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Topic: Additional Member System


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In the News (Thu 23 May 19)

  
  Kids.Net.Au - Encyclopedia > Additional member system   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
The Additional Member System (aka Mixed Member Proportional Representation) is a voting system used in the Scottish Parliament, Welsh Assembly, the German Bundestag, the New Zealand House of Representatives and other places in the world.
In addition to these constituency representatives, the assembly also has representatives not tied to a particular constituency, but rather to a district-wide party list.
Having a leader with a safe constituency seat is a tremendous asset to a minor party in such a system as it ensures survival.
www.kids.net.au /encyclopedia-wiki/ad/Additional_member_system   (391 words)

  
 Additional Decisions Regarding Definitions of a Golf Club | United States Golf Association
Members of this organization are eligible for competitions conducted by the association.
Members are invited to play in tournaments held frequently and handicap reports and scoring records are displayed on a web site or mailed to each member on revision dates.
Members of a golf club who are issued a Handicap Index® must be from a small defined geographic area, i.e., the residence or business address of each member of the golf club must generally be within approximately a 50 mile radius of the principal location of the golf club.
www.usga.org /playing/handicaps/getting_a_handicap/additional_decisions.html   (1309 words)

  
  Additional Member System - Encyclopedia.WorldSearch   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
In 1976, the Hansard Society recommended that the Additional Member System be used for UK parliamentary elections, but instead of using closed party lists, it proposed that seats allocated by proportional, and the remainder seats of would be filled using open party lists.
Electoral systems experimentation in the new Eastern Europe: the single transferable vote and the additional member system in Estonia and Hungary.
Nomination of Lawrence B. Lindsey to be a member of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System from the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban...
encyclopedia.worldsearch.com /mixed_member_proportional.htm   (847 words)

  
 Additional Member System   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
The Additional Member System is a voting system incorporating an element of proportional representation.
The phrase Additional Member System is often used to describe mixed member proportional voting where the results in the non-proportional election are taken into account and (either wholly or partly) compensated in the proportional system; this is the system described here.
Germany - Bundestag The Federal Diet, composed of at least 598 Members, of whom 299 are elected in the constituencies and a further 299 via a list-based additional member system with a 5% cutoff.
www.serebella.com /encyclopedia/article-Additional_Member_System.html   (1019 words)

  
 Proportional representation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The PR system was devised in the late 19th century, and was first used in Belgium in the 1900 parliamentary elections.
This system (or variations of it) is used in Germany, New Zealand, the Scottish Parliament and the Welsh Assembly.
In mixed member systems, candidates from the first-past-the-post districts are given 100% of a districts vote (or 100 votes, depending on the variant) to be added cumulatively with the shared member districts.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Proportional_representation   (1889 words)

  
 Additional Member System - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Under the Mixed Member Proportional (MMP) or Top-Up system, the aim is either for the party's total number of representatives, including constituency representatives, to be proportional to its percentage of the party vote, or for the allocation of additional party list seats to offset some or all of the disproportionate result in the constituencies.
In 1976, the Hansard Society recommended that the Additional Member System be used for UK parliamentary elections, but instead of using closed party lists, it proposed that seats be filled by defeated candidates, on a 'best loser' basis.
In systems with a threshold, tactical voting for a minor party that is predicted to poll slightly below the threshold is relatively common, especially by voters who are afraid that the minor party missing the threshold would weaken the larger political camp that the minor party belongs to.
www.wikipedia.org /wiki/Additional_Member_System   (1134 words)

  
 Voting system - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A voting system is a process that allows a group of people to express their tolerances or preferences about a number of options, and then selects an option, or even multiple options, in a way that satisfies many of the voters.
Most voting systems are based on the concept of majority rule, or the principle that a group of more than half of the voters should be able to get the outcome they want.
Voting systems are also judged with criteria that are not mathematically precise but are still important, such as simplicity, speed of vote-counting, the potential for fraud or disputed results, strategic voting, and (for multiple-winner methods) the degree of proportionality.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Voting_system   (3433 words)

  
 Proportional representation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
The district or constituency magnitude of a system (i.e.
The PR system was devised in the early 20th Century, and was first used in European democracies such as the German Weimar Republic.
This system is used in Israel (where the whole country is one closed list constituency), the Netherlands (open list) and for elections to the European Parliament in the United Kingdom (closed list) as well as in Finland using multi-member districts and.
www.peekskill.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/Proportional_Representation   (1369 words)

  
 Additional Member System - Biocrawler   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
The Additional Member System (AMS) is a voting system where some representatives are elected from geographic constituencies and others are elected under proportional representation from party lists.
Under the Mixed Member Proportional (MMP) or Top-Up system, the aim is for the party's total number of representatives, including constituency representatives, to be proportional to its percentage of the party vote.
In 1976, the Hansard Society recommended that the Additional Member System be used for UK parliamentary elections, but instead of using closed party lists, it proposed that seats be filled by defeated candidates, on a 'best loser' basis.
www.biocrawler.com /encyclopedia/Mixed_proportional_representation   (890 words)

  
 Additional Member Systems
The Additional Member System (AMS), part of the proportional representation systems that exist in elections, has been used with the sphere of British Politics.
The Additional Member System has been used in devolutionary elections in Britain but is not yet seen as a replacement for the first-past-the-post system used in Britain's national elections.
It is a mixture of the FPTP system and the list system in which voters usually have two votes.
www.historylearningsite.co.uk /additional_member_systems.htm   (225 words)

  
 LP News Oct95 - New way to vote? Proportional voting system would benefit the LP
As an LP member for 11 years, many times I have heard the claim that the two-party system is near an end.
Under such a system, the game for candidates for public office becomes one of trying to be all things to all voters and to offend the fewest people possible.
The additional member system is used in Germany and has aspects of both the party list vote and our SMP system.
www.lp.org /lpn/9510-proportion.html   (1788 words)

  
 Election - Open Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
Among the former are party-list proportional representation and additional member system.
In order for democratic elections to be fair and competitive, opposition parties and candidates must enjoy the rights to freedom of speech, assembly, and movement as necessary to voice their criticisms of the government openly and to bring alternative policies and candidates to the voters.
In the Westminster System the Prime Minister, who holds the most power, is formally chosen by the head of state and in reality by the legislature or by their party.
open-encyclopedia.com /Election   (1981 words)

  
 Learn more about Voting system in the online encyclopedia.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
Voting systems are methods (algorithms) for groups of people to select one or more options from many, taking into account the individual preferences of the group members.
A voting system may select only one option, in which case it is called a "single winner system", or it may select multiple options, for example to fill a parliament.
These systems are designed to ensure proportional representation, the idea that the candidates selected from a given party (or, in non-party-list systems, informal grouping) should be in proportion to the votes cast for that party.
www.onlineencyclopedia.org /v/vo/voting_system.html   (801 words)

  
 How Proportional Representation Elections Work
The second characteristic of all PR systems is that they divide up the seats in these multi-member districts according to the proportion of votes received by the various parties or groups running candidates.
Half of the members of the legislature are elected in single-member district plurality contests.
Plurality-majority systems routinely waste large numbers of votes and this is why they are prone to such problems as party misrepresentation, and the underrepresentation of political minorities, racial minorities, and women.
www.mtholyoke.edu /acad/polit/damy/BeginnningReading/howprwor.htm   (2869 words)

  
 NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Forth Valley
In addition to constituency Members of the Scottish Parliament (MSPs) the region elects seven of the 56 additional-member MSPs.
The Scottish Parliament (Holyrood) has 73 constituencies, each electing one Member of the Scottish Parliament (MSP) by the first past the post system of election, and eight additional member regions, each electing seven additional member MSPs.
Member of the Scottish Parliament (MSP) is the title given to any one of the 129 individuals elected to serve in the Scottish Parliament.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Forth-Valley   (664 words)

  
 BBC Politics 97
They are to be elected in much the same way: most of the members will be directly elected by constituencies using the traditional 'first past the post' system; there will also be a number of 'additional members' elected by proportional representation.
The additional members will be elected in a way that has never before been seen in the United Kingdom.
The process is repeated until all the additional member seats have been allocated.
www.bbc.co.uk /politics97/analysis/rozenberg2.shtml   (1351 words)

  
 [No title]
The Additional Member System of voting is used for national elections in Germany and Japan and since 1999 it has been used for elections to the Scottish Parliament and the National Assembly for Wales.
Under this system voters have two votes, one for a constituency candidate and the second for a political party.
The votes are counted first for the constituency seats and then the additional list seats are allocated in a way that aims to match the proportion of the total number of seats won by each party to their share of the vote.
www.explore.parliament.uk /Parliament.aspx?id=10112&glossary=true   (184 words)

  
 The Territorial Additional-Member System
It is argued that this system, of all forms of PR, gives the best "constituency link", maximising the opportunity of each MP to maintain contact with his or her constituents.
Of all forms of PR, the system is probably the closest to the present system of First-Past-the-Post in single-member constituencies, and could therefore be adopted in the UK with the minimum of change.
It is also claimed that, at least in its "strong-party" version, the system would strengthen the incentive of each MP to serve his or her constituents, and would increase the coherence and integration of each party.
www.democdesignforum.demon.co.uk /TerrAMS.html   (2512 words)

  
 Additional Member System   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
The phrase Additional Member System is often used to describe mixed member proportional voting where the results in the non-proportional are taken into account and (either wholly partly) compensated in the proportional system; this the system described here.
In 1976 the Hansard Society recommended that the Additional Member be used for UK parliamentary elections but of using closed party lists it proposed seats allocated by proportional representation instead be by each party's 'best losers'.
In terms of tactical voting the first vote for the district is often much less important than the party list vote in determining the overall of an election; in other cases a may be so certain of winning seats the district election that it expects no seats in the proportional top-up.
www.freeglossary.com /Mixed-member_proportional_system   (925 words)

  
 The Scottish Voting System   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
The Scottish Assembly consists of 139 members, of which 73 are chosen by the traditional first-past-the-post method, in constituencies corresponding to the constituencies of the 73 Scottish MPs who sit in the House of Commons.
The remaining 56 members are chosen by a form of proportional representation.
The system allows people to vote for both a party and a person, the lack of which duality is a criticism often made of both first-past-the-post and closed-list elections.
www.users.globalnet.co.uk /~jclack/frames/scottishexplanation.html   (389 words)

  
 BY Election and Additional Member System (AMS/MMPR)
Some electoral systems with MMPR enforce a by-election for a leaving constituency-MP Without new calculation of list seats.
By winning a Constituency Seat on mean election day a party risks loosing it by by-election, a not won Constituency Seat gives a change of winning an additional seat through a by-election.
Additional Disadvantages for a party in winning a constituency: Party dependant, comnposition of party in piarlament, Parteiau├čenseiter, educate "right" splittung of vote, Verbot of party change (NZ)
www.wahlrecht.de /english/by-election-paradox.html   (431 words)

  
 Society Government Parliaments and Legislatures   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
Germany - Bundestag - The Federal Diet, composed of at least 598 Members, of whom 299 are elected in the constituencies and a further 299 via a list-based additional member system with a 5% cutoff.
Latvia - Saeima - Unicameral parliament of 100 members elected by proportional representation.
Norwegian Parliament - The Stortinget of 165 members, of which 157 are from constituencies and 8 are additional members.
www.iper1.com /iper1-odp/scat/id/Society/Government/Parliaments_and_Legislatures   (1087 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
The Additional Member System (aka Mixed Member Proportional Representation) is a voting system incorporating an element of proportional representation.
In addition to these constituency representatives, the assembly also has representatives not tied to a particular constituency, but elected from regional party lists.
The governing Labour party made a manifesto commitment to put the system to the public in a referendum.
www.informationgenius.com /encyclopedia/a/ad/additional_member_system.html   (450 words)

  
 The Federal Reserve System: Its Purposes And Functions ­­ 1939
Member banks may and do maintain reserves in excess of requirements, On December 31, 1939, their reserve balances amounted in the aggregate to about nine billion dollars, of which about three million were excess reserves.
The member banks may extend credit as long as they may have adequate reserves; when their reserves become inadequate, Federal Reserve Bank Credit is available with which to replenish these reserves; to the extent that their enlarged reserves permit, the member banks can expand their loans ­­ as long as there is sufficient demand.
Additional reserve funds that enable the individual bank to enlarge its own loans by an almost equal amount, enable the banking system as a whole to enlarge the aggregate of loans by several times as much.
fly.hiwaay.net /~becraft/FRS-Adams.htm   (14874 words)

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