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Topic: Abkhaz language

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  Phoneme - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
In spoken language, a phoneme is a basic, theoretical unit of sound that can distinguish words (that is, changing a phoneme in a word, produces another word, that has a different meaning).
The English language itself uses a rather large set of 13 to 22 vowels, though its 22 to 26 consonants are pretty close to average.
Languages where a given symbol represents only one phoneme and every phoneme is represented only by one symbol are known by the layman as "phonetic languages", which might be better described as "phonemically written".
www.newlenox.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/Phoneme   (1728 words)

 Abkhaz language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Abkhaz is a Northwest Caucasian language spoken in Abkhazia and Turkey.
Abkhaz is a Northwest Caucasian language, indicating it originated in the northwest Caucasus.
Abkhaz is spoken primarily in Abkhazia and Turkey.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Abkhaz_language   (468 words)

 Abkhaz language -- Facts, Info, and Encyclopedia article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Abkhaz is a (Click link for more info and facts about Norwest Caucasian language) Norwest Caucasian language spoken in (A state in southeastern United States; one of the Confederate states during the American Civil War) Georgia and (A Eurasian republic in Asia Minor and the Balkans; achieved independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1923) Turkey.
Abkhaz is a (Click link for more info and facts about Northwest Caucasian language) Northwest Caucasian language, indicating it originated in the northwest (The mountain range in Caucasia between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea that forms part of the traditional border between Europe and Asia) Caucasus.
Abkhaz is spoken primarily in (A state in southeastern United States; one of the Confederate states during the American Civil War) Georgia and (A Eurasian republic in Asia Minor and the Balkans; achieved independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1923) Turkey.
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/A/Ab/Abkhaz_language.htm   (600 words)

 Vowel - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
In phonetics, a vowel is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by an open configuration of the vocal tract, in contrast to consonants, which are characterized by a constriction or closure at one or more points along the vocal tract.
However, some languages allow sounds that wouldn't normally be classified as vowels to form the nucleus of a syllable, such as the sound of m in the English word prism, or the sound of r in the Czech word vrba (meaning "willow").
Vowels are especially important to the structures of words in languages that have very few consonants (like Polynesian languages such as Maori and Hawaiian), and in languages whose inventory of vowels is larger than its inventory of consonants (like Sedang, a relative of Vietnamese, which contrasts 55 different vowel qualities).
www.hackettstown.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/Vowel   (1997 words)

 Abkhaz language   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Abkhaz is an agglutinative language spoken in Georgia, Turkey and the Republic of Abkhazia on the Black Sea.
Abkhaz has only been a full literary language for about 100 years, and during the Stalinist Russian years Abkhaz was banned as a literary language.
Abkhaz has its own alphabet, based on Cyrillic, and is now the national language of the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia.
www.termsdefined.net /ab/abkhaz-language.html   (469 words)

 Caucasus Foundation
Abkhaz resistance to collectivisation was considerable, and an Abkhaz ASSR was established to please native and Russian Communist cadres in the area.
In 1978, Abkhaz intellectuals wrote an open letter to Brezhnev, expressing their concern for their ethnic population, and were met by certain economic concessions.
Abkhaz invitations to talks were ignored by the political leadership in Tiflis until Georgia had the army occupy Sukhum and the southern part of Abkhazia in August 1992.
www.kafkas.org.tr /english/bgkafkas/abkhazia.htm   (923 words)

 Encyclopedia: Abkhaz language   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The term Caucasian languages is loosely used to refer to a large and extremely varied array of languages spoken by more than 7 million people in the Caucasus region of Eastern Europe, between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea.
The Abaza language (Абаза Бызшва/Abaza Byzšwa) is a language of the Caucasus mountains in the Russian autonomous republic of Turkey, where the Roman alphabet is used.
The adverbial case is a noun case in the Abkhaz language and Georgian language that has function similar to the translative and essive cases.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Abkhaz-language   (1355 words)

 [No title]
Abkhaz Although Abkhaz and its divergent Abaza dialect have had official status as literary languages on their home-territories since the early days of the Soviet Union, the demographic facts and the dominance of Russian (or Turkish amongst the diaspora) mean that Abkhaz(-Abaza) must be classified as endangered (at least over the medium term).
Abkhaz should be a compulsory subject for study for a certain number of hours per week upto whatever grade is judged appropriate by local educationalists, but I see no reason why this should not continue to the end of secondary education.
Abkhazia's other languages If what has been said thus far represents some musings in relation to the present state of, and future possibilities for, Abkhaz, we have to remember that Abkhazia, like most regions in the Caucasus, is a cosmopolitan area with a heterogeneous population.
www.socsci.uci.edu /istudies/peace/progs/conf/GeorgeHewittscan.doc   (2125 words)

 ABKHAZIA.ORG - The Abkhaz Language
Abkhaz belongs to the small North West Caucasian language-family whose other members are Circassian, the virtually extinct Ubykh and Abaza.
The first script devised for (Bzâp) Abkhaz was that proposed in 1862/3 by the man who laid the foundation for the study of North Caucasian languages, the Russian soldier-linguist Baron Peter von Uslar.
When the Young Written Languages of the USSR were forced to move to Cyrillic-based scripts in 1936-38, Abkhaz (along with South Ossetic) was compelled to accept a Georgian-based orthography, which lasted until the death of (Georgian) Stalin.
www.abkhazia.org /lang.html   (1249 words)

 Contested Borders in the Caucasus : Chapter I (3/4)
Abkhazia (Apsny, "a Country of the Soul" in the Abkhaz language, Abkhazeti in Georgian), an autonomous republic in Georgia situated on the Black Sea coast, had, as of 1 January 1990, a population of 537,000, of which 44% were Georgians, 17% Abkhaz, 16% Russians and 15% Armenians.
Nevertheless, the fact that the Abkhaz - a people with two thousand years of recorded history - were reduced by that history to 17% of the republic's population, and were enduring what they viewed as the smouldering enmity of the less tolerant part of the Georgian population towards their national aspirations, was taking its toll.
On 18 March 1989, an Abkhaz assembly in the village of Lykhny proposed that Abkhazia should secede from Georgia and that the status of a Union republic be restored to it.
poli.vub.ac.be /publi/ContBorders/eng/ch0103.htm   (4062 words)

 Chronology of Abkhazia through August 1999
Abkhaz schools reopen, the Abkhaz language is reinstated and some restrictions on Abkhaz cultural life are lifted.
Two-stage elections to the Abkhaz parliament are held on a quota basis in accordance with an electoral law adopted in August.
Abkhaz militia clash with Georgian armed groups, notably the White Legion, Forest Brothers and Liberation Army, some of which are alleged to have links with the Abkhaz ‘government-in-exile’ in Tbilisi and the Georgian Ministry of State Security and Ministry of Internal Affairs.
www.state.gov /p/eur/rls/or/13517.htm   (4145 words)

 ABKHAZ   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Spoken in Abkhazia, a region of western Georgia.
Source: "Das Gebet des Herrn in den Sprachen Russlands" ("The Lord's Prayer in the languages of Russia"), St. Petersburg, 1870.
Source: "The Gospels of Mathew, Mark, Luke and John in Abkhaz Language" - Christian Publishing House - 1998.
www.christusrex.org /www1/pater/JPN-abkhaz.html   (54 words)

 Language-planning for North Caucasian Languages in Turkey By George Hewitt   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
On the whole, the indigenous Caucasian languages, which form either two or three distinct families (depending on whether or not one believes that North West Caucasian and Nakh-Daghestanian derive from a common ancestor) are spoken today over what are regarded as their ancestral territories (with some local expansion or reduction in certain cases).
This immediately introduces a disparity between the use of 'i' in the Adyghe script and its use here in Abkhaz, for, not being faced with the necessity of having to indicate palatalisation in Adyghe, Höhlig was free to use this vowel-character in the way she chose.
If literary Abkhaz's back fricatives are to be regarded as basically uvulars, their representation in the orthography being proposed would have to be altered accordingly; for those who take this view, the extra fricatives of Bzyp would presumably be treated (and marked) as pharyngalised uvulars.
circassianworld.5u.com /hewitt.html   (3978 words)

 Georgians and Abkhazians. The Search for a Peace Settlement Chp 2 Part 1
In the period of Georgian independence 1918-21, the ethnic Abkhaz elite was divided, with opponents of unity with Georgia in the majority, but the Georgian government was able to combine an alliance with the pro-Georgian section of the Abkhaz elite with military pressure to keep the province within the newly independent Georgia.
Certain bureaucratic posts were set aside for ethnic Abkhaz, and this, given that the latter comprised only a minority of the population of Abkhazia, was a serious impediment to the careers of the Georgians living in the autonomous republic.
Second, the Abkhaz had a much weaker starting-point than the Georgians: they were much fewer in absolute numbers, they were the minority in Abkhazia, and their status within the USSR was lower than that of Georgia.
poli.vub.ac.be /publi/Georgians/chp0201.html   (5204 words)

 Avtandil Menteshashvili - Some national and ethnic problems in Georgia (1918-1922)
Therefore, in my opinion, the founding of the Abkhaz written language must not be an object in itself, but a means to reduce the demand for the Georgian language through the church and school, and replace it gradually by the state language" (*6) (i.
Majority of the Abkhaz People's Council were landowners, (*32) and it was but natural, that their attitude towards the social-democratic government of Georgia was far from "friendly", since the social and political reforms effected the interests of the propertied class, in particular, of pro-Turkish landowners.
Representatives of the Abkhaz Mahajirs did apply to the head of the Georgian mission in Turkey, G. Rtskhiladze, on February 16, 1920, for the permission to be repatriated to Abkhazia.
sisauri.tripod.com /politic/abkhazia.htm   (13351 words)

The Abkhaz became Christian in 550AD, had an independent kingdom in the 8th century, were a while under Georgian control, then came under the Ottoman empire in the 16th century, and converted to Islam.
The northern Tigre speak the Semitic Tigre language, are mainly nomads, and live in the arid lowlands of north and east Eritrea and southeast Sudan.
Their language is classed with Mingrelian in the Zan (Colchian) branch of the Kartvelian (South Caucasian) languages, and is related to Georgian and Svan.
www.angelfire.com /az/rescon/MEHBKPPL.html   (10436 words)

 ipedia.com: Abkhazia Article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Abkhazia (Apsny in Abkhaz, Abkhazeti in Georgian and Russian Абха́зия) is a region of 8,600 sq km in the Caucasus.
Georgian became the official language, the Abkhaz language was banned, and cultural rights were repressed, with thousands of Abkhazians killed during Stalin's purges.
The Abkhaz conflict has not been resolved; a ceasefire agreement was signed on May 15, 1994 and a United Nations peacekeeping force (UNOMIG) was given the task of monitoring the agreement.
www.ipedia.com /abkhazia.html   (2132 words)

 The Red Book of the Peoples of the Russian Empire
Being extremely rich in consonants (68 according to G. Klimov) the Abkhaz language is considered to be one of the most difficult to acquire of all the languages spoken on the ex-Soviet territory.
In February 1921 the Abkhaz SSR was established, in December of that year it was incorporated into the Georgian SSR according to the Union treaty.
The Abkhaz were 5 % urban in 1926, 15 % in 1939, 28 % in 1959 and 34.5 % in 1970.
www.eki.ee /books/redbook/abkhaz.shtml   (2065 words)

 ISN Security Watch - Abkhaz presidential race in final lap   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Although the Abkhaz CEC lists 165’248 eligible voters, down from 216’000 in the 2002 parliamentary elections, Georgian sources further lower this figure to 70’000, due to widespread population shifts before and after the war.
Oleg Damenia, an Abkhaz analyst, argues that the Abkhaz electorate is not mentally prepared for a fair election, as its psychological makeup still bears Soviet-era habits.
On 29 September, the Abkhaz Ministry of State Security claimed that Georgian task forces and weaponry are concentrating along the Abkhaz border, and it called on residents of Abkhazia to exercise vigilance.
www.isn.ethz.ch /news/sw/details_print.cfm?id=9808   (1100 words)

Some Abkhaz have publicly argued that Bagapsh should not become president as his wife is Georgian.
If the current Abkhaz leadership is indeed intent on rigging the outcome of the ballot to ensure a victory for Khadjimba, they should not find it difficult to do so given the chaotic conditions created by the election law.
The Abkhaz Central Election Commission gives the total number of voters as 165,248, but the number of registered voters in Gali (where Bagapsh hopes to win the support of the predominantly Georgian electorate) is not known with any certainty: it has been variously estimated at 9,000 and 15,000.
www.rferl.org /newsline/2004/10/5-NOT/not-011004.asp?po=y   (908 words)

 Languages of the Caucasus - Biocrawler   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The term Caucasian languages is loosely used to refer to a large and extremely varied array of languages spoken by more than seven million people in the Caucasus region of Eastern Europe and Western Asia, between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea.
Urartian was the language of Urartu, a powerful state centered in the area of Lake Van in Turkey, that existed between 1000 BC or earlier and 585 BC.
The fact that Basque, an isolated language spoken in the Pyrenees, also has an ergative case system has led many scholars to propose it as a displaced member of some Caucasian family.
www.biocrawler.com /biowiki/Languages_of_the_Caucasus   (870 words)

 Abkhaz alphabet, pronunciation and language
Abkhaz is a North West Caucasian language with about 105,000 speakers in Georgia, Turkey and Ukraine.
There are two main dialects of Abkhaz: the northern Bzâp dialect and the southern Abz'âwa dialect, upon which literary Abkhaz is based.
Abkhaz first appeared in writing in 1862/3 in the Cyrillic alphabet using a spelling system based on the Bzâp dialect and devised by the Russian soldier-linguist Baron Peter von Uslar.
www.omniglot.com /writing/abkhaz.htm   (232 words)

 Abkhaz - Priz epen   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Language* Specify what language is supported by your service.
Providence University in Taiwan, to document the Yami language and facilitate preservation and dissemination of thesince 1994 by the principal applicant and her Yami language consultant.
Language Products >> C-Pen 20 Scanning Pen Reads printed text (in 168 languages) directly into your PC - Brand new Summer 2005 Modeltext-recognition, but also the scanning speed and number of languages that can be recognised.
www.prizepen.com /language/abkhaz.html   (447 words)

 Proto-Pontic language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Proto-Pontic has two members: Proto-Indo-European and, the protolanguages of the Indo-European (IE) and Northwest Caucasian (NWC) language families.
Linguists have postulated this protolanguage after observing many similarities between these two protolanguages in the areas of phonology and morphology.
Nasal negating particles in both families: English not (IE), French ne (IE), German nicht (IE), Russian nyet (IE); compare Ubykh m- (NWC), Abkhaz m- (NWC).
www.lighthousepoint.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/Proto-Pontic   (193 words)

 MINELREL-L Archive (02231998-18:13:48-15731)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The aim appears to be to phase out Georgian as the language of instruction, and convert all schools to the Russian language.
Since 1994, in accordance with a decree issued by the de facto Abkhaz authorities, teaching of Georgian language and literature was no longer allowed in these schools.
The concern by the UN Human Rights Office in Abkhazia, Georgia, which is jointly staffed by the United Nations and OSCE, was communicated to the de facto Abkhaz authorities in Sukhumi and referred to the situation in the Gali district of Abkhazia, Georgia.
www.arts.uwaterloo.ca /minelres/archive/02231998-18:13:48-15731.html   (494 words)

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