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Topic: Acetic acid bacteria

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In the News (Tue 19 Mar 19)

  Acetic acid
In the body, acetic acid is produced for example after the consumption of alcoholic beverages: the ethanol is first converted into acetaldehyde, which is then converted into acetic acid by the enzyme acetaldehyde dehydrogenase[?] and converted further to acetyl-CoA by acetate-CoA ligase[?].
The acetic acid in vinegar is produced from alcoholic beverages (typically wine) by acetic acid bacteria, which generate energy by oxidizing ethanol to acetic acid in the presence of oxygen.
Acetic acid is used as a food additive, as a photographic chemical, in the manufacture of plastics such as polyethylene terephthalate[?] (PET, packaging) or cellulose acetate[?], in the production of vinyl acetate[?] (paints and adhesives) and solvent esters.
www.ebroadcast.com.au /lookup/encyclopedia/et/Ethanoic_acid.html   (365 words)

 Acetic acid
Acetic acid is a molecule central to biochemistry, and is produced in some amount by nearly all forms of life.
Acetic acid, when complexed with coenzyme A, is central to the metabolism and biosynthetic processes of almost all forms of life.
Acetic acid is also sprayed onto silage as a preservative to discourage bacterial and fungal growth.
www.knowledgefun.com /book/a/ac/acetic_acid.html   (1325 words)

 Acetic Acid   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-03)
Acetic acid is the sharp tasting and main constituent of vinegar.
Acetic acid is produced by acetic acid bacteria (acetobacter), which are introduced to grape juice and wine by vinegar flies or pre-contaminated equipment or cooperage.
Acetic acid is often, but not necessarily, accompanied by the negative aromas and taste of ethyll acetate (nail polish remover odour).
www.monashscientific.com.au /AceticAcid.htm   (185 words)

The acetic acid bacteria were grown overnight in a preculture consisting of glucose and yeast extract to OD 1 at 600 nm and 180 microlitres were inoculated in the juice which gave an initial cell count of 104- 105 cfu/mL.
The inhibition of acetic acid bacteria should, however, be done at an early stage of the winemaking process, due to the inhibition of yeast by acetic acid bacteria.
Fermentations to which acetic acid was added at the same rate at which the bacteria produced it, did not inhibit the yeast to the same degree as in fermentations in which the bacteria grew with the yeast (5, 6).
www.wynboer.co.za /recentarticles/1101so2.php3   (1819 words)

 Wikinfo | Acetic acid
Pure acetic acid is a colorless, corrosive, flammable liquid that melts at 16.6 °C.
Acetic acid-producing bacteria are universally present, and any culture practicing the brewing of beer or wine inevitably discovered vinegar as the natural result of these alcoholic beverages being exposed to air.
However, ingestion of more than a few milliliters of glacial acetic acid is dangerous, possibly resulting in blistering and ulceration of the digestive system, and a potentially lethal change in the acidity of the blood.
www.wikinfo.org /wiki.php?title=Acetic_acid   (1365 words)

 methanol   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-03)
Acetic acid is also a major component of vinyl acetate monomer (VAM), which is used in the manufacture of water-based paints and adhesives, a welcome replacement for solvent-based products.
Acetic acid is central in many biochemical reactions, and is produced in some amount by nearly all forms of life.
Nowadays, acetic acid is a key organic intermediate used in the preparation of metal acetates used in printing processes, vinyl acetate, acetic anhydride, and volatile organic esters such as ethyl acetate and butyl acetate.
www.rinnovi.net /acetic.html   (1190 words)

 Acetic acid - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The reaction is of ethylene and acetic acid with oxygen over a palladium catalyst.
Bromoacetic acid, which is esterified to produce the reagent ethyl bromoacetate.
Trifluoroacetic acid, which is a common reagent in organic synthesis.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Acetic_acid   (3596 words)

 Water Resource Characterization DSS - Bacteria
The way that bacteria populations increase is an example of geometric progression: 1 cell 2 cells 4 cells 8 cells 16 cells, etc. The generation time is the time required for a given population to double in size.
Bacteria are able to survive in a wide range of environmental conditions.
Bacteria decompose many types of organic substances and are currently being investigated as a means of decomposing unwanted synthetic chemicals (e.g., pesticides, dyes, and petroleum) that are released into the environment.
www.water.ncsu.edu /watershedss/info/bacteria.html   (3472 words)

 Bacteria and Modern Technology
One way bacteria are useful to mankind is in the production of complex organic molecules that are of used in small amounts as part of the our normal process of living, these include antibiotics, vitamins, amino acids and enzymes.
Bacteria have also been pivotally important in the sudy of genetics and genetic engineering but this is a separate and complicated subject which I am not going into here.
Its technical name is Acetic acid and it is a small molecule made from Ethanol (the alcohol in booze) by a number of species of bacteria.
www.earthlife.net /prokaryotes/technology.html   (1606 words)

 EPA: Acetobacter aceti Final Risk Assessment - Biotechnology Program Under Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA)
acetic acid bacteria, rotting symptoms were also demonstrated with 32 strains of bacteria from various genera, some of which are known pathogenic bacteria, but others have no association with plant pathogenicity.
Acetic acid production is also accomplished using a semi-continuous process (De Ley et al., 1984) in which releases are expected to be lower than with a batch production process (LaVeck, 1991).
Acetic acid bacteria as causal agents of browning and rot in apples and pears.
www.epa.gov /docs/opptintr/biotech/pubs/fra/fra001.htm   (3898 words)

 Acetic acid bacteria - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Acetic acid bacteria are bacteria that derive their energy from the oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid during respiration.
The acetic acid bacteria are found in nature where ethanol is being formed as a result of yeast fermentation of sugars and plant carbohydrates.
In these liquids the acetic acid bacteria grow as a surface film due to their aerobic nature and active motility.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Acetic_acid_bacteria   (228 words)

 ETS Laboratories
Lactobacillus is also notorious for producing acetic acid in a short period of time – often in a matter of a few days.
Acetic acid bacteria are commonly associated with grapes and the winery environment.
The presence of acetic acid bacteria indicates that wine conditions may support the growth and activity of other spoilage yeast and bacteria.
www.etslabs.com /pagetemplate/blank.asp?pageid=411   (890 words)

 The Proteobacteria
These bacteria are the bane of amateur brewers because of their ability to turn a brewing wine into vinegar.
Bioluminescent bacteria are mostly associated with fish, either with live fish where they live in the light organs of these fish or with dead fish when they give them an eerie glow.
In live fish the bacteria often live in spherical cells and as the light emitting reaction only occurs in the presence of oxygen the fish can control the light flashes or glows by controlling the oxygen flow to the cells containing the bacteria.
www.earthlife.net /prokaryotes/proteo.html   (2825 words)

 Acetobacter - MicrobeWiki   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-03)
Nitrogen-fixing bacteria are important in modern agriculture - exploiting these bacteria would decrease the present dependency on nitrogen fertilizers, which would have positive results for the ecosystem and the health of humans and other animals.
This is related to the "weak lipophilic nature of the undissociated acid that enables the molecule to cross the cytoplasmic membrane" (Steiner and Sauer 2001).
Very few microorganisms are known to be relatively resistant to high concentrations of acetate; bacteria in the genera Acetobacter and Gluconobacter, both of which are used in static vinegar fermentation, are two of the most known acetic acid bacteria (Steiner and Sauer 2001).
microbewiki.kenyon.edu /index.php/Acetobacter   (615 words)

 Fermented and vegetables. A global perspective. Chapter 7.
The ‘must’ is then filtered and inoculated with acetic acid bacteria and allowed to ferment for eleven days with aeration of the ‘must’.
It is a clear liquid with a strong acetic acid flavour and a hint of coconut flavour.
It is now known that acetic acid at a concentration of 1 percent in the bean is the cause of death and that it is only enhanced by heat, lactic acid and ethanol.
www.fao.org /docrep/x0560e/x0560e12.htm   (3579 words)

 Xylitol dehydrogenase of acetic acid bacteria and gene thereof - Patent 6924131
Although the number of "several" amino acids differs depending on the position or the type of amino acid residues in the three-dimensional structure of the protein, it may be 2 to 100, preferably 2 to 50, and more preferably 2 to 10.
As a result, the amino acid sequence of 27 residues from the N-terminus was determined for XDH1, and the amino acid sequence of 25 residues from the N-terminus was determined for XDH2.
The amino acid sequence from the 2nd to 28th amino acid residues completely corresponded to the sequence composed of the 27 residues of the 1st to the 27th amino acid residues of the sequence shown as SEQ ID NO: 1.
www.freepatentsonline.com /6924131.html   (9196 words)

 Vintner's Corner
Growth of the mold and associated acetic acid bacteria consumes a portion of the grape sugar.
From 70 to 90% of the tartaric acid and from 50 to 70% of the malic acid is metabolized by the mold.
Since gluconic acid is not utilized by yeast or bacteria it may be used as an indicator of fruit deterioration.
www.fst.vt.edu /extension/enology/VC/NOVDEC96.html   (1409 words)

 Effects of Ethanol and Other Alkanols on Transport of Acetic Acid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae -- Casal et al. 64 (2): ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-03)
Acetic acid is transported across the plasma membrane of acetic
of the plasma membrane for the undissociated acid and the inability
Transport of acetic acid in Zygosaccharomyces bailii: effects of ethanol and their implications on the resistance of the yeast to acidic environments.
aem.asm.org /cgi/content/full/64/2/665   (2572 words)

 mrwizard - WineMaker Magazine: What can cause homemade wine to have a slight "vinegar" taste?
Acetic acid bacteria need the following things to survive: oxygen, a hospitable environment and a food source.
By controlling these factors we can reduce the chances that acetic acid bacteria will find, infect, survive in, breed in and make acetic acid in our wines.
Even though airlocks and lids serve their purposes, air laden with oxygen and bacteria enters the carboy every time the fermentation lock is taken off to siphon out a carafe.
www.winemakermag.com /mrwizard/117.html   (1079 words)

 New Development of the Oxidative Fermentation by Thermotolerant Acetic Acid Bacteria   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-03)
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) comprise a diverse group of Gram-positive, non-spore-forming bacteria, and they are widely involved in the fermented food production.
Here, thermotolerant lactic acid bacteria (TLAB) are defined as those belonging to mesophiles but adopted to higher temperatures.
The EUB338 universal probe, complementary to a region of 16S rRNA of the domain bacteria was used as a positive control to select all bacteria present in the sample.
www.rdi.ku.ac.th /microbial/doctor-candidate/piyanuch.html   (869 words)

 Dr. Tritz: Bacteria
The bacteria are approximately ten times the size of viruses, ranging from 0.4 um to 2.0 um in size.
Not all bacteria form capsules but in those that do the capsule is the interface between the bacterial cell and the external environment.
The capsule of bacteria may be penetrated by structures arising from the cell wall or plasma membrane such as cell wall specific polysaccharide, cell wall teichoic acid, plasma membrane lipoteichoic acid, flagella and pili.
www.kcom.edu /faculty/chamberlain/Website/Lects/Bacteria.htm   (2925 words)

 Acetic acid   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-03)
Acetic acid (ethanoic acid) has been used for hundreds of years as a preservative and is more commonly known as vinegar.
Methanol carbonylation, acetaldehyde oxidation, or butane/naphtha oxidation are the usual synthetic routs to produce acetic acid.
The sodium salt of ethanoic acid (E260) and used as an acidity regulator, and a buffer in food.
www.chem.shef.ac.uk /chm131-2001/cha01gw/acetic.html   (197 words)

 Untitled Document
Phase II begins when oxygen is depleted and anaerobic bacteria take control of the fermentation and produce acetic acid.
Recent research advances are improving the strains of bacteria used in the next generation of silage inoculants with specific species identified for specific crops.
In laboratory tests, the strains of bacteria in Biomax 5 were effective at inhibiting five different strains of yeasts commonly found in problem silages.
www.lolfeed.com /contents/dairy/PDFs/Bacterial_Inoculants.HTM   (1021 words)

 mrwizard - WineMaker Magazine: Killer Bacteria & pH: Wine Wizard
PH is the measure of dissociated hydrogen ions present at any given moment, while TA is the measure of total hydrogen ions that are and will ever be present in a wine.
Tartaric acid is one of the naturally present grape acids, and is not consumed by yeast or by any other microorganism in the winemaking process.
If your fruit source is high in malic acid (grapes and apples are, especially), then you can introduce commercial strains of lactic acid bacteria that will consume the malic acid and turn it one-for-one into lactic acid, which is a "less acidic" acid than malic acid.
www.winemakermag.com /mrwizard/97.html   (2163 words)

 Proteins Induced during Adaptation of Acetobacter aceti to High Acetate Concentrations -- Steiner and Sauer 67 (12): ...
AAB do not exhibit pronounced acetate tolerance (16).
Cloning of genes responsible for acetic acid resistance in Acetobacter aceti.
Energetics of the effect of acetic acid on growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
aem.asm.org /cgi/content/full/67/12/5474   (4312 words)

 Drink Recipes: Elderberry Wine 02 by Recipe Cottage
acetic acid, may cause the juice to become vinegar.
acid bacteria to work, so that enough yeast must be added to prevent
and water mass allows acetic acid bacteria to establish themselves.
www.recipecottage.com /drinks/elderberry-wine02.html   (212 words)

 Lecture 16 Key Terms   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-03)
Preemptive spraying of plants with ice- bacteria can allow these bacteria to colonize the plant surfaces, thus taking up space normally occupied by ice+ bacteria and preventing the ice+ bacteria from colonizing and producing the Ice protein.
Aspartame is the dipeptide of L-aspartic acid with the methyl ester of L-phenylalanine (a-L-aspartyl-L- phenylalanyl-O-methyl ester).
Focus on a microbial group: the lactic acid bacteria.
www.bact.wisc.edu /Bact303A/lecture16kt.htm   (910 words)

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