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Topic: Affirming the consequent


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  Logical Fallacy: Affirming the Consequent
Affirming the Consequent is a non-validating form of argument in propositional logic; for instance, let "p" be false and "q" be true, then there is no inconsistency in supposing that the first, conditional premiss is true, which makes the premisses true and the conclusion false.
So, in general, in an instance of the form Affirming the Consequent, if it is reasonable to consider the converse of the conditional premiss to be a suppressed premiss, then the argument is not fallacious, but a valid enthymeme.
Thus, the Counter-Example is a fallacious instance of Affirming the Consequent.
www.fallacyfiles.org /afthecon.html   (266 words)

  
  Affirming the consequent - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Affirming the consequent is a logical fallacy in the form of a hypothetical proposition.
The fallacy of affirming the consequent occurs when a hypothetical proposition comprising an antecedent and a consequent asserts that the truthhood of the consequent implies the truthhood of the antecedent.
If P, then Q. Therefore, P. This logical error is called the fallacy of affirming the consequent because it is mistakenly concluded from the second premise that the affirmation of the consequent entails the truthhood of the antecedent.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Affirming_the_consequent   (229 words)

  
 A Photon In The Darkness
Affirm the Consequent, Deny the Antecedent, and don’t mess with the Excluded Middle.
Sharon on Affirm the Consequent, Deny the Antecedent, and don't mess with the Excluded Middle.
Prometheus on Affirm the Consequent, Deny the Antecedent, and don't mess with the Excluded Middle.
photoninthedarkness.com   (6075 words)

  
 Syllogism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: )
A metaphor, in contrast, resembles a form of syllogism called affirming the consequent, which is a logical fallacy:
Affirming the Consequent, the basis of metaphor, is grammatically symmetrical: it equates two predicates.
By the definition of conditional and biconditional the consequences of the principle of the syllogism may be stated in the following formulas:
www.bexley.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/Syllogism   (385 words)

  
 consequent - Search Results - MSN Encarta
Antecedent (music), in musical analysis, a phrase or passage that is followed by a complementary consequent phrase.
A consequent is the second half of a hypothetical proposition.
Affirming the consequent is a formal fallacy, committed by reasoning in the form : If P, then Q.
encarta.msn.com /encnet/refpages/search.aspx?q=consequent   (182 words)

  
 Highbeam Encyclopedia - Search Results for consequent
Consequent is used either attributively or with on or upon and means ‘resulting, following in time’, with an element of causation that is not present in the purely temporal word subsequent : He does not...
A Dictionary of Ecology; 1/1/2004; MICHAEL ALLABY; 48 words; consequent stream A stream whose course is consequent upon the shape of a newly emerged land surface.
Catastrophe at Smyrna: Matthew Stewart traces the roots of the Greco-Turkish war of 1921-22, and the consequent refugee crisis, to the postwar settlements of 1919-20.
www.encyclopedia.com /searchpool.asp?target=consequent   (1245 words)

  
 RELATIVITY: THE MADNESS OF 20th CENTURY SCIENCE
The process of deification is advancing, mathematicians willingly help him and he does not need to use the outrageous principle of maximum absurdity in the deduction of Lorentz transforms (although he fiercely continues to use this principle in other cases).
If a proposition (consequent) follows from another proposition (antecedent), we can affirm the antecedent (as an axiom) and deduce the consequent.
Deducing the antecedent from the consequent is fallacious.
www.wbabin.net /valev/valev3.htm   (2651 words)

  
 Glossary for Philosophy 17
All substitution instances of Affirming the Consequent are invalid.
For example, Affirming the Consequent, a formal fallacy, looks superficially very much like the valid form modus ponens, and it is easy to see how someone might mistake AC for MP.
Affirming the Consequent looks superficially very much like Modus Ponens, and it is easy to see how a careless person might mistake AC for MP.
instruct.westvalley.edu /lafave/glossary.html   (12850 words)

  
 My Local Bands
ATC was created introducing a new sound of alternative Show Full Bio
The band ATC consists of Derrick - Vocals/didgeridoo, Barry - Guitars/vocals, Alex - Bass/cello and Jimi - Drums.
ATC is the remains of 2 Tucson local bands that came together to create an exciting new alternative sound..
www.mylocalbands.com /band.asp?xid=17842   (118 words)

  
 Logic Glossary
Like denying the antecedent, affirming the consequent is a formal fallacy.
Consequently, careful thinkers avoid rash generalizations (see hasty generalization) by qualifying their generalizations.
form, not to be confused with affirming the consequent, modus ponens consists of a conditional statement and one other premise.
www.philosophy.uncc.edu /mleldrid/logic/logiglos.html   (3050 words)

  
 lifeissues.net | A Brief Introduction to Logic
Logicians simply took the first two vowels of Affirmo (I affirm), the A and the I, as well as the first two vowels of Nego, the E and the O, and employed them as codes for these kinds of statements.
The A statement is called the universal affirmative, and it takes the form: All S (subject) is P (predicate), for example: All giraffes are animals.
However, affirming the consequent (AC) and denying the antecedent (DA) are invalid forms of reasoning.
www.lifeissues.net /writers/mcm/ph/ph_01philosophyyouth8.html   (2403 words)

  
 Fallacies [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy]
If you have enough evidence to affirm the consequent of a conditional and then suppose that as a result you have sufficient reason for affirming the antecedent, you commit the fallacy of affirming the consequent.
A conditional is an if-then statement; the if-part is the antecedent, and the then-part is the consequent.
So, she committed the murder." This deductively invalid argument commits the fallacy of affirming the consequent, but it isn't a non sequitur because it has significant inductive strength.
www.iep.utm.edu /f/fallacy.htm   (13726 words)

  
 Ephilosopher :: Logic and Formal Reasoning :: modus ponens or affirming the consequent   (Site not responding. Last check: )
In fact, because it is a tautology, that seems to militate for it's being classified as a (perhaps degenerate) case of modus ponens, and not affirming the consequent.
Your original #3 is an exclusive case in which affirming the consequent could be considered valid reasoning.
Using this new definition of the affirming the consequent fallacy, argument form #3 would be classified as an affirming the consequent fallacy and would therefore be invalid.
www.ephilosopher.com /phpBB_14-action-viewtopic-topic-66-start-0.html   (1989 words)

  
 The fallacy of racial profiling
But it would be "affirming the consequent" to conclude that someone who is a woman is therefore pregnant.
Likewise, if criminal justice statistics suggest that criminals are likely to be fl or Latino, it would be affirming the consequent to conclude that fls and Latinos are likely to be criminals.
Affirming the consequent may sound like a tolerable error if one wants to improve public safety: All one has to do is accept that some innocent people will have to be inconvenienced in order to protect others.
www.sfgate.com /cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2001/12/05/ED76325.DTL   (1083 words)

  
 Affirming the Consequent
Affirming the Consequent is a formal fallacy, meaning that unlike some other fallacies you have seen, the problem with this reasoning has to do with the form or pattern of the argument itself.
In general, show that q might be a consequence of something other than p.
For example, the fish deaths might be caused by pesticide run-off, and not the mill.
www.hebrew4christians.com /Clear_Thinking/Informal_Fallacies/Affirming_the_Consequent/affirming_the_consequent.html   (187 words)

  
 Deduction and Induction
If we were to affirm that the premises are true but deny that the conclusion is true, we would be violating the principle of contradiction; we would be affirming and denying the same thing in the same respect at the same time.
If we affirm that the premises are true but deny that the conclusion is true, we would not be violating the principle of contradiction since the premises do not require us to affirm that the conclusion is true under penalty of contradicting ourselves if we do otherwise.
In fact, the structure of the fallacious argument in deductive logic, the Fallacy of Affirming the Consequent, is at the heart of scientific method.
falcon.jmu.edu /~omearawm/deduction.html   (1204 words)

  
 Conditional Reasoning
You can affirm or deny either the antecedent or consequent, which may lead to error.
Denying the consequent means going backwards, saying 'If B is false, then A must also be false.' Thus if you say 'If it is raining, I will get wet', then the trap is to assume that if I am not getting wet then it is not raining.
The 7 could deny the consequent and hence must be checked.
changingminds.org /explanations/decision/conditional_reasoning.htm   (415 words)

  
 Formal Fallacies   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Most of the arguments that a classical logician would label Affirming the Consequent are really Retroductions in which the causal principle to which the argument appeals is not the best explanation for the observation being explained.
The argument follows the pattern labeled Affirming the Consequent, and this argument is undeniably fallacious.
However, it is fallacious because it is an Arcane Explanation (appealing to the agency of entities not generally believed to exist), not because it affirms its consequent.
www.cuyamaca.net /bruce.thompson/Fallacies/formalfallacies.asp   (476 words)

  
 [No title]
Affirming the consequent argues backward from the truth of a conclusion to the truth of one of the propositions like this.
There is also a danger of using fudged evidence to affirm the consequent.
It is inference known as modus tollens; or denying the consequent.
www.kilty.com /reason.htm   (3758 words)

  
 Affirming the Consequent
Disciplines > Argument > Fallacies > Affirming the Consequent
The B, or 'then' part of the statement is called the 'consequent' (the A is the antecedent).
Affirming the Consequent is one of Aristotle's 13 fallacies.
changingminds.org /disciplines/argument/fallacies/affirming_consequent.htm   (117 words)

  
 Affirming The Consequent
Affirming The Consequent is equivalent to the fallacy of Denying The Antecedent, as the above argument can be rewritten:
The conclusion, however, was an example of Affirming The Consequent, and was demonstrated to be false on 7th July 2005.
Bayes' Theorem can be seen as a probabilistic variation on Affirming The Consequent in which the argument is valid.
www.safalra.com /philosophy/fallacies/consequent   (408 words)

  
 TheSoundRadio Artists
Affirming the Consequent is a colaboration from members of 2 bands from Tucson.Four genres of music combined into one!
Well, the music that was written for the lyrics was just too aggressive and I ended up changing the lyrics to suit the style.
The song was good, but not the emotional portraiture that Jimi originally envisioned.So now in ATC we wanted to revive the original emotional feeling for the song.
www.thesoundradio.com /loadArtist.do?artistNo=1001   (203 words)

  
 MISSION: CRITICAL (Review Exercises)
Valid: affirming the antecedent of a chain argument.
Even so, the second premise, "You don't do your homework," affirms the consequent (Q), and so the argument is invalid.
No negative conclusion; the distributed term in the conclusion (Z) is distributed in the second premise; and the middle term (X) is distributed in the first premise.
www.sjsu.edu /depts/itl/graphics/deduc/60ded-a3.html   (661 words)

  
 Fallacy Of Affirming The Consequent (Sherman's Thinkers)   (Site not responding. Last check: )
That is, the subject, “Fallacy of Affirming the Consequent,” can be used to deliberately mislead people.
However it is not so easy when the affirmation of the consequent comes during a commercial for a new car.
Simple, if the programmer does not understand the underlying object, the code developed can quite happily be made to accept the principle that affirming the consequent is acceptable.
channels.lockergnome.com /it/archives/20050117_fallacy_of_affirming_the_consequent.phtml   (900 words)

  
 Truth Tables for compound statements and arguments
This means that we can an argument in the form of a conditional statement which has as the antacedent the conjunction of the premises (of the argument) and which has as the consequent the conclusion of the argument.
Notice that in the final row of the truth table for Modus Ponens, the truth value of the conditional is always true (a tautology if it were a statement), while in the final row of the truth table for Affirming the Consequent, there is one row where the conditional is false.
This row represents the combination of truth and falsity of the simple statements which makes it possible for the conjunction of the premises to be true, and the conclusion false.
www.mcckc.edu /longview/ctac/ttable2.htm   (695 words)

  
 Argument from Design... Affirming the Consequent? - IIDB
Ok, so the fallacy of affirming the consequent is a result of a misue of the material conditional p -> q.
Necessary conditions are *consequents* in implication arguments (e.g., If you won the lottery, then you must have bought a ticket)
in my argument, the main point is that it would not be affirming the consequent.
www.iidb.org /vbb/showthread.php?t=209232   (2373 words)

  
 Logical Fallacies
Denying the antecedent or affirming the consequent is not a valid form of argument.
If the consequent is denied, "It's not white, so it can't be pure snow" the result is true.
But affirming the consequent, "It's white therefore it must be snow" is not valid.
www.fincher.org /Misc/LogicalFallacies.shtml   (974 words)

  
 MySpace.com - Affirming The Consequent (is now on itunes) - TUCSON, Arizona - Rock / Alternative - ...
Affirming The Consequent (is now on itunes)'s Latest Blog Entry [Subscribe to this Blog]
Affirming The Consequent (is now on itunes) has 1306 friends.
Affirming the COnsequent will be a featured band during our live show tomrorow night and weekly podcast.
www.myspace.com /affirmingtheconsequent   (628 words)

  
 [No title]
AFFIRMING THE CONSEQUENT An argument based on a hypothetical statement, and the truth of the consequent to the truth of the antecedent.
DENIAL OF THE ANTECEDENT An argument in which one infers the falsity of the consequent from the truth of a hypothetical proposition, and the falsity of its antecedent.
NON CAUSA PRO CAUSA An argument to reject a proposition because of the falsity of some other proposition that SEEMS to be a consequence of the first, but really is not.
www.u.arizona.edu /~shunter/logic.txt   (1175 words)

  
 Philosophical Dictionary: Aesthetics-Altruism
The formal fallacy committed in a categorical syllogism that violates a syllogistic rule by having an affirmative conclusion derived from at least one negative proposition as a premise.
The first affirms that every spaniel also belongs to the class of dogs, while the latter affirms that there is at least one member commonly included among both children and people who play word games.
The differential roles to which individuals are assigned in a society, he argued, are clearly signified not only by the presence of particular notions in its cultural paradigms, but even more dramatically by the absence of others.
www.philosophypages.com /dy/a2.htm   (1575 words)

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