in part and in distancing themselves from their Semitic origins (for instance, by instituting Mamluk armies), further accelerated the cultural divisions in the world of Islam.
www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org /jsource/History/Abassid.html   (1393 words)

 The later '
These Iraq Seljuq sultans tried unsuccessfully to maintain their control over the 'Abbasid caliph in Baghdad, but in 1135 the caliph al-Mustarshid (1118-35) personally led an army against the sultan Mas'ud, although he was defeated and later assassinated.
For nearly half a century, he tried to rally the Islamic world under the banner of 'Abbasid universalism, not only politically, by emphasizing the necessity for the support of caliphal causes, but also morally, by attempting to reconcile the Sunnites and the Shi'ites.
Through this policy, he was able to rid himself of the last Iraq Seljuq sultan, Toghrl III (1176-94), who was killed by the Khwarezm-Shah 'Ala' ad-Din Tekish (1172-1200), the ruler of the province lying along the lower course of the Amu Darya (ancient Oxus River) in Central Asia.
www.angelfire.com /nt/Gilgamesh/abasid2.html   (412 words)

 History of the Muslims, empires of Islam
The institution of the caliphs is called the "Caliphate." The office of caliph was held first by the Four Rightly Guided Caliphs, then by the Umayyads, and then the Abbasids.
The death of the last Abbasid emperor in Baghdad ended the caliphate for all intents and purposes.
When Ali was elected Caliph, they believed that their views would finally dominate, but after Ali’s assassination, the leadership of the umma moved to the Umayyads.
biblia.com /islam/history.htm   (2490 words)

 The Caliphate: Its Rise, Decline, and Fall - From Original Sources [Chapter 60]
Monarchs reigning in Cordova could only be recognized as "Caliphs", in so far as every supreme ruler of Islam holds in his hand the spiritual as well as the secular authority, and may thus in some sense claim to be the Caliph or Successor of the Prophet.
Before long the Caliphs drew their bodyguard entirely from the Turks about the Oxus; and that barbarous race, scenting from afar the from the delights of the South, was not slow to follow in their wake.
The Caliph was thus kept informed of all that was going on even in the most distant provinces in the shortest time possible.
www.answering-islam.org /Books/Muir/Caliphate/chap60.htm   (972 words)

 Histroy of Iran
Persian scholars and artists played an important role in this intellectual activity; from the very beginning of the Abbasid Caliphate, they had been placed in charge of the highest court functions, and a large number of Iranian customs and traditions were rapidly adopted in Baghdad.
The governors whom the caliphs had appointed to administer the frontier provinces displayed a tendency to establish virtually independent local dynasties.
The pictorial art (miniatures) in the final period before the destruction of the caliphate is found mainly in manuscripts illustrating either scientific or literary works and was mainly restricted to Iraq.
www.farhangsara.com /history_abbasid.htm   (812 words)

 Wiet. Baghdad
Under the Abbasids, there was also the social advancement of administrative secretaries, which enabled them to succeed the poets of an earlier period, who had been the only ones to earn their living in the field of letters.
The poets of the Abbasid period were worthy of their great ancestors of pre-Islamic times and of the Umayyad court.
During the reigns of several Abbasid caliphs, the Mausilis delighted the court of Baghdad.
www.fordham.edu /halsall/med/wiet.html   (5037 words)

Under the second Abbasid caliph, called al-Mansur d.
Long periods of disorder were marked by assassinations, depositions, control by Turkish soldiers, and other disturbances, and from the beginning of their reign there were rival caliphs.
The 37th caliph died in the disaster, but a member of the family escaped to Cairo, where he was recognized as caliph.
www.afghanchamberofcommerce.com /history/abbasid.htm   (319 words)

 The Abbassids   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
When the 'Abbasids took power, the center of Islamic culture shifted from the Semitic world in Arabia and Syria to the Iranian or Persian world in Iraq.
An uprising in Mecca in 786 led to a massacre of Shi'ite 'Alids—the survivors, however, fled to the western region of Africa, or the Maghreb, and established a new and independent kingdom, the Idrisid kingdom.
Khalifah Abu Jafar Al-Mansur, the second Abbasid Khalifah, moved the capital of the Islamic Empire from Damascus in Syria to Baghdad in Mesopotamia.
islamic-world.net /islamic-state/abbasiah.htm   (2220 words)

The symbolic crowns in the diagram are for the Prophet and the Caliphs (Khalifah, "successor").
After the Abbasid overthrow and massacre of the Omayyads, Spain was a place where their authority was never asserted.
After the Ommayads prevented the imposition of Abbasid authority in Spain, the first territories to be wholly alienated from the Caliphate were in North Africa -- the Maghrib, the "West." This was mostly a matter of heterodoxy.
www.friesian.com /islam.htm   (9016 words)

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