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Topic: Achilles reflex

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In the News (Sun 18 Aug 19)

  Probert Encyclopaedia: Medicine (Ac-Af)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-06)
A deep tendon reflex is a sudden contraction of a muscle in response to a sharp tap of a rubber hammer on a tendon of insertion of the muscle.
Achilles tendinitis is injury of the Achilles tendon.
The Achilles Tendon is the tendon which connects the heel with the calf of the leg, and is the principal extensor of the foot.
www.probertencyclopaedia.com /E1A.HTM   (2605 words)

 Reflex [Definition]
Achilles reflex The ankle jerk reflex, also known as the Achilles reflex, occurs when the Achilles tendon is tapped while the foot is dorsi-flexed.
Anocutaneous reflex The anal wink or anocutaneous reflex is the reflexive contraction of the external anal sphincter upon stroking of the skin around the anus or the head of the penis.
Vestibulo-ocular reflex The vestibulo-ocular reflex, or VOR, is a reflex eye movement that stabilizes images on the retina during head movement by producing an eye movement in the direction opposite to head movement.
www.wikimirror.com /Reflex   (2376 words)

 Reflex action - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A reflex action or reflex is a biological control system linking stimulus to response and mediated by a reflex arc.
For a reflex, reaction time is the time from the onset of a stimulus until the organism responds.
A reflex mechanism involves a receptor organ, and effector organ, and some type of communication network.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Reflex   (186 words)

 Patent 5582183: Apparatus for achilles tendon reflex testing
Reflex testing is also conveniently used to track the progress of patients which have been diagnosed with, and are being treated for, a particular disease or disorder which affects the patient's reflexes.
In its original and simplest form, reflex testing of the Achilles tendons of a patient was conducted by merely striking the patient's tendon with a reflex hammer and visually observing the reflex action of the patient.
The reflex hammer includes an elongate strike element having portions which are capable of simultaneously contacting both the left and right Achilles tendons, and a hammer element which impacts upon the strike element to transmit momentum through the strike element and to both of the Achilles tendons simultaneously.
www.freepatentsonline.com /5582183.html   (4383 words)

 Medical Tests and Signs   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-06)
In corticospinal tract lesions, the reflex is excessive.
Reflex chewing is seen in diffuse bilateral lesions of the frontotemporal cortex and is frequently seen in cases of dementia, incomplete paralysis (generalized paresis) and brain injury related to a lack of oxygen.
Knee Jerk Reflex: This test is conducted by striking the Patellar tendons of the knee for reflex indications of a lesion in the L2, L3-L4 segments.
www.defenseinformationcenter.com /pages/iimedicaltests.html   (2737 words)

Like other reflexes, the magnitude of the T reflex is sensitive to a number of cognitive and motor factors, including preparation for action, presence of a prepulse stimulus, and task context.
T reflexes are elicited by Brel and Kjaer 4809 vibration excitors producing tendon taps with a rise time of displacement of 4 ms.
Moulder and Bradley (1995) found that the magnitude of the H-reflex varied with both the arousal and the pleasantness of picture foreground (i.e., reflex reactions were larger for both pleasant and unpleasant than neutral, and larger for pleasant than unpleasant), in contrast to the T reflex, which was modulated solely by arousal.
dionysus.psych.wisc.edu /Theory/spinal_reflexes.htm   (813 words)

 Achilles Tendon Rupture: A Challenging Diagnosis   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-06)
The increased incidence of Achilles tendon rupture is distributed unequally in the population.
Achilles tendon ruptures can also occur after falling from a height, after being struck directly on the tendon, after a misstep, or after sudden movements, such as pushing off or dorsiflexion of the foot.
The Achilles tendon is the major plantar flexor of the foot, which is the basis of this common misconception.
www.familypractice.com /journal/2000/v13.n05/1305.08/art-1305.08.htm   (1937 words)

 GC1135 LAB: Human Reflexes   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-06)
The patellar tendon reflex ("knee-jerk" reflex) is a monosynaptic stretch reflex that assesses the nervous tissue between (and including) the L2 and L4 segments.
The calcaneal reflex ("Achilles" or "ankle-jerk" reflex) is a stretch reflex that assesses the nervous tissue between (and including) the first two sacral segments.
The plantar reflex is a superficial spinal reflex that depends both on functional upper-level motor pathways and on the cord-level reflex arc.
www.gen.umn.edu /courses/1135/lab/reflexlab/reflexlab.html   (1321 words)

 BIOMEDICAL RESULTS FROM SKYLAB - Changes in the Achilles Tendon Reflexes Following Skylab Missions (Sec.2,Ch.15)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-06)
The Achilles reflex duration was measured from the initial stroking of the tendon until all movement had ceased.
The muscle potential interval for each reflex was measured from the beginning of the mechanical upstroke to the point of greatest amplitude of the muscle potential spike (fig.
The muscle electrical component of the reflex for the Skylab 3 mission proved to be difficult to obtain on the Scientist Pilot and Pilot.
lsda.jsc.nasa.gov /books/skylab/Ch15.htm   (1700 words)

Babinski's reflex (Babinski's sign I) A pathological reflex where the great toe extends and flexes toward the top of the foot and the other toes fan out when the sole of the foot is firmly stroked.
A pathological reflex where the great toe extends and flexes toward the top of the foot and the other toes fan out when the sole of the foot is firmly stroked.
Babinski’s test (Babinski's sign I) A pathological reflex where the great toe extends and flexes toward the top of the foot and the other toes fan out when the sole of the foot is firmly stroked.
www.whonamedit.com /syndlist.cfm/16   (7010 words)

 Spinal Cord - Reflex reciprocal facilitation of antagonist muscles in spinal cord injury   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-06)
Reflex magnitude and latency were calculated for agonist and antagonist muscles under each of the four conditions.
Reflex onset was defined as the time at which the EMG amplitude first exceeded 95% confidence interval of the background muscle activity level (ie a 100 ms EMG average prior to the stimulus onset).
Thus, reflex latency was the duration from stimulus onset to reflex onset.
www.nature.com /sc/journal/v43/n1/full/3101656a.html   (4596 words)

 Unit 7
This reflex is gradually replaced by voluntary sucking around 2 months of age.
This is the reflex that allows the baby to “hold hands until it disappears at about 6 months.
Reflexes can also be modified by conditions higher in the cord than the relevant synapse including the brain itself.
hhp.uh.edu /~clayne/6397/Unit7.htm   (1956 words)

 Achilles Tendonitis, Arthritis, Bunions, Chiropody: Podiatry Glossary: Affiliated Podiatrists Inc.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-06)
Haglund's Deformity is a condition of foot heel pain and discomfort on the posterior (back) aspect of the heel at the area of the insertion of the Achilles tendon.
Reflex sympathetic dystrophy is a severe and debilitating condition that occurs when the nerves in the leg "go haywire." A small traumatic injury such as a slip and fall or any other type of foot, ankle, or leg surgery can ignite this complication.
However, if the diagnosis is not promptly made, or if it is not treated in a timely manner, then the reflex sympathetic dystrophy can become severe and debilitating to such a degree that stage III disease can evolve into permanent disability.
www.drrobertrosenstein.com /glossary.shtml   (1633 words)

 Published Abstracts
Patellar tendon reflex characteristics are enhanced by a conditioning achilles tendon reflex.
Achilles tendon reflex excitability is depressed by an ipsilateral conditioning stimulus.
Achilles tendon reflex facilitation preceding a voluntary movement in young and old adults.
www-unix.oit.umass.edu /~kamen/abstracts.htm   (2227 words)

 Welcome to Casualty Adjuster's Guide®
The patient, lying on his back, is asked to touch the knee of one leg with the heel of the other and then to pass the heel slowly down the front of the shin to the ankle.
In poliomyelitis the Babinski reflex is modified so that only the big toe is extended, because all foot muscles except dorsiflexors of the big toe are paralyzed.
With the patient supine, when one leg is flexed so that the knee touches the chest and the lumbar spine is flattened, the angle taken by the other hip is the degree of flexion deformity.
www.cagworld.com /Resources/Medical.asp?Letter=All   (4184 words)

 Achilles Achilles (www.whonamedit.com)
Achilles was immortalised by Homer in the Iliad as the bravest, handsomest, and greatest warrior of the army of Agamemnon in the Trojan War.
Achilles’ disguise was finally penetrated by Odysseus, who placed arms and armor amidst a display of women’s finery and seized upon Achilles when he was the only “maiden” to be fascinated by the swords and shields.
Achilles then went willingly with Odysseus to Troy, leading a host of his father’s Myrmidons and accompanied by his tutor Phoenix and his close friend Patroclus.
www.whonamedit.com /doctor.cfm/122.html   (648 words)

 The Precise Neurological Exam   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-06)
The biceps reflex is elicited by placing your thumb on the biceps tendon and striking your thumb with the reflex hammer and observing the arm movement.
The triceps reflex is mediated by the C6 and C7 nerve roots, predominantly by C7.
The ankle reflex is elicited by holding the relaxed foot with one hand and striking the Achilles tendon with the hammer and noting plantar flexion.
endeavor.med.nyu.edu /neurosurgery/reflexes.html   (761 words)

 Rosenbaum and Hennig (1995) The influence of stretching and warm-up exercises on Achilles tendon reflex activity   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-06)
The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of prior exercise (warm-up and stretching) on the electromyographic and force output of mechanically elicited triceps surae reflexes.
Fifty male subjects performed eight reflex experiments under each of three successive conditions in one session: (1) no prior exercise, (2) after static stretching of the passive triceps surae (3 min) and (3) after a 10-min warm-up run on a treadmill.
Tendon tap reflex force was elicited in the triceps surae of the right leg by means of a standardized reflex hammer and measured in a custom-built fixture.
www.getcited.org /pub/103366486   (234 words)

 Achilles Tendinitis
Achilles tendinitis is a painful and often debilitating inflammation of the Achilles tendon, also called the heel cord.
Rehab for Chronic Achilles Tendinitis The syndrome of chronic Achilles tendinitis is one of the commonest problems encountered in the sport medicine clinic.
The Achilles tendon is the strongest and largest tendon in the body.
www.health-nexus.com /achilles_tendinitis1.htm   (244 words)

 5 Points Soft Massage for the Foot Reflex Zones
The reflex zone footbed can also be worn on top of arch supports.
According to Dr. Walter Mauch, the inventor who patented the reflex zone footbed, it boosts the blood circulation and metabolism of the foot.
Reflex Zone massage was used in ancient Egypt 4,200 years ago as well as in India, Indonesia and China.
www.pedagshoecare.com /5points.htm   (195 words)

 Zebra Card NE-002: delayed reflex relaxation
Effect of propranolol on the duration of the Achilles tendon reflex.
Diagnostic limitations of of Achilles tendon reflex in thyroid disease.
Prolonged Achilles reflex in neurosyphilis simulating the "myxedema reflex".
www.acponline.org /zebra/references/ne/NE-002.html   (58 words)

 (A Practical Guide to Clinical Medicine)
When the tendon is struck by the reflex hammer, stretch receptors contained within it generate an impulse that is carried via sensory nerves to the spinal cord.
A similar pattern is seen with the death of the cell body of the UMN (located in the brain), as occurs with a stroke affecting the motor cortex of the brain.
Detection of abnormal reflexes (either increased or decreased) does not necessarily tell you which limb of the system is broken, nor what might be causing the dysfunction.
medicine.ucsd.edu /clinicalmed/neuro3.htm   (4303 words)

Have the subject rest his hand of the thigh with the fingers slightly closed strike the forearm with the wide end of the hammer about 1 inch from the end of the radius.
A positive reflex will result in the flexion and pronation of the forearm and a flexing of the fingers.
With the subject relaxed, strike the Achilles tendon with the wide part of the hammer slightly on the outer edge.
www.magpage.com /~booka/Lab433.html   (844 words)

 Measurement of the Achilles tendon reflex for the diagnosis of lumbosacral root compression syndromes -- Rico and ...
Measurement of the Achilles tendon reflex for the diagnosis of lumbosacral root compression syndromes -- Rico and Jonkman 45 (9): 791 -- Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
Measurement of the Achilles tendon reflex for the diagnosis of lumbosacral root compression syndromes
The Hoffmann reflex and the Achilles tendon reflex were measured in a group
jnnp.bmjjournals.com /cgi/content/abstract/45/9/791   (180 words)

 Chapter 4
To explain the components in a reflex arch, the muscle tendon, the Golgi tendon organ, the flexor reflex, the crossed extensor reflex, reciprocal innervation and inhibition, alpha-gamma-coactivation, the effect of gamma-efferents on muscle length, the effects of a spinal cross sectional lesion, the orientation reflex, exteroceptive and proprioceptive reflexes, and muscular force.
The phasic stretch reflex is elicited in the clinic by a light tap on a muscle tendon.
This reflex is also called a nociceptive reflex or a pain reflex, and involves all the muscles of a limb in flexor withdrawal in order to protect from further damage.
www.mfi.ku.dk /ppaulev/chapter4/chapr_4.htm   (9053 words)

 Glossary of Podiatry Terms
Achilles tendons can rupture for many reasons, including age, sex (males are more susceptible), and sports.
Haglund's Deformity is a condition of pain and discomfort on the posterior (back) aspect of the heel at the area of the insertion of the Achilles tendon.
The condition is serious because treatment often requires several weeks of intra-venous treatment with potent antibiotics and often involves surgery on the affected bone.
www.footlaw.com /glossary   (2110 words)

 Ankle jerk reflex - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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The ankle jerk reflex, also known as the Achilles reflex, occurs when the Achilles tendon is tapped while the foot is dorsi-flexed.
The achilles reflex checks if the s1 and s2 nerve roots are intact and could be indicative of sciatic nerve pathology.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Ankle_jerk_reflex   (104 words)

 Lecture Notes: Assessment of the Reflexes
the afferent (sensory) limb of the reflex arc is stimulated
the stimulated afferent (sensory) limb of the reflex arc conducts afferent (sensory) impulses through the dorsal root of the spinal nerve to the spinal cord
the afferent (sensory) impulses synapse in the gray matter of the spinal cord with the efferent (motor) limb of the reflex arc
www4.desales.edu /~sey0/reflexassessment.html   (1760 words)

 Achilles Tendon Rupture With Weightlifting   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-06)
Achilles tendon at calcaneus · Pectoralis major at humerus...
Achilles tendon reflex was decreased on the left side.
Achilles tendon rupture: range of motion and proprioception changes after...
www.gainmusclemass.net /achilles-tendon-rupture-with-weightlifting.html   (248 words)

 Biol 2401 Anatomy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-06)
Reflexes are rapid, predictable, involuntary motor responses to stimuli, they are mediated over neural pathways called reflex arcs.
Distorted, exaggerated or absent reflex responses may indicate degeneration or pathology of the NS Spinal cord injury, reflex tests help pinpoint the are or level of injury.
Initiated by tapping a tendon, which stretches the muscle the tendon is attached to, stimulates muscle spindles and causes reflex contraction of the stretched muscle or muscles.
www.accd.edu /pac/science/hopper/biol2401/labunit4/reflexes.htm   (577 words)

 Last Notes F01
Absence of this reflex indicates damage to the sensory or motor neurons in the lumbar region of the spinal cord.
Somatic reflexes can be fairly easily tested by tapping or stroking the body surface, but most autonomic reflexes are difficult to examine.
Among clinically important somatic reflexes are the patellar reflex, the Achilles reflex, the Babinski sign, and the abdominal reflex.
www.clt.astate.edu /mgilmore/last_notes_f01.htm   (5932 words)

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