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Topic: Abstraction


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In the News (Tue 21 May 19)

  
  Abstraction - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Abstraction uses a strategy of simplification, wherein formerly concrete details are left ambiguous, vague, or undefined; thus effective communication about things in the abstract requires an intuitive or common experience between the communicator and the communication recipient.
Abstractions sometimes have ambiguous referents; for example, "happiness" (when used as an abstraction) can refer to as many things as there are people and events or states of being which make them happy.
Abstraction in philosophy is the process (or, to some, the alleged process) in concept-formation of recognizing some set of common features in individuals, and on that basis forming a concept of that feature.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/abstraction   (1719 words)

  
 Abstraction (computer science) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
An example of this abstraction process is the generational development of programming languages from the machine language to the assembly language and the high-level language.
Data abstraction is the enforcement of a clear separation between the abstract properties of a data type and the concrete details of its implementation.
Object-oriented languages are commonly claimed to offer data abstraction; however, their inheritance concept tends to put information in the interface that more properly belongs in the implementation; thus, changes to such information ends up impacting client code, leading directly to the fragile base class problem.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Abstraction_(computer_science)   (2915 words)

  
 Abstraction
Abstraction is a series of one or more transformations and/or transductions connected in series (input of one device connect to the output of another device).
Abstraction is composed of two processes, transformation and transduction, which may be affected by loss (generalization) or gain (particularization).
Reasoning by analogy is "explained" by two abstractions, generalization and particularization; a structure is generalized to obtain a second, more abstract, structure and that more abstract structure is particularized to form the structure "analogous" to the first.
www.xenodochy.org /gs/abstract.html   (2366 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The goal of abstraction is to isolate those aspects that are important for some purpose and suppress those aspects that are unimportant." -- [Rumbaugh et al, 1991] "The meaning [of abstraction] given by the Oxford English Dictionary (OED) closest to the meaning intended here is 'The act of separating in thought'.
Usually, abstraction is not defined in terms of information hiding, e.g., note the use of words such as "ignore" and "extracting." However, we should also note the use of the words "suppress" and "suppressing" in some of the above examples.
Using data abstraction, we would say that a list is a place where we can store information, but how the list is actually implemented (e.g., as an array or as a series of linked locations) is unimportant and should be hidden.
www.toa.com /pub/abstraction.txt   (2677 words)

  
 Peirce on Abstraction
Comparable "abstractional reasoning" might involve an investigation of the relations between properties of puzzles, using statements like "The difficulty of a puzzle is proportional to its complexity," or some such; note, for future reference, the generality of this last statement compared to those about a concrete puzzle.
The relationship of the abstract to the concrete is closely connected to that between the abstraction and the "more primary substances" or namable things upon which the abstraction's "being" depends, in that the concrete predication contrasted with a given abstraction is applied to the more primary substances upon which the abstraction in question depends.
An abstraction from this viewpoint is a unification of or a continuum between possible occurrences, and so is a thirdness, a generality, a habit; the being of the abstraction is dependent upon concrete occurrences, but they are dependent on it for their intelligible ordering.
web.clas.ufl.edu /users/jzeman/peirce_on_abstraction.htm   (7061 words)

  
 Category:Abstraction - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Abstraction is the thought process in which ideas are distanced from objects.
Abstraction uses a strategy of simplification of detail, wherein formerly concrete details are left ambiguous, vague, or undefined; thus speaking of things in the abstract demands that the listener have an intuitive or common experience with the speaker, if the speaker expects to be understood.
The main article for this category is Abstraction.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Category:Abstraction   (124 words)

  
 Hardware abstraction layer - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A hardware abstraction layer (HAL) is an abstraction layer, implemented in software, between the physical hardware of a computer and the software that runs on that computer.
Its function is to hide differences in hardware from most of the operating system kernel, so that most of the kernel-mode code does not need to be changed to run on systems with different hardware.
Hardware abstraction layers are of an even lower level in computer languages than application programming interfaces (API) because they interact directly with hardware instead of a system kernel, therefore HALs require less processing time than APIs.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Hardware_abstraction_layer   (396 words)

  
 Data abstraction   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Thus, when the mind considers the form of a tree by itself, or the color of the leaves as separate from their size or figure, the act is called abstraction.
We separate in idea the qualities of certain objects, which are of the same kind, from others which are different, in each, and arrange the objects having the same properties in a class, or collected body.
Abstraction is no positive act: it is simply the negative of attention.
www.serebella.com /encyclopedia/article-Data_abstraction.html   (732 words)

  
 Define abstraction - a definition from Whatis.com
Abstraction (from the Latin abs, meaning away from and trahere, meaning to draw) is the process of taking away or removing characteristics from something in order to reduce it to a set of essential characteristics.
Abstraction is related to both encapsulation and data hiding.
In the process of abstraction, the programmer tries to ensure that the entity is named in a manner that will make sense and that it will have all the relevant aspects included and none of the extraneous ones.
whatis.techtarget.com /definition/0,,sid9_gci343038,00.html   (416 words)

  
 Abstraction
When applied to visual art, abstraction always means an overriding concern with the internal design of a work of art rather than with the relationship of the work of art to phenomenal reality.
   Abstraction as a modern phenomenon seems to have taken hold in the earliest years of the twentieth century.
The process of abstraction in Western art was a slow process, beginning in the middle of the nineteenth century as the design elements of painting began to take precedence over the standard of observed reality.
www.wsu.edu /~dee/GLOSSARY/ABSTRACT.HTM   (1362 words)

  
 CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Abstraction
Abstraction is a process (or a faculty) by which the mind selects for consideration some one of the attributes of a thing to the exclusion of the rest.
With some writers, including the Scholastics, the attributes selected for attention are said to be abstracted; with others, as Kant and Hamilton, the term is applied to the exclusion of the attributes which are ignored; the process, however, is the same in both cases.
It is, therefore, evident that methods of leading the mind from the concrete to the abstract, as well as the development of a power of handling abstract ideas, are matters of great importance in the science of education.
www.newadvent.org /cathen/01074a.htm   (571 words)

  
 abstraction - Wiktionary
The act of abstracting, separating, or withdrawing, or the state of being withdrawn; withdrawal.
Mill, Principles of Political Economy with some of their Applications to Social Philosophy - The cancelling of the debt would be no destruction of wealth, but a transfer of it: a wrongful abstraction of wealth from certain members of the community, for the profit of the government, or of the tax-payers.
Note: Abstraction is necessary to classification, by which organisms are grouped into genera and species according to the qualities they share.
en.wiktionary.org /wiki/abstraction   (215 words)

  
 Hydrogen abstraction tool   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Abstraction of hydrogen is likely to be the most repeated step and common to building a wide range of molecular structures, including diamond-like structures.
The abstraction of hydrogen via any of several radicals is one of the central mechanisms involved in the growth of diamond.
HF will tend to overestimate the abstraction barrier since the radical-hydrogen stretching frequency is too high due to the poor description by HF of the bond breaking process (a doubly occupied orbital of the molecule must become two singly occupied orbitals for the fragments).
www.zyvex.com /nanotech/Habs/paper.html   (5380 words)

  
 http://www.highfunctioningautism.com
In order to understand abstraction as it relates to the use and interpretation of language by high functioning individuals on the autistic spectrum (HFIASs), we will first consider abstraction capabilities within the context of special interests, which are often very strongly held among this group.
A variation on abstraction deficits frequently attributed to HFIASs is the difficulty in generalizing from one situation to a comparable one (e.g., Stanton, 2000).
This may occur either (a) because the HFIAS fails appreciate the non-literal intention of the expression or (b) because a recognition of non-literal intent may be delayed (with the latter outcome expected to be increasingly common as functionality increases).
www.highfunctioningautism.com   (2706 words)

  
 Abstraction
There are two aspects of the concept of abstraction, as it is used: in the context of the modelling scheme *, and in the context of metasystem transition in the language.
It should be kept in mind, however, that abstraction is not so much a specific representation (a linguistc object), as the procedure M which defines what is ignored and what is not ignored in the mapping.
The abstraction 'tea-pot' is the set of all those states s in S which are classified as producing the image of a tea-pot on the retina of my eyes.
pespmc1.vub.ac.be /ABSTRACT.html   (691 words)

  
 argouml: 17.16. Abstraction
An abstraction is a dependency relationship joining two artifacts within the model at different levels of abstraction.
The values for the bounds of the abstraction are downlighted, since the association is tied to particular artifacts.
Derived abstractions still have their value in analysis to introduce useful names or concepts, and in design to avoid re-computation.
argouml.tigris.org /documentation/defaulthtml/manual/ch17s16.html   (403 words)

  
 Themes in American Art: Abstraction
The organic abstractions of Georgia O'Keeffe and Arthur Dove add a new dimension to familiar forms from the natural world.
Jackson Pollock became the best-known of the group, famous for his method of laying a canvas on the floor of his studio and walking around it, flinging dripping webs of house paint to create intricate laces of color and texture.
The chromatic abstractions of Barnett Newman and Mark Rothko were created using different techniques, but with similar goals in mind.
www.nga.gov /education/american/abstract.shtm   (960 words)

  
 ArtLex on Abstraction
Wassily Kandinsky, (Russian, 1866-1944), was one of the first creators of pure abstraction in modern painting.
Abstraction, Twin Lakes, Connecticut, 1916, depicted: Connecticut, United States of America, silver and platinum print, 32.8 x 24.4 cm (12 15/16 x 9 5/8 inches), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.
Sam Gilliam (American, 1933-), Abstraction, 1969, acrylic on aluminum-treated paper.
www.artlex.com /ArtLex/a/abstraction.html   (1634 words)

  
 Art Museum of the Americas - Abstraction   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
In Latin America, the desire was to give free expression to emotions and sensations, justifying an empty space, a "blob" of color, or freedom of brushwork by the spiritual force infusing the composition.
Latin America accepted Lyric Abstraction, Abstract Expressionism, and informalism as equivalent ways of breaking the bondage imposed by painting for the individual parlor or the national salon.
For Latin America, abstraction in its three main manifestations, did not constitute a neutral form of expression, lacking in meaning.
www.museum.oas.org /permanent/abstraction.html   (234 words)

  
 TDAN Becker - Perspective and Abstraction
It is with this meaning of the term “conceptual” and with the previous discussion on perspective that I contend that ER notations (and for that matter UML’s class diagrams), because of their use of the logical concepts of attributes and entities, do not reside at the conceptual level.
However, as we saw in the section on coupling perspectives with abstraction levels, it is not always clear as to what the difference between the physical abstraction level “detail” and the perspective implementation “detail” is. It may even be argued that there is little to no difference between them.
In this manner, perhaps the physical abstraction level should be elided altogether in favor of a proper distinction (defined above) between the conceptual abstraction and the logical abstraction level as well as clear separation (also defined above) between the analysis, design, and implementation perspectives.
www.tdan.com /i015hy02.htm   (3360 words)

  
 The .NET Abstraction Pile
In fact, it is typical to have many abstractions stacked together, each one attempting to present an illusion which is even further from the truth.
The goal of each abstraction is to decrease complexity by presenting a simplified view of something else.
Windows Forms is a layer of abstraction which is built on the Win32 API underneath.
biztech.ericsink.com /Abstraction_Pile.html   (3108 words)

  
 Predicate Abstraction
Predicate abstraction is a technique that is used to prove properties of infinite state systems.
Given a concrete infinite state system and a set of abstraction predicates, a conservative finite state abstraction is generated.
There could be a concrete counter-example corresponding to it, in which case there is a bug in the design, or the abstract counter-example is an artifact of the abstraction.
chicory.stanford.edu /satyaki/research/PredicateAbstraction.html   (612 words)

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