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Topic: Acetonitrile


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In the News (Wed 17 Apr 19)

  
  Acetonitrile - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Acetonitrile is the chemical compound with formula of CH This colourless liquid is the simplest organic nitrile and is widely used as a solvent.
Acetonitrile is used as a solvent but also as an intermediate in the production of many chemicals ranging from pesticides to perfumes.
Acetonitrile is also commonly used in column chromatography and the more modern high performance liquid chromatography where it serves as a mobile phase in the separation of molecules.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Acetonitrile   (322 words)

  
 acetonitrile   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Acetonitrile is basically a polar solvent, miscible with water but, nevertheless, has sufficient dispersive (hydrophobic) properties to elute substances from a liquid chromatography column by dispersive interactions with the solute.
Acetonitrile is miscible with water in all proportions so, starting with pure water as the mobile phase, by progressively adding acetonitrile to the water, the mobile phase can be made progressively more dispersive in character and progressively elute more dispersive substances.
A mixture of methanol and acetonitrile is employed, the acetonitrile being used to increase the dispersive interactions in the mobile phase.
www.chromatography-online.org /topics/acetonitrile.html   (919 words)

  
 Science Fair Projects - Acetonitrile
Acetonitrile is an organic molecule, often used as a solvent, with the chemical formula of CH Also known as methyl cyanide, it is the simplest of the organic nitriles.
In 1992, 32.3 million pounds (14,700 t) of acetonitrile were produced in the U.S. Its use is as an extraction solvent for butadiene.
Acetonitrile liquid or vapor is an acute irritant, irritating the skin, eyes, and respiratory tract.
www.all-science-fair-projects.com /science_fair_projects_encyclopedia/Acetonitrile   (415 words)

  
 NTP: Abstract for TR-447 Acetonitrile
Acetonitrile is used primarily as a solvent in extractive distillation and crystallization of pharmaceutical and agricultural products and as a catalyst in chemical reactions.
A significant increase in micronucleated normochromatic erythrocytes was observed in peripheral blood samples from male mice treated with acetonitrile for 13 weeks; the frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes in female mice was not affected by exposure to acetonitrile.
Exposure to acetonitrile by inhalation resulted in increased incidences of hepatic basophilic foci in male rats and of squamous hyperplasia of the forestomach in male and female mice.
ntp-server.niehs.nih.gov /ntpweb/index.cfm?objectid=070A3148-FA40-A415-245E1A1CC0AEECF4   (1456 words)

  
 Acetonitrile (EHC 154, 1993)
Acetonitrile is used as a common laboratory solvent for recrystallizing various chemicals and is widely used as a solvent in HPLC analysis.
Acetonitrile is also used in biotechnology research as a solvent in the synthesis of DNA and peptide sequencing (Borman, 1990).
A 1.8-fold increase in cyanide liberation from acetonitrile was observed in hepatic microsomes from male ddY mice pretreated with ethanol (4.0 g/kg) 13 h prior to the study.
www.inchem.org /documents/ehc/ehc/ehc154.htm   (13515 words)

  
 Acetonitrile | Technology Transfer Network Air Toxics Web site | US EPA
Acetonitrile is predominantly used as a solvent in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, for spinning fibers and for casting and molding of plastic materials, in lithium batteries, for the extraction of fatty acids from animal and vegetable oils, and in chemical laboratories for the detection of materials such as pesticide residues.
Acetonitrile is also used in dyeing textiles and in coating compositions as a stabilizer for chlorinated solvents and in perfume production as a chemical intermediate.
EPA has medium confidence in the study, because even though the sample sizes were appropriate, histopathology was extensive, and data were reported in detail, hematology was not measured in mice; medium confidence in the database because of the absence of two-generation studies; and consequently, medium confidence in the RfC.
www.epa.gov /ttn/atw/hlthef/acetonit.html   (1234 words)

  
 NPI: Acetonitrile fact sheet
Acetonitrile is slightly persistent in water, with a half-life of between 2 to 20 days.
Acetonitrile is used as a solvent in the production of vitamin B, pharmaceuticals, perfumes, pesticides, plastics and as a non-aqueous solvent for inorganic salts.
Acetonitrile is a flammable colourless liquid with a sweet ether-like odour which is detectable at ppm levels.
www.npi.gov.au /database/substance-info/profiles/4.html   (1074 words)

  
 EPA: Federal Register: Acetonitrile; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release Reporting
Acetonitrile is produced commercially as a by-product during the manufacture of acrylonitrile by high temperature catalytic oxidation of propylene in the presence of ammonia (the Sohio process of propylene ammoxidation).
Acetonitrile is primarily used as: a reaction solvent in the production of pharmaceuticals; an analytical instrumentation/extraction solvent; an extraction solvent in extracting butadiene and isoprene from reaction steams; and a solvent for the manufacture and formulation of agricultural chemicals.
Acetonitrile is excreted as acetonitrile in expired air and as acetonitrile or its metabolite in urine.
www.epa.gov /fedrgstr/EPA-TRI/1999/March/Day-05/tri5495.htm   (6175 words)

  
 Ammoxidation of a mixture of ketones to acetonitrile and HCN - Patent 6413485
Ammoxidation of a mixture of ketones to acetonitrile and HCN
However, the process of the present invention is also applicable to the manufacture of on purpose acetonitrile and hydrogen cyanide by the direct ammoxidation of a mixture of C.sub.1 to C.sub.4 ketone and/or a crude ketone, ammonia and oxygen in a reaction zone in the presence of an ammoxidation catalyst.
In the preferred embodiment of this aspect of the present invention, it is necessary that the reactor conditions be adjusted to obtain the increased yield in acetonitrile and hydrogen cyanide obtained by utilizing the mixture of ketones and/or crude ketone.
www.freepatentsonline.com /6413485.html   (2453 words)

  
 Acetonitrile   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
An equal weight of acetonitrile and these materials are miscible at room temperature: formic acid, acetic acid, levulinic acid, methanol, cellosolve solvent, formaldehyde, di-n-butyl amine, acetic anhydride, pyridine, nitrobenzene, aniline, xylene, phenol, acetyl chloride, dibutyl phthalate, diglycol stearate, n-butyl ether, dichloroethyl ether, methyl isobutyl ketone, nitromethane, nitroethane, and nitropropane.
Acetonitrile is regulated under the Clean Air Act; Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act; Resource Conservation and Recovery Act; and Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act.
In 1998, 99,183,752 pounds of acetonitrile waste were managed; 13,138,578 pounds were recycled on-site; 1,880,831 pounds were recycled off-site; 20,420,834 pounds were used for energy recovery on-site; 11,543,264 pounds were used for energy recovery off-site; 21,243,933 pounds were treated on-site; 8,001,837 pounds were treated off-site; and 22,954,475 pounds were released on-and off-site.
www.nsc.org /xroads/chemicals_htm/Acetonitrile.htm   (1080 words)

  
 Acetonitrile, 18612, MSDS
Medical Conditions generally Aggravated by Exposure: Increased susceptibility to the effects of Acetonitrile may be observed in persons with the pre-existing disease of the central nervous system, liver, kidneys, lungs, and cardiovascular system.
Some animal data suggest that Acetonitrile is weakly carcinogenic at high exposure levels, but only in male rats.
There are reports indicating that Acetonitrile produce genetic damage in some animal or mammalian cell culture tests; however, there are other reports in the literature that suggest negative results.
www.tedpella.com /msds_html/18612msd.htm   (1371 words)

  
 Toxicologic Review of Selected Chemicals - 401
CAS: 75-05-8; Chemical Formula: CH       Acetonitrile is most widely used in industry as a specialty solvent and chemical intermediate.
In addition, in accordance with the policy on skin notations enunciated in Section VI.C.18, OSHA is not including a skin notation for acetonitrile in the final rule (the dermal LD(50) in rabbits is 1250 mg/kg).
In the proposal, OSHA specifically requested information on the feasibility of achieving the proposed limit; no comments were received, and OSHA accordingly assumes that the final rule's limits, which are higher than the limit proposed, are feasible.
www.cdc.gov /niosh/pel88/75-05.html   (705 words)

  
 Substrate-Dependent Effect of Acetonitrile on Human Liver Microsomal Cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) Activity -- Tang et ...
Acetonitrile is an organic solvent commonly used to increase the solubility of lipophilic substrates for in vitro studies.
Acetonitrile is a commonly used organic solvent for in vitro studies.
The respective control rates (acetonitrile = 0%) are 1540 ± 30, 243 ± 13, 9.13 ± 0.01, and 249 ± 4.1 pmol/min/mg protein after incubation with human liver microsomes, and 24.6 ± 0.33, 4.21 ± 0.04, 0.10 ± 0.01, and 12.6 ± 0.4 pmol/min/pmol rCYP after incubation with recombinant CYP2C9.
dmd.aspetjournals.org /cgi/content/full/28/5/567   (4117 words)

  
 CiteULike: Capillary zone electrophoresis of some extremely weak bases in acetonitrile.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
In acetonitrile the basic strength of such compounds is increased by many orders of magnitude.
In this work the CZE separation of thioacetamide, acetamide, thiourea, benzamide, and 4-nitrobenzamide as well as that of N-methylformamide, N,N-dimethylformamide, formamide, and dimethyl sulfoxide is demonstrated in acetonitrile using 10 mmol/L perchloric acid as an electrolyte.
The problem of finding a suitable electroosmotic flow marker at low pH in acetonitrile is addressed, and nitromethane is shown to be a proper marker compound under such extreme conditions.
www.citeulike.org /user/Terkko/article/780765   (351 words)

  
 ACETONITRILE
Although used in pre-hospital management of cyanide poisoning, amyl nitrite inhalants have not been shown to be beneficial in managing acetonitrile poisoning.
Any patient with ingestion or other significant exposure to acetonitrile should be observed in the intensive care unit for 24 hours.
Acetonitrile metabolizes into cyanide over 2 to 8 hours, so symptoms or signs of toxicity may be delayed after significant exposures.
www.jtbaker.com /msds/englishhtml/a0518.htm   (1768 words)

  
 Acetonitrile [factsheet]
* Animal studies appear to suggest that acetonitrile may cause developmental and reproductive effects such as a decrease in average fetal body weight and a significant increase in the number of malformed offspring.
* Acetonitrile is predominantly used as a solvent in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, for spinning fibers and for casting and molding of plastic materials, in lithium batteries, for the extraction of fatty acids from animal and vegetable oils, and in chemical laboratories for the detection of materials such as pesticide residues.
* Acetonitrile is also used in dyeing textiles and in coating compositions as a stabilizer for chlorinated solvents and in perfume production as a chemical intermediate.
www.lakes-environmental.com /toxic/ACETONITRILE.HTML   (1028 words)

  
 PTI Acetonitrile
It is widely used as a mobile phase solvent in HPLC and process chromatography applications, as a wash reagent solutions solvent for oligonucleotide synthesis, and as an electrolyte component for certain lithium batteries and ultracapacitors.
Commercial acetonitrile grades are produced from these industrial byproduct streams and contain residual levels of these impurities plus additional contaminants from shipment and handling.
Acetonitrile purified by this special process is given the tradename PrecisionPure™ and is characterized by exceptionally low levels of water and trace organic impurities.
www.purificationtech.com /aceto.htm   (516 words)

  
 ChemAlliance Case Study: Switch to Continuous Purification of Acetonitrile Reduces Waste and Recovers More Product   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
BP was using a batch process to purify acetonitrile.
This produced approximately 16 million pounds of acetonitrile that was regarded as a waste and was either disposed of by deepwell injection or burned for energy recovery.
BP Chemicals installed a continuous acetonitrile purification unit that was developed and commercialized by BP.
www.chemalliance.org /Handbook/plant/case_study.asp?CSID=274   (194 words)

  
 Acetonitrile
Acetonitrile is an organic molecule, often used as a solvent, with the chemical formula of CH3CN.
The chemical structure of acetonitrile At normal temperatures, acetonitrile is a colorless liquid.
Acetonitrile is the main chemical required to manufacture a broad variety of products including synthetic insulin, vitamins A and D, and pesticides, manufacture and purify synthetic DNA within the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries.
www.greatvistachemicals.com /pharmaceuticals/acetonitrilel.html   (320 words)

  
 Acetonitrile - EnviroTools.org
Acetonitrile (also called methyl cyanide) is a colorless, flammable liquid.
Effects of acetonitrile on human health and the environment depend on the amount of acetonitrile present and the length and frequency of exposure.
Acetonitrile by itself is not likely to cause environmental harm at levels normally found in the environment.
www.envirotools.org /factsheets/contaminants/acetonitrile.shtml   (591 words)

  
 Comparison of x-ray crystal structures of an acyl-enzyme intermediate of subtilisin Carlsberg formed in anhydrous ...
to 0.77 and 0.78 for the cinnamoyl residue in acetonitrile and
Water molecules and acetonitrile molecules are depicted by balls-and-sticks, with the nitrogen atoms of acetonitrile in fl.
The catalytic triad, Asn-155 of the oxyanion hole, the cinnamoyl group (A and B), and solvent molecules are shown as balls-and-sticks with carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen shown in white, light gray, and fl, respectively.
www.pnas.org /cgi/content/full/95/22/12918   (3739 words)

  
 Potential Dependent Orientation of Acetonitrile on Platinum (111) Electrode Surface Studied by Sum Frequency Generation
Sum frequency generation, SFG, vibrational spectroscopy is used to investigate the orientation of acetonitrile (CH CN) at the Pt(111) electrode.
Acetonitrile is studied as a function of water concentration and electrode potential to determine how these factors affect the adsorbate structure at the interface.
The alignment of acetonitrile along the surface normal is in response to the surface charge at the electrode.
pubs.acs.org /cgi-bin/jtext?jpcbfk/105/i03/abs/jp002546d   (225 words)

  
 van der Waals Complexes of Benzene and Acetonitrile
Addition of a second acetonitrile to the complex results in the lowest energy structure with the two acetonitrile molecules in an anti-parallel alignment with respect to the molecular dipoles (Fig.
This appears to be consistant with the relatively small dipole-induced dipole interaction in the neutral complex as inferred by the measured spectral shift.
However, anomalous fragmentation of the BA complex to the B channel indicates a strong interaction within the acetonitrile dimer which can be attributed to the anti-parallel alignment of the molecular dipoles.
home.att.net /~g.daly/BzCN/BzCN.htm   (1481 words)

  
 DNA recycling by Chemcycles Inc.
Synthetic acetonitrile is expensive to produce thereby limiting its desirability as a second source.
chemical manufacturers are not permitted to obtain acetonitrile hazardous waste as their raw acetonitrile starting material without undergoing the expensive, lengthy and difficult environmental permitting process and assume the liability.
In contrast, the hazardous waste industry already has the capability to process acetonitrile wastes into a reclassified raw acetonitrile chemical that the chemical manufacturers could then purchase, but they do not retain the expertise to post-process, package and market the recycled ultra pure acetonitrile for re-use.
www.chemcycles.com   (354 words)

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