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Topic: Ad hominem

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  Ad hominem - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ad hominem is one of the best-known of the logical fallacies usually enumerated in introductory logic and critical thinking textbooks.
Ad hominem is fallacious when applied to deduction, and not the evidence (or premise) of an argument.
Ad hominem circumstantial involves pointing out that someone is in circumstances such that he is disposed to take a particular position.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Ad_hominem   (1321 words)

 Ad hominem - Encyclopedia Dramatica   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Ad hominems were invented by the Romans in 700 BCE.
In their time ad hominem translated as "to the man" and was generally used as a euphemism for gifts to one's homosexual lover.
Ad hominems consequently began to fall out of favour and in short time they came to be what we know them as today - a personal insult.
www.encyclopediadramatica.com /index.php/Ad_hominem   (327 words)

 Reductio ad Hitlerum - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The term reductio ad Hitlerum (sometimes rendered reductio ad Hitlerem; whimsical Latin for "reduction to Hitler") was originally coined by University of Chicago professor and ethicist Leo Strauss.
The reductio ad Hitlerum fallacy is of the form "Adolf Hitler or the Nazi party supported X; therefore X must be evil".
For example, a reductio ad Stalinum could assert that corporal punishment of wayward children is necessary because Josef Stalin enacted its abolition, or that atheism is a dangerous philosophy because Stalin was an atheist.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Reductio_ad_Hitlerum   (406 words)

 Ad Hominem - SkepticWiki   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The ad hominem fallacy is an informal logical fallacy, formally known as argumentum ad hominem (Latin: "argument at the person"), where a participant argues that a belief is incorrect because of some failure or flaw in the person making the argument.
Ad hominem (abusive) is also known as argumentum ad personam and occurs (notoriously) when one abuses one's opponent instead of arguing with them ("if you weren't such an idiot, you would realize I was correct"), but is more generally applied whenever one focuses on irrelevant but negative information about the circumstances of one's opponent.
A related problem with ad hominem arguments is that frequently the people in the best position to evaluate the truth or falsity of a statement are exactly the people with experience and a vested interest.
www.skepticwiki.org /wiki/index.php/Ad_Hominem   (562 words)

 ad hominem. The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition. 2000.
Latin : ad, to + hominem, accusative of hom
As the principal meaning of the preposition ad suggests, the homo of ad hominem was originally the person to whom an argument was addressed, not its subject.
•A modern coinage patterned on ad hominem is ad feminam, as in “Its treatment of Nabokov and its ad feminam attack on his wife Vera often border on character assassination” (Simon Karlinsky).
www.bartleby.com /61/71/A0087100.html   (368 words)

 Fallacies [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Ad hominem, appeal to pity, and affirming the consequent are some of the fallacies of relevance.
Guilt by association is a version of the ad hominem fallacy in which a person is said to be guilty of error because of the group he or she associates with.
Smearing the opponent causes an ad hominem fallacy.
www.utm.edu /research/iep/f/fallacies.htm   (13501 words)

 Siris: Jottings on Ad Hominem Fallacies
An "ad hominem" is a kind of argument, that is fallacious (though, in some contexts, may actually be fairly reliable: more on that in a moment).
Ad hominem fallacies are fallacies of irrelevance: they do not apply to the argument at hand, but are mere distractions from it.
Since an ad hominem fallacy is a fallacy of irrelevance, any time in which a person's character, reputation, or abilities is genuinely relevant to the argument, characterization of that character, reputation, or abilities cannot be an ad hominem fallacy.
branemrys.blogspot.com /2004/09/jottings-on-ad-hominem-fallacies.html   (965 words)

 Ad Hominem
"Ad Hominem" means "against the man" or "against the person." The person presenting an argument is attacked instead of the argument itself.
An Ad Hominem is a general category of fallacies in which a claim or argument is rejected on the basis of some irrelevant fact about the author of or the person presenting the claim or argument.
The reason why an Ad Hominem (of any kind) is a fallacy is that the character, circumstances, or actions of a person do not (in most cases) have a bearing on the truth or falsity of the claim being made (or the quality of the argument being made).
www.hebrew4christians.com /Clear_Thinking/Informal_Fallacies/Ad_Hominem/ad_hominem.html   (374 words)

 The Autonomist - Logic Fallacies
Ad hominem is the attempt to impugn an argument by attacking the arguer's character, motives, personality, intentions, or qualifications.
Ad personam fallacy - (appeal to personal interest) Usually described as appealing to the personal likes (preferences, prejudices, predisposition) in order to have an argument accepted, but includes appeals to anything that is not, "rational," such as feelings, sense of honor, pride, reputation, habits, and most frequently fears, which of course are all personal interests.
Ad populum is not the same as either the Democratic or Consensus gentium fallacies, which attempt to prove something is true (or right) based on the number of people who already agree with, desire, or choose it.
usabig.com /autonomist/fallacies.html   (14595 words)

 Skeptico: Ad hominem
This mode of reasoning is a logical fallacy known as ad hominem: attacking the person presenting the argument, instead of pointing out a flaw in their actual argument.
The ad hominem is not always improper; in the case of a "shill" who is pretending to be "objective" and to have no connection with pharma it is quite appropriate to "out" that person.
The ad hominem fallacy refers to attacks on a person as a substitute for attacks on their argument, not to attacks on the person generally.
skeptico.blogs.com /skeptico/2005/07/ad_hominem.html   (6935 words)

 Argumentum Ad Hominem
Argumentum ad Hominem (abusive and circumstantial): the fallacy of attacking the character or circumstances of an individual who is advancing a statement or an argument instead of trying to disprove the truth of the statement or the soundness of the argument.
The personal attack is also often termed an "ad personem argument": the statement or argument at issue is dropped from consideration or is ignored, and the locutor's character or circumstances are used to influence opinion.
Since the circumstantial variety of the ad hominem can be regarded as a special case of the abusive, the distinction between the abusive and the circumstantial is often ignored.
philosophy.lander.edu /logic/person.html   (540 words)

 Wikinfo | Ad hominem
An ad hominem argument, or argumentum ad hominem (Latin, literally "argument against the man [or person]"), is a fallacy that involves replying to an argument or assertion by attempting to discredit the person offering the argument or assertion.
To be sure, however, the term is often used as a synonym for "insulting one's opponent in the middle of otherwise rational discourse." But this is not how the meaning of the term is typically introduced in logic and rhetoric textbooks, and logicians and rhetoricians are widely agreed that this use is incorrect.
Ad hominem abusive usually and most notoriously involves merely (and often unfairly) insulting one's opponent, but can also involve pointing out factual but damning character flaws or actions.
www.wikinfo.org /wiki.php?title=Ad_hominem   (613 words)

 Some Fallacies
Ad Hominem is Latin for "against the man." One kind of this general fallacy is to discredit an opponent instead of his argument.
Ad Hominem attack that occurs before the meat of an argument, biasing the audience against the opponent's side before he can present his case.
Just like the typical ad hominem fallacy, poisoning the well is fallacious, since the character of a person or the people he cites generally has no bearing on the validity of his argument.
www.tektonics.org /guest/fallacies.html   (5276 words)

 Argumentum Ad Hominem: A Pragma-Dialectical Case in Point
The argumentum ad hominem is a violation of the first rule for critical discussion: "Parties must not prevent each other from advancing standpoints or casting doubt on standpoints." This discussion rule is designed for the confrontation stage, where the protagonist and the antagonist of a standpoint enter into a difference of opinion.
An argumentum ad hominem that is a countermove against the misuse of expertise or authority by the opponent is by some authors considered as a correct use of the argumentum ad hominem.
The fact that the term argumentum ad hominem is sometimes used in a neutral way for a personal attack and sometimes refers to the fallacy which occurs when such an attack is incorrect is one of the reasons why the analysis of "exceptions" in the Standard Treatment gives the impression of being merely ad hoc.
www.ditext.com /eemeren/aah.html   (1991 words)

 Ad hominem - Encyclopedia Glossary Meaning Explanation Ad hominem   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
In reality, the value of the introduction of the term Inverted Ad Hominem was to emphasise the often offensive yet subtle implication and nature of a fallacious Appeal to Authority.
For example, if an Atheist sent his children to a religious school on the ground that discipline or teaching was better there, an opponent might point out the inconsistency with the anti-religious atheism of his beliefs.
Ad Hominem is also a NSBM band from France.
www.encyclopedia-glossary.com /en/Ad-hominem.html   (1868 words)

 Argumentum Ad Hominem
Ad hominem circumstantial: Instead of attacking an assertion, the attacker points to the relationship between the person making the assertion and the person's circumstances.
Ad hominem tu quoque: Literally translated as, "at the person, you too," this could be called the "hypocrisy" argument.
There is one situation in which ad hominem is a valid argument - when it is used to attack the credibility of a person who is the sole source of information, not on the validity of their deduction, for there is none.
www.chiroweb.com /archives/23/16/24.html   (956 words)

 A Freeper's Introduction to Rhetoric (Part 3, the Argument Ad Hominem)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Circumstantial ad hominem arguments are sometimes used to suggest that the opponents' conclusion should be rejected because their judgment is warped, dictated by their special situation rather than by reasoning or evidence.
When a circumstantial ad hominem argument explicitly or implicitly charges the opponents with inconsistency (among their beliefs, or between what they profess and what they practice), that is clearly one kind of abuse.
When a circumstantial ad hominem argument charges the opponents with a lack of trustworthiness by virtue of group membership or conviction, that is an accusation of prejudice in defense of self-interest and is clearly also an abuse.
www.freerepublic.com /focus/f-chat/1044372/posts   (4538 words)

 Peter Suber, "Fichte's Ad Hominem Arguments"
Ad hominem arguments in this sense are of special interest in philosophy when the disparaging diagnosis arises from evidence in the person's philosophy or when it suggests that the person's beliefs must be false or inadequate.
It shows why ad rem arguments about self-awareness and critical forms of consciousness have come to be regarded as more and more question-begging, ineffectual, even comical, and hence, why we have seen the rise of ad hominem arguments in existential philosophy, phenomenology, and critical theory.
Fichte is justified in using ad hominem arguments insofar as he is justified in disparaging the character or capacities of realists.
www.earlham.edu /~peters/writing/fichte.htm   (11524 words)

 The Logical Fallacies: Attacking the Person (argumentum ad hominem)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
ad hominem (abusive): instead of attacking an assertion, the argument attacks the person who made the assertion.
ad hominem (circumstantial): instead of attacking an assertion the author points to the relationship between the person making the assertion and the person's circumstances.
ad hominem (tu quoque): this form of attack on the person notes that a person does not practise what he
www.intrepidsoftware.com /fallacy/attack.php   (232 words)

 Mission: Critical (Ad Hominem Introduction)
One of the most common non-rational appeals is an argumentum ad hominem--or, as the Latin phrase suggests, an "argument against the person" (and not against the ideas he or she is presenting).
But because we often react more strongly to personalities than to the sometimes abstract and complex arguments they are making, ad hominem appeals are often very effective with someone who is not thinking critically.
Ad hominem fallacies take a number of different forms, though all share the fact that they attempt to re-focus attention, away from the argument made and onto the person making it.
www2.sjsu.edu /depts/itl/graphics/adhom/adhom.html   (624 words)

 Ad Hominem
> BTW this is not argumentum ad hominem.
Analysis: Remarks are over the top, but not ad hominem, since a real case is made based not on who said something but based on what was said.
But ad hominem, since an argument is dismissed based on who said it, without reference to content.
jmm.aaa.net.au /articles/9061.htm   (524 words)

 Logical Fallacy: Argumentum ad Hominem
Ad Hominem is the most familiar of informal fallacies, and—with the possible exception of Undistributed Middle—the most familiar logical fallacy of them all.
The phrase "ad hominem argument" is sometimes used to refer to a very different type of argument, namely, one that uses premisses accepted by the opposition to argue for a position.
Abusive: An Abusive Ad Hominem occurs when an attack on the character or other irrelevant personal qualities of the opposition—such as appearance—is offered as evidence against her position.
www.fallacyfiles.org /adhomine.html   (452 words)

 An ad hominem argument against wireless ipods? Never. - Today's Podcast by Scott Brenner.
Today we have a Latin term- ad hominem Ad hominem is an adjective that describes an argument that appeals to personal considerations.
Ad hominem is an adjective that describes an argument that appeals to personal considerations.
Since ad hominem is Latin it doesn't have an etymology just a translation.
todayspodcast.com /archives/2005/06/an_ad_hominem_a.html   (413 words)

 Fallacy: Ad Hominem   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Ad hominem is the fallacy I see most, followed by the Straw Man, Begging the Question, the False Dilemma, and the Appeal to Authority.
Ad Hominem Attack: grlfrnd is a member of Free Republic which is just a bunch of Clinton haters, so Clinton couldn't have done anything to prevent the 9-11 attacks.
Between the abusive and the circumstantial varieties of argument ad hominem there is a clear connection: the circumstantial may be regarded as a special case of the abusive.
www.freerepublic.com /focus/news/648612/posts   (3347 words)

 John Quiggin » Blog Archive » Ad hominem ad nauseam   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
By contrast, believers in the “ad hominem fallacy” fallacy would suggest that the director’s arguments were just as valid as anyone else’s, and they do not need to declare their interest before taking part in the discussion (though they should not vote).
Ad hominem responses are commonly made at those who present partial sets of information, to those who are paid to present partial sets of information, and falsely, to those who the arguer wished to besmirch.
You confuse credibility with objectivity when the point of ad hominem ad nauseam is that credibility is meaningful (which, for social and practical reasons, it is).
johnquiggin.com /index.php/archives/2006/02/21/ad-hominem-ad-nauseam   (11074 words)

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