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Topic: Advantages and disadvantages of pesticides and biological control in agriculture

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In the News (Sun 20 Apr 14)

  Pesticide misuse - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Under United States laws, pesticide misuse is the use of a pesticide in a way that violates laws regulating their use or endangers humans or the environment; many of these regulations are laid out in the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA).
Pesticide misuse that endanger human health or even cause death get the most attention from law enforcement, yet pesticide poisonings are still a common problem, particularly with agricultural workers.
Pesticides are toxic compounds and the labels are specifically designed to make their use effective and safe.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Pesticide_misuse   (527 words)

 Biological control and holistic plant-health care in agriculture
Biological control describes the normal state of affairs in naturel undisturbed ecosystems, where populations of organisms exist in a dynamic equilibrium and species or individuals unable to compete or to find an ecological niche are replaced by those that can.
The era of modern biological control, involving the deliberate transfer and introduction of naturel enemies of insect pests, was launched 100 years ego with the highly successful introduction of the vadalia beetle from Australia to California in 1888 to control the cottony cushion scale of citrus.
Pest control by sanitation is accomplished mainly by physical and chemical methods, including sterilization of the surface of seeds or tools by heat or chemical-disinfectants, physical separation of disease-free tissue from infected plants or weed seeds from crop seeds, or physical removal of weeds or infested debris from an orchard or field.
www.eap.mcgill.ca /MagRack/AJAA/AJAA_11.htm   (7873 words)

 EPA: Federal Register: Proposed Policy; Plant-Pesticides Subject to the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide ...
EPA defines the term ``biological control agent'' as ``any living organism applied to or introduced into the environment that is intended to function as a pesticide against another organism declared to be a pest by the Administrator'' (40 CFR 152.3).
Although plants used as biological control agents were excluded from FIFRA regulation under 40 CFR 152.20, substances that are extracted from plants and used as pesticides are not similarly excluded.
Since the pesticidal substance may have the potential to be expressed in the entire crop and related plants, it may be difficult to limit the exposure of threatened or endangered species.
www.epa.gov /fedrgstr/EPA-PEST/1994/November/Day-23/pr-52.html   (16562 words)

 Hazardous Substances: The Pesticide Issue   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-02)
In areas of heavy pesticide use, poisoning of birds, mammals and fish are common.
As a result, many pesticides that are banned or restricted in the United States because of their danger to health and the environment are exported to developing countries.
You might want to tell the students that a pesticide is a general word for poisons that control or kill insects, fungi, weeds, and rodents.
scied.gsu.edu /Hassard/mos/6.6e.html   (547 words)

 UCONN IPM Strategies
Biological control is the use of living organisms which function as parasites, predators, or pathogens to help control pests.
Pesticides are chemicals that are used to destroy, repel, or otherwise lower pest infestations to protect crops from damage.
Pesticide exposure from drift to non-target areas; contamination of ground and surface waters; and residues on food are topics of concern to the general public.
www.hort.uconn.edu /ipm/general/htms/ipmstrat.htm   (2121 words)

 Environmental issues of forages - Define the term biodiversity and explain how this concept could be applied to forage ...
Using herbicides to control weeds, using pesticides to control insects, fumigating soil to control microorganisms, using rodenticides to control rodents, importing domesticated livestock into areas that used to support a mixed wildlife population are all ways in which agricultural production practices can reduce biodiversity.
One criticism often leveled at modern agriculture is the dependence on a few crops that are genetically similar.
The advantage of this approach to food production has been the development of crops that produce high yields per unit area of land in response to inputs of fertilizer, irrigation, and agrichemicals in general.
forages.oregonstate.edu /nfgc/topics.cfm?ID=279   (1155 words)

 Insects Control   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-02)
Control of insects and similar pests may involve any of the three basic pest control objectives.
If you use pesticides, try to use ones that are not toxic to the predators and parasites you want to encourage -- or apply the pesticides at a time when the beneficial organisms are not vulnerable.
A virus is sold to control certain moth pests and another is used to control codling moths.
www.ddd.lt /insectscon.htm   (2482 words)

 CISEO: Enforcers Lesson Plan
While predator-prey relationships are interesting studies in themselves, this lesson approaches the topic from the perspective of predators as a form of biological control of insect pests.
Biological control utilizes natural enemies to control pest populations and results in less harm to plants, people and the environment.
Other examples of biological control are explored in the optional case study.
insected.arizona.edu /enforcers/overview.html   (770 words)

 Agriculture Course Descriptions for Hawaii Community Colleges
Control weeds through various ways such as cultivation, chemical control, biological control, and the use of mulches.
Differentiate the advantages and disadvantages of a labor intensive against a capital intensive farm.
Explain advantages and disadvantages of several varieties of vegetable, fruit, tree and ornamental crops.
www.hawaiiag.org /partners/cccourse.htm   (4473 words)

 South Carolina Category 8 Training Manual
The installation of animal traps and the distribution of poisons intended to control rat and mouse populations in or around municipal streets, utilities, and public buildings or in other public areas such as recreational and industrial parks, schools, public hospitals, and similar areas is a public health pest control activity regulated by the SCPCA.
Pesticides used to control public health pests may be labeled to be applied as several different types of treatments.
Pesticides used for control of public health pests will be labeled to be applied as space treatments, spot treatments, crack and crevice treatments, perimeter treatments, and area treatments.
entweb.clemson.edu /pesticid/Category/Cat08_2.htm   (2764 words)

 Untitled Document
There are seven different general approaches: limiting nutrient inputs, physical removal, shading, chemical treatments, biological control agents, barley bales, and winter drawdown.
The following is a brief summary of these management options, including a description of the technique and some of the advantages and disadvantages.
Densities of the insects have to be fairly high for control to occur.
www.dnr.cornell.edu /ext/wetlands/ponds/adv-limitations.htm   (1342 words)

 Pest Control - Cambridge University Press
The various approaches to pest control are reviewed with emphasis on their history, advantages, disadvantages and future potential.
The book discusses how far chemical control has created problems and how far these may be solved by further chemical control or by alternative methods.
• Presents a balanced case concerning the advantages and disadvantages of the chemical control of pests in historical context.
www.cambridge.org /catalogue/catalogue.asp?ISBN=0521427886   (145 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-02)
Some plant diseases can be controlled by controlling the insect pests that cause their spread.
Cutworms are often hard to detect and control, because they feed at night and stay under the ground during the day.
Control is usually aimed at suppression of pests to a point where the presence or damage level is acceptable.
pested.unl.edu /priv1b.htm   (4699 words)

Pesticides are controlled by (FIFRA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act.
Pesticide = any substance or mixture intended for the destruction, prevention, or mitigation of insects, rodents, nematodes, fungi, weeds, or any other undesirable pest.
Several were used to spray on the foundations of houses to prevent termite infestation - examples is dieldrin and endrin.
www.sonoma.edu /users/h/hanesda/B308/pesticid.html   (962 words)

 Bt-Corn for Corn Borer Control
While controlling corn borers with resistant hybrids is not new, 1995 marked the beginning of the large-scale commercial use of genetically-engineered, or "transgenic" plants.
As with any new farm practice, producers need to consider that advantages and disadvantages as well as how easily it can be incorporated into their current farm operations.
Control of Some Other Corn Pests: While Bt corn was designed specifically to control European corn borer, some types of Bt corn also show some control of corn earworm, fall armyworm, Indianmeal moth, fl cutworm, and southwestern corn borer.
www.uky.edu /Ag/Entomology/entfacts/fldcrops/ef118.htm   (2926 words)

This technical/marketing study was prepared as an analysis to forecast and trace the significant changes in the pesticide and agricultural chemical business, as well as document the emerging trend toward integrated and low input agriculture.
The information for this study is drawn from interviews with individuals in the companies involved with bringing the new biological pesticides to the marketplace, literature searches, the patent literature, and government files and records for the more traditional crop protection chemicals.
As there is a general decline in the use and profitability of the chemical pesticides, there is a rise in the new and more profitable technology associated with biological controls.
www.bccresearch.com /archive/C082N.html   (862 words)

 biological control
It provides information on what is meant by biological control, and details of some insects which can be used as natural enemies or predators.
There are Entomology publications available including information about biological control agents, classification of insecticides and acaricides (including common and trade names, mode of action, chemical group, pattern of crop-resistance and mammalian toxicity) and weekly journals on pest management and crop development.
It summarises the advantages and disadvantages of microbial insecticides, describes the microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, nematodes) which can be used for insect control.
agrifor.ac.uk /browse/cabi/detail/0b91fbaedf17e4fd74b72cf71be71a52.html   (1155 words)

 Designing Insects by Thomas A. Miller
The key feature of symbiotic control, which uses symbionts to control pests or disease, is identifying a symbiont that has both an intimate relationship (called mutualism) with a diseased host and access to the pest or pathogen attacking it.
The difference between symbiotic control and biological control, which uses organisms such as parasites or predators to control pests or disease, is the transgenic pest organism acts as a symbiotic control agent itself rather than parasites or predators acting to control the pest.
Symbiotic control is different from ordinary microbial pesticides, which are used the same as commercial insecticides, in having greater selectivity and fewer side effects.
www.actionbioscience.org /biotech/miller.html   (3238 words)

 Pest Management Using Natural Enemies
These approaches to pest management may be used to reduce pesticide use.  When used effectively these methods can be a safe and effective approach to pest management.  As with all such management strategies, it is critical to correctly and comprehensively identify all advantages and disadvantages of a particular strategy.
Some of the keys to successfully using this strategy are: properly identifying the pest, accurately estimating the population, obtaining the correct natural enemies, following release directions correctly, and monitoring the effectiveness of the biological control.
The list represents Michigan biological control suppliers and practitioner firms listed in a variety of sources, including: 1) MSU Extension Bulletin, AM-116, "Who’s Who in Michigan Integrated Pest Management 1994"; 2) Suppliers of Beneficial Organisms in North America, California Department of Pesticide Regulation, 1997; and, 3) Farm Chemicals Handbook, 2001.
www.michigan.gov /mda/0,1607,7-125-1565-8862--,00.html   (292 words)

 Environmental issues of forages - Discuss advantages and disadvantages in using synthetic agrichemicals in forage ...
More specifically the term agrichemicals includes herbicides (chemicals that are toxic to weeds), pesticides (chemicals that are toxic to insects), fungicides (chemicals that are toxic to fungi - a group of organisms that cause diseases in plants and animals), rodenticides (chemicals toxic to rodents), and antibiotics administered to livestock.
Furthermore, it is far beyond the scope of this curriculum to address the many details of the hundreds of compounds that are in the category of agrichemicals.
Perhaps the most useful and concise way to discuss the issue of agrichemicals in the context of this curriculum is to point out major advantages and disadvantages in the use of these products in forage production.
forages.oregonstate.edu /nfgc/topics.cfm?ID=277   (604 words)

 Evaluation of the Sustainability of the Farms
A long list of definitions for "alternative" agriculture can be found in Harpers’ work as well, and these run the gamut from highly idealistic notions of agriculture to "anything not conventional".
The main difference between the two is the alternative farmers’ (AF) reluctance to use synthetic fertilizer, pesticides, and herbicides.
However, most of us felt that the AF is more sustainable than the CF because the AF's crop rotation, methods of weed control and manure application allows a greater control over the soil nutrients and levels of organic matter.
www.agron.iastate.edu /courses/agron450550/gradproject/evaluationtext.html   (2910 words)

 Home > Plant diseases, Weeds, and Pest Control > Biological control
CAIBL is an organization "dedicated to the discovery and development of environmentally safe chemicals to behaviorally manage insect pests and their natural enemies." Information is provided on the Laboratory, its staff, aims and activities.
Information on each record covers organism type, brief description, spectrum of control, method of action, trade name, manufacturer and suppliers, and sources of further information.
This section also details the horticultural disease diagnosis service, which deals with disease and insect pest identification and control and advice on specimen sampling and packaging.
agrifor.ac.uk /hb/f978ded13a89f682754afa2eed34f7e9.html   (969 words)

 Storming Media: Pentagon Reports and Documents
Reports about: Agricultural Chemistry, Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Engineering, Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine, Forestry, Pesticides Pollution and Control...
Reports about: Air Pollution and Control, Ecology, Environmental Health and Safety, Hygiene and Sanitation, Noise Pollution and Control, Nuclear Radiation Shield, Protection and Safety...
Reports about: Chemical, Biological and Radiological Warfare, Fusion Devices(Thermonuclear), Nuclear Explosions and Devices(Non-military), Nuclear Warfare, Nuclear Weapons...
www.stormingmedia.us   (841 words)

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