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# Topic: Absolute gain

###### In the News (Mon 22 Jul 19)

 Gain - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia A gain of 10 would imply that either the voltage or power is increased by a factor of 10. In antenna design, gain is the logarithm of the ratio of the intensity of an antenna's radiation pattern in the direction of strongest radiation to that of a reference antenna. Gain is calculated by fair market value or the proceeds from the sale of the investment minus the sum of the purchase price and all costs associated with it. en.wikipedia.org /?title=Gain   (610 words)

 How To Gain Muscle -- Recommendations and Resources   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29) In telecommunication, insertion gain is the gain resulting from the insertion of a device in a transmission line, expressed as the ratio of the signal power delivered to that part of the line following the device to the signal power delivered to that same part before insertion. For dish-type antennas, gain is proportional to the aperture (reflective area) and surface accuracy of the antenna, as well as the frequency being transmitted/received. Gain, expressed in decibels, or dB, is primarily a function of antenna capture area or aperture: the larger the antenna aperture, the higher the antenna gain. www.becomingapediatrician.com /health/76/how-to-gain-muscle.html   (1191 words)

 Absolute gain -- Facts, Info, and Encyclopedia article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29) If no direction is given, the absolute (The amount by which the revenue of a business exceeds its cost of operating) gain of an antenna corresponds to the direction of maximum (Click link for more info and facts about effective radiated power) effective radiated power. Absolute gain is usually expressed in (A logarithmic unit of sound intensity; 10 times the logarithm of the ratio of the sound intensity to some reference intensity) dB. Examples of absolute gain are no- (Weight to be borne or conveyed) load gain, full-load gain, and small-signal gain. www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/a/ab/absolute_gain.htm   (100 words)

 Absolute Accuracy of Dynamic Signal Acquisition Devices - KnowledgeBase - Support - National Instruments Absolute accuracy is used to define the overall uncertainties of a measurement. Gain Error - A measure of the deviation of the gain of an amplifier from the ideal gain. As an example, Absolute Accuracy is calculated for the Analog Input and Analog Output of the NI 4461. digital.ni.com /public.nsf/allkb/BA704FDCBB6C9C4E86256FAC006DB66B   (444 words)

 Antenna Concepts   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29) At higher frequencies, it is common to use a calibrated gain horn as a gain standard, with gain typically expressed in dBi. Absolute radiation patterns are presented in absolute units of field strength or power. Gain is achieved at the expense of beamwidth: higher-gain antennas feature narrow beamwidths while the opposite is also true. radioscanning.wox.org /scanner/other_info/antenna_concepts.htm   (1897 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29) Gain curves for various receivers and freq (09mar03) (ps) (.pdf) are plotted versus zenith angle. This is the gain at za of 10 for all the gain curves using the frequencies of the actual measurements. The absolute gain (in K/Jy) that is quoted may be incorrect, but the gain curves are still a valid tool for using the flux of the calibrator sources to determine the flux of a user's source. www.naic.edu /~phil/multiFreq/gaincurveplotAllFreq.html   (338 words)

 Status of the GIS gain calibration Note that the calibration sources are used to correct time variations of the gains, but not used to determine the absolute gain, since gain drops rapidly near the detector rim where absolute energy determination is inevitably difficult. The short-term gain variation is known to be caused by temperature variation of the sensor due to day-night transitions and/or satellite aspect changes. Because of the azimuthal gain fluctuation, which is not corrected in the current gain calibration, the copper line peak azimuthally integrated at the outermost region no longer fits with a single gaussian model (figure below; postscript file is available), although discrepancy of the line center energy is at most 0.5 %. heasarc.gsfc.nasa.gov /docs/asca/gain.html   (1540 words)

 Re: True Antenna Efficiency   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29) Gain (strictly "absolute gain") is "the ratio of the radiation intensity in a given direction, to the radiation intensity that would be obtained if the power accepted by the antenna were radiated isotropically". Then there is "Realised gain" which is "the gain of an antenna reduced by the losses due to the mismatch of the antenna input impedance to a specified impedance". This can be shown to be the absolute gain minus the mismatch loss. www.antennex.com /atheory3/_atheory3/00000065.htm   (215 words)

 [No title] The absolute calibration actually produces two different results: a) The absolute gain of the large antenna,=20 and b) The absolute flux of the astronomical calibrator. Result (a) requires a comparison of the (absolute) gain of standard gain = horn (Req 1), corrected for the waveguide losses (Req 2), to that of the = large antenna. The gain horn antenna temperature may be easier to = measure than that of the large antenna, since a load covering the horn = is quite feasible (note that in their original experiment, Gibson and = Welch actually used the waveguide switch also to calibrate the antenna = temperature scale of the large antenna). www.cv.nrao.edu /~awootten/mmaimcal/sgcalproposal.txt   (1162 words)

 Internet Sound Institute - Feedback As the gain of the system is increased, the loudspeaker will put more and more acoustic energy into the room. As the gain of the amplifier is increased, the level the microphone picks up from the loudspeaker is increased. It is possible to increase the apparent acoustic gain without changing the absolute gain. www.soundinstitute.com /article_detail.cfm/ID/112   (773 words)

 Presidents and employment trends - - MSNBC.com Absolute loss: The aging industrial market of Gary, Ind., had the hardest time during the Reagan administration, slipping from 253,100 jobs at the beginning to 231,000 at the end, a loss of 22,100. Absolute gain: The energy bust of the 1980s brought Houston's economy to a screeching halt, but conditions began to improve after Bush took office. Absolute gain: Atlanta's growth during the Clinton years was breathtaking, resulting in the addition of 632,400 jobs, the equivalent of 79,050 per year. www.msnbc.msn.com /id/4653882   (1384 words)

 Gain biography .ms   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29) In electronics, gain is the logarithm (base 10) of the ratio of signal output from a system to signal input to the system. In antenna design, gain is the logarithm of the ratio of the antenna's radiation pattern to that of some ideal antenna, typically the theoretical isotropic antenna. In finance, gain is profit or increase in value of an investment such as stock and bond. gain.biography.ms   (275 words)

 Absolute gain - FreeEncyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29) Of an antenna, for a given direction and polarization, the ratio of (a) the power that would be required at the input of an ideal isotropic radiator to (b) the power actually supplied to the given antenna, to produce the same radiation intensity in the far-field region. Of a device, the ratio of (a) the signal level at the output of the device to (b) that of its input under a specified set of operating conditions. Note 1: Examples of absolute gain are no-load gain, full-load gain, and small-signal gain. openproxy.ath.cx /ab/Absolute_gain.html   (148 words)

 Best of the EXOSAT Express The remaining line in the spectrum between channels 200 and 225 is identified with Xenon K alpha and arises from the escape photons of high energy background particle events that are captured by the detector walls. This line cannot be used as an absolute calibration standard since comparison with the energies of the lead lines gives an energy lower than the expected value of 29.67 keV, probably arising from the fact that the escape photons illuminate the whole detector. GP is approximately 0.13 for gain 1.0 and 0.065 for gain 2.0. heasarc.gsfc.nasa.gov /docs/exosat/express/pg230.html   (3308 words)

 ACS Data Handbook   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29) Through analysis of observations of the same stellar field, in the same filter and at the two gain settings it is possible to obtain accurate adjustments of these gain values relative to the default gain levels. Absolute errors of about 0.6% could remain in the default gain values, but these are of no real consequence since redetermination of the CCD quantum efficiency would compensate for this, since the QE adjustments were based on data acquired with the default gains. Basic photometric calibrations apply with equal accuracy to data acquired at all supported gains (assuming for the non-default gains that reprocessing was done after January 6, 2004 to include the revised values). www.stsci.edu:8083 /hst/acs/documents/handbooks/DataHandbookv4/acs_Ch57.html?printable=1   (2784 words)

 Three-Antenna Gain Method On a Near-Field Range The Three-antenna near-field gain method is an extension of the direct gain method except that the probe gain is not known. The gain of each antenna is determined by solving a set of three equations describing the direct gain measurements of three antennas. Gain accuracy for this method is 0.23 dB as compared to 0.16 dB achieved using the direct gain near-field method with a NIST pre-calibrated probe. www.nearfield.com /amta/amta94wgs.htm   (1371 words)

 Internet Sound Institute - Microphones: Mystery Solved The absolute gain of your sound system is primarily set by the physical distance between the speaker system and the microphone. The absolute gain is the maximum gain in volume you can achieve before feedback occurs. The actual absolute gain can be influenced by high quality equipment and proper design, installation, and positioning of the equipment. www.soundinstitute.com /article_detail.cfm/ID/51   (1281 words)

 DXing.info :: Gain and Efficiency, The Big Myth It may be time to call attention to the fact that gain or efficiency has nothing to do with receiving system performance, so long as the background noise or QRM level is high enough to establish noise floor in the receiver. You can find the correct number by finding average gain of an antenna, and subtracting the absolute gain at the angle and direction of the desired signal. A gain increase may not be related to an increase in directivity, and when NOT related to increased directivity (or if your receiver is so poor its internal noise sets the system noise figure) the gain increase is useless. www.dxing.info /equipment/gain_efficiency_rauch.dx   (949 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29) Currently, the absolute gain of the radar system is estimated using solar source, point microwave source, or a known reflectivity from a spherical target. However, it is more appropriate if the absolute calibration of the radar system can be obtained using the weather target itself. Polarimetric radar measurements in a number of rain cells are used for calibrating absolute radar reflectivity. www.mmm.ucar.edu /uswrp/abstracts/Vivekanandan_J.html   (214 words)

 Cans4Sale.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29) Moksha is that stage in the life of a human being when one cuts across all the shackles of the senses and the mind. Gaining absolute control over the senses and the mind is a complex process. Gaining control over the five senses is the most difficult part in the life of a human being on the path to attaining Moksha. www.cans4sale.com /articles.asp?articleid=3743   (803 words)

 NIST Calibration Services: Electromagnetic Field Strength and Antenna Measurements This calibration service is offered primarily for determining the absolute on–axis gain and polarization of standard gain horns, which, in turn, are used as reference standards in determining the gain and polarization of other antennas by the gain comparison technique. With this technique, gain, pattern, and polarization parameters are calculated from near–field amplitude and phase measurements taken over a surface close to the test antenna. The absolute gain can be determined to within about 0.2 dB, the polarization axial ratio to within about 0.10 dB/dB, and side lobe levels can be obtained down to –50 dB or –60 dB. ts.nist.gov /ts/htdocs/230/233/calibrations/Electromagnetic/Electromagnetic-field-strength.htm   (1485 words)

 On Reducing Primary Calibration Errors in Radar Cross Section Measurements In order to confirm these uncertainties, absolute gain measurement and inter-comparisons with CATR measurements were performed. The simulated gain values were derived from simulated directivity values and subtraction of the estimated losses in the feed horn and reflectors The ASAS Antenna test results show a good correlation with predictions for gain and co-polarization patterns, confirming that the reflector manufacturing errors and its behavior under gravity conditions were correctly predicted. www.nearfield.com /amta/AMTA03_Alcatel.htm   (1785 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29) Both percentage gain and percentage POI may be used effectively in the relative mode. The Macro*World indicators may be used in the absolute mode to find stocks with a forecasted gain or probability of increase greater than some specific number. To find stocks with a forecasted gain greater than 10 percent, use % gain in the absolute mode with a minimum of 10 and 9999 as the maximum. prosearch.businessweek.com /businessweek/SEARCH_BESTA.html?Button=Description&CRITERIA=115   (466 words)

 Absolute vs relative return An absolute return is the actual amount of money made by an investment - i.e. It contrasts with a relative return which is adjusted to reflect a benchmark to which an investment is compared. The benchmark against which the relative gain is compared will vary and sometimes more than one relative gain number may be useful: for example the performance of a stock may be compared to a national market, or to its sector, or to its sub-sector. moneyterms.co.uk /relative-return   (120 words)

 linear circuit analysis   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29) The gain and delay may be plotted (the internal plotting routine uses standard ASCII characters). The tabular and plotted outputs may show the absolute gain or the gain relative to that at a given reference frequency. The (last entered) op-amp's gain available at each test frequency may be overlaid onto the plotted output; the tabulated output may include that op-amp's gain at each frequency. people.becon.org /~echoscan/11-09.htm   (341 words)

 Content of Source Packets and Onboard Processing   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29) The Absolute Radiometric Gain Calibration sequence is foreseen to be performed nominally once every 15 days, the Diffuser Ageing Monitoring sequences are executed on a three-monthly basis, the Wavelength Calibration Sequence is performed once every three months (when running on one spectral peak) or once every six months (when running on two spectral peaks), respectively. Each source packet which is generated in the Instrument Calibration Modes by the "fundamental sequence" holds the calibration coefficients or pixel data, respectively, for all modules and for one band described in the data field "Band Characteristics" of the data field header. First, the micro-bands are analogue processed with a programmable gain in order to achieve optimum performance in the analogue-to-digital conversion which codes the signal with 12 bit resolution. envisat.esa.int /dataproducts/meris/CNTR2-5-2.htm   (4347 words)

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