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Topic: African French

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  French language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For the history of the French language, the most important of these groups are the Franks in northern France, the Alemanni in the German/French border, the Burgundians in the Rhone valley and the Visigoths in the Aquitaine region and Spain.
The earliest extant text in French is the Oaths of Strasbourg from 842; Old French became a literary language with the chansons de geste that told tales of the paladins of Charlemagne and the heroes of the Crusades.
French is an official language of New Brunswick, the Yukon Territory, the Northwest Territories, and Nunavut.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/French_language   (3638 words)

 African French - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
French in Africa is present and spoken by many people.
French arrived in Africa with colonization from France and Belgium.
Africans are now an important part of the world Francophonie.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/African_French   (103 words)

 FAF - Preamble
This African Crisis Response Force (ACRF) may be deployed to intervene in serious crises -- cases of insurrection, genocide or civil strife to avert a Rwanda-like conflagration in crisis-laden African countries, such as Burundi, where an estimated 150,000 Burundians have perished in ethnic warfare.
The third was to seek alternative African candidates to Bhoutros Bhoutros-Ghali, whose second term as U.N. chief the U.S. have vowed to veto in December.
France, however, slammed the ACRF idea as a "trespass on traditonal French territory." On Oct 9, 1996, France's Minister For Foreign Cooperation, Jacques Godfrain, charged that the trip was politically-motivated to pander to fl voters in the forthcoming Nov elections and to African governments whose support the U.S. needs to deny BB-G second term.
www.freeafrica.org /commentaries5.html   (2860 words)

Both French and American government representatives as well as NGO and donor spokepersons agreed that Africans and African leadership had to be at the center of all donor strategies.
It came from an African participant who said that the relationships between the nongovernmental groups receiving outside support tended to be more often “vertical” than “horizontal.” In other words, their ties tended to be to the international donor community and not to sister organizations doing similar work within their country or region.
French NGO representatives, in fact, while verifying that institutions of state were the common target of democracy assistance, believed strongly that the rule of law, to include the strengthening of judiciaries and legislatures, particularly through the Agence de la Francophonie, is essential to attaining the shared goal of democratic governance.
www.ned.org /publications/africaReport/part1.html   (4935 words)

 Central African Republic article - Central African Republic French Ubangi-Shari 1960 1993 Bangui Chad Sudan Democratic ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
The Central African Republic, formerly the French colony of Ubangi-Shari, became the Central African Republic upon independence in 1960.
Originally a colony of France, the Central African Republic became independent in1960.
His human rights violations and movements against French interests prompted France to support a coup against him in 1979, restoring Dacko to power.
www.what-means.com /encyclopedia/Central_African_Republic   (303 words)

 USAfricaonline.com | France |International Relations | Ekweekwe
Stung and disillusioned by the 1954 spectacular and humiliating defeat of French forces in Vietnam and the looming disaster in its ongoing war in Algeria, de Gaulle produced a document for a purported future of African freedom.
It was clearly the choice of leaders who most of the time are at war with their own populations, their own people, to remain silent because they lacked the integrity to state their positions on a subject whose varying facets and strands did in fact expose the state of their ruinous regimes back home.
It is now clear that the tenuousness of francophonie in Africa, despite French propaganda to the contrary, lies right in its foundational premise of operations: the incorporation of a league of nations that exists to serve French interests whilst critically dependent on its day to day operations on usually ruthless anti-African local leaderships.
www.usafricaonline.com /ekweekwe.africafrench.html   (2012 words)

 AllRefer.com - French West Africa, Africa History (African History) - Encyclopedia
French West Africa, former federation of eight French overseas territories.
The federation was created in 1895 to consolidate the French holdings in W Africa and was definitively constituted in 1904.
In 1958 the constituent territories became autonomous republics in the French Community, except for Guinea, which became independent.
reference.allrefer.com /encyclopedia/F/FrenchWAf.html   (225 words)

 Untitled Document
French policies in its African colonies followed the theme of domination and manipulation of the native population, most notably found within its economic policies.
African landowners, in an effort to check the encroachment by European speculators (non-French), were forbidden to mortgage their property to foreigners.
The French government guarantees the convertibility of the franc de la communaute financiere africaine (C.F.A.) used by these colonies, and, in return, the African states pool their foreign exchange earnings in Paris, using the French franc as their trading currency for buying/selling other currencies, thereby elevating the status and value of the French franc.
www.mtholyoke.edu /courses/rschwart/hist151/projects/gayatri.html   (2818 words)

 Jembe Spelling
French writing during the French West African colonial period (1895-1960) reflected French pronunciations and spellings of local terms.
The consonant cluster dj, as in djembe, is a French invention used to accommodate a foreign term.
Since independence (1958-1960) African governments have been working toward indigenous ways of spelling their local languages in accordance with international standards of phonetic transcription.
echarry.web.wesleyan.edu /jembe-spelling.html   (451 words)

 African Animals Coloring/Info Pages - AllAboutNature.com
Africa is the second-largest continent and has many different biomes, including desert (the Sahara in the north and the Kalahari in the south), savannas, tropical rainforests (mostly on the Western coast), Mediterranean scrub, mountains (including snow-covered peaks like Mt. Kilimanjaro), and coastal areas.
African Rock Pythons are large snakes that kill by constricting their prey.
The Okapi is a nocturnal, giraffe-like mammal from African rainforests.
www.enchantedlearning.com /coloring/Africa.shtml   (2074 words)

 Africa Update Archives
Free from the French influence trying to build the community of French users gathered under "la francophonie." But this freedom is slowly coming about as some former French colonies are rejecting French as their language of instruction.
Africans felt the need in English for a distinct second person plural pronoun, to which they were accustomed in their own languages.
The seeming ease with which the oppressed Africans of Jamaica and Haiti have streamlined, simplified, and rationalized the archaic tongues of their former slavemasters will probably be seen from the perspective of the coming third milennium AD as nothing short of revolutionary.
www.ccsu.edu /AFSTUDY/upd4-2.html   (5925 words)

 FLC: Lesson 1 - Pronunciation guidelines
This is not an exhaustive description of the French pronunciation since it does not make any sense to try to cover all aspects of the pronunciation of a language until you can hear the actual sounds.
In French, this sound is referred to as "è" (e with a grave accent).
But French people are reluctant to change the spelling of their language (as English people !) as opposed to Spanish and German people.
www.jump-gate.com /languages/french/french1.html   (1356 words)

Francophone African poetry (that is, poetry written by Africans in the French language) is a rich and varied literary expression.
Indeed, as Léopold Senghor declared upon becoming the first African invited into the Académie Française, the invention of Francophone African poetry has provided an opportunity not just for Africans to broaden their audience, but for African writers to actually influence and change the French language to suit a broader purpose.
The second generation, represented by Senghor, David Diop, and Dadie, graduated Francophone African poetry from merely an attempt to mimic French poetry, to a new, identifiably African expression.
web.uflib.ufl.edu /cm/africana/poets.htm   (974 words)

 African Cinema: Media Resources Center UCB
In a mythical African country, a rich, self-made businessman and member of the post-colonial ruling elite takes on a third wife to show the world his wealth, only to be stricken by a curse resulting in impotency.
French secret agent Joss Baumont is sent to one of the African countries to kill their president Njala.
The clown-magician is now the strongman in an African country where he incites the tribal members to torture the young girl in the presence of her assumed father only to learn that she is actually his own daughter.
www.lib.berkeley.edu /MRC/Africanfilm.html   (8959 words)

 Claude Wauthier*
Guy Penne, François Mitterrand’s former counsellor for African affairs at the Elysée Palace from 1981 to 1986, currently senator of the French residing abroad, is a member of the Great East.
The communists were also hostile to Freemasons: in 1922, the French PC ratified the decision of the Fourth congress of the Communist International excluding Freemasons from its ranks: the French communists who were Freemasons had to choose between the party and their obedience
It is in the light of this ostracism and the pursuits of the past that it is necessary to measure the prestige and influence of African masons, expressed by the attempts, among other facts, of mediation in internal conflicts, which tore apart several countries of the continent.
www.african-geopolitics.org /show.aspx?ArticleId=3587   (4298 words)

 American University Library - Languages and Linguistics: French Language and Literature
The WESS French Studies Web provides links to scholarly web resources covering France, and the francophone regions of Belgium, Canada, Switzerland, North Africa, Sub Saharan Africa, North America and the Caribbean.
Gallica Classique is a full-text collection of French Literary Studies from the Middles Ages to the 19th century.
The Kolb-Proust Archive for Research, a project of the Library of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, is devoted to the study of the French author Marcel Proust and his time.
www.library.american.edu /subject/language/french.html   (743 words)

 H-France Reviews   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
Chafer allows that the complexity of French African decolonization is such that it is better to speak of a plurality of “stories” rather than a single story (p.8).
The legacy of French peaceful decolonization in Africa was an on-going relationship with its former colonies.
At least one African commentator, however, hypothesized that it was the workings of the French government, allegedly resentful and jealous of the increasing influence of the United States in Mauritanian affairs.
www.uakron.edu /hfrance/vol3reviews/bullard2.html   (1123 words)

 African Writers Index
This narrative story is told by Sharif Turab, a middle-aged man living in exile in France from an unnamed North East African country, a member of the first generation after African independence to go to the continent as ambassadors and ministers, an opening of the gates toward contact with the ideas and lifestyles of Europe.
Mahmood Mamdani is Herbert Lehman Professor of Government and Director of the Institute of African Studies at Columbia University.
"French African prose can be given a beginning with the publication in 1921 of the novel Batouala...its sensitive portrayal of African life with its evocation of the natural environment, could not but make a profound impression upon its African readers and offered a vivid example of what an African novel in French could be.''
www.geocities.com /africanwriters/AuthorsM   (2392 words)

 French and African Studies in Western Africa in Senegal - MSU Office of Study Abroad
The rainy season runs from July to October and the dry season, which makes up the rest of the year, tends to be very hot and arid, except in the coastal regions (such as Dakar) where the temperature and humidity are modified by ocean breezes.
You are encouraged to continue French language instruction throughout the semester, along with courses in Francophone culture, Francophone literature, and Wolof, the prominent local language.
Students with sufficient language ability in French may enroll in a wide variety of courses in the social sciences and humanities such as Arabic, other African languages, Islamic studies, Sociology, Philosophy, History, or Geography through the Faculté des Lettres et Sciences Humaines at UCAD.
studyabroad.msu.edu /programs/senegalfranco.html   (2122 words)

 Patrick-André Mather: Creole Genesis: Evidence from West African L2 French   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
To support the argument that creolization is to a large extent the result of substratum transfer by adult speakers, I will provide evidence from recent SLA studies, especially the early stages of SLA in naturalistic settings.
In particular, I will discuss examples from both L2 French and French-lexifier creoles relating to: directionality and headedness of noun phrases and verb phrases; serial verb constructions; null subjects; copula deletion; reduplication; functional categories; grammatical gender; double object verbs; and movement issues.
The goal of this structure-by-structure comparison will be to show that if a structure is transferrable in (the early stages of) second-language acquisition, then it is also plausible that it was transferred into semi-pidginized varieties of L2 French or English, i.e., into incipient creoles.
odur.let.rug.nl /lic/abs/mather.html   (164 words)

 Pennants of the African French army   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
Commanding officer's pennants of the French army in Kabylia (Algeria), 1857
Commanding officer's pennants of the French army in Algeria, 1837
Charrié, in Drapeaux et étendards du XIXe siècle [chr92] reproduces a colour plate from a private collection showing "commanding officer's pennants used in Kabylia, 1857", The flags have been drawn and coloured by hand, and captions have also been written by the anonymous author.
www.crwflags.com /fotw/flags/fr^afr.html   (252 words)

 languagehat.com: AFRICAN FRENCH.
I have a friend who used to visit West Africa regularly and spoke a fluent version of French which served him excellently in Dakar and points east but got him looked at oddly by persons familiar only with the French of the Hexagon.
What is amazing about African French is that smiling, friendly and happy people are speaking a language that I learned from unsmiling, rather cold and not too friendly people, the Parisians.
Most educated francophone Africans speak, read and write it well, though at times their intonation patterns are distinct.
www.languagehat.com /archives/001093.php   (638 words)

 African Art on the Internet   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
The AC's "mission is to preserve African wildlife and traditional cultures." Its founder is Corinne Waldenmayer.
Its Africans in Holland is a directory to "locate African expertise and African entrepreneurs in the Netherlands." They also design web sites.
A directory to African music in 100 CDs is a directory arranged by country, name of artists or groups, CD titles, artists (including compilations), style of music, instrument, language, type of music, and label.
www-sul.stanford.edu /depts/ssrg/africa/art.html   (9800 words)

 Afrique francophone
African and Caribbean Literature in French, Guide to Research and Documentation and French studies quick links (M. Mekkawi, Howard U.).
Le réseau ANAIS (Advisory Network for African Information Strategies); réseau des nouvelles technologies de l'information et de la communication en Afrique.
Bayreuth African Studies, essays and monographs on African literature, linguistics, musicology, sociology and religion.
www.lehman.cuny.edu /depts/langlit/french/afrique.html   (1951 words)

 African Music on the Internet   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
News about African musicians, a page about Drum magazine, South African pianist, Abdullah Ibrahim, plus "Through a large database of music and artists we offer advertising and production units advice and service in placing African music in their productions." Has an events mailing list for South Africans.
An introduction to African music in 100 CDs is a directory arranged by country, name of artists or groups, CD titles, artists (including compilations), style of music, instrument, language, type of music, and label.
Also the African Cities Documentary Series, headed by professors Manthia Diawara and Awam Amkpa, with film clips of Malian women discussing the world economy and controversial dance styles, Guinean scholar D.T.Niane on rural-urban migration, and visit to a traditional mask maker.
www-sul.stanford.edu /depts/ssrg/africa/music.html   (6456 words)

 French policy in Africa   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
HOWARD W. FRENCH, "France Seeks to Hold Africa in Its Grip," New York Times, December 6, 1996
French trade, investment, and employment, the political backing of Paris's
African allies in forums such as the United Nations is vital to France's
www.mtholyoke.edu /acad/intrel/freafro.htm   (669 words)

 Gbagbo Sends French, West African, U.N. Troops To Border   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
Ivorian President Laurent Gbagbo Friday approved deployment of French and West African troops to restore law and order on Ivory Coast's border with Liberia, where activity by armed militias has impeded efforts to end the country's civil war.
Gbagbo's deployment orders will send about 900 French soldiers, along with West African and Ivory Coast troops and a 76-member unarmed U.N. contingent, to the western part of the country.
According to French military spokesman Philippe Peret, Tevoejre was presented with a report by French authorities on atrocities against civilians in the border area, but Peret gave no details about the report (Associated Press/Yahoo!News, May 18).
www.unwire.org /unwire/20030519/33789_story.asp   (139 words)

 French Connections - French Antiques and African Art
Offering a unique collection of authentic French antiques, African art, African baskets, fabric, and more, imported directly from our friends in over 20 countries.
During September we will donate 30% of the proceeds from all internet and store purchases of African fabrics to hurricane relief efforts.
Pittsboro, NC Specializing in French & African antiques, art, and fabrics.
french-nc.com   (153 words)

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