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Topic: African slaves

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  Archaeologists find evidence of earliest African slaves brought to new world
The African origin of the slaves was determined through the reading of telltale signatures locked at birth into the tooth enamel of individuals by strontium isotopes, a chemical which enters the body through the food chain as nutrients pass from bedrock through soil and water to plants and animals.
The new study, which was supported by the National Science Foundation, draws on isotope ratios found in the teeth of four individuals from among 180 burials found in a multiethnic burial ground associated with the ruins of a colonial church in Campeche, Mexico, a port city on the Yucatan Peninsula.
African slaves were brought to the New World as the Spanish needed labor to harvest timber and work in the mines that enriched Spain.
www.eurekalert.org /pub_releases/2006-01/uow-afe013106.php   (772 words)

  Encyclopedia: African slaves   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
In Rome, slaves were organised as a social class, and some authors found in their condition the earliest concept of proletariat, given that the only property they were allowed to own was the gift of reproduction.
Slave catching and slave trade was one of the main occupations of the Vikings.
The African slaves had somewhat of a natural immunity to yellow fever and malaria but the fact that they were severely underfed, overworked, and poorly housed attributed to their perishing of disease.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/African-slaves   (5948 words)

 Slavery -- Facts, Info, and Encyclopedia article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Slave catching and slave trade was one of the main occupations of the (Any of the Scandinavian people who raided the coasts of Europe from the 8th to the 11th centuries) Vikings.
Despite the vast numbers of slaves exported from Africa, it is thought that the majority of African slaves remained in Africa, continuing as slaves in the regions where they were first captured.
The African slaves had somewhat of a natural immunity to yellow fever and malaria but the fact that they were severely malnourished, overworked, and poorly housed attributed to their perishing of disease.
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/s/sl/slavery.htm   (7641 words)

 ipedia.com: Slavery Article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Slavery in the ancient Mediterranean cultures was a mixture of debt-slavery, slavery as a punishment for crime, and the enslavement of prisoners of war.
Using one's unmarried slaves as sexual concubines (a form of sexual slavery) was still permitted, however; as is obvious from the imperial Abbasid harem, which was populated by dozens or even hundreds of slave-girls.
The African slave trade peaked in the late 18th century, when the largest number of slaves were captured in West Africa and shipped to the colonies of the New World (triangular trade).
www.ipedia.com /slavery.html   (6122 words)

 Congressman John Conyers, Jr. Major Issues - Reparations Page
Over 4 million Africans and their descendants were enslaved in the United States and its colonies from 1619 to 1865, and as a result, the United States was able to begin its grand place as the most prosperous country in the free world.
It is un-controverted that African slaves were not compensated for their labor.
It is a fact that slavery flourished in the United States and constituted an immoral and inhumane deprivation of African slaves' lives, liberty and cultural heritage.
www.house.gov /conyers/news_reparations.htm   (1153 words)

 The African American : A Journey from Slavery to Freedom
Slaves in the northern American region labored on small farms and as skilled and unskilled workers in factories and along the coast as shipbuilders, fishermen, craftsmen, and helpers of tradesmen.
The slave trade was so profitable that, by 1672, the Royal African Company chartered by Charles II of England superseded the other traders and became the richest shipper of human slaves to the mainland of the Americas.
Slaves did resist this treatment, therefore strict and cruel punishment was on hand for disobeying their masters.
www.liunet.edu /cwis/cwp/library/aaslavry.htm   (5524 words)

 Chronology on the History of Slavery 1619 to 1789
The intermarriage of Africans and Native Americans was facilitated by the disproportionality of African male slaves to females (3 to 1) and the decimation of Native American males by disease, enslavement, and prolonged wars with the colonists.
Moreover the repercussions of the trans-Atlantic slave trade on the interior of the Bight of Biafra during the period of heaviest population displacement in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries remain poorly understood.
Slaves in earlier times enjoyed social and individual rights - like marriage, freedom to raise a family, speak their language and worship their gods, rights which were denied the African slaves exported to the Americas.
www.innercity.org /holt/slavechron.html   (17488 words)

 Chronology on the History of Slavery 1619 to 1789   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
The intermarriage of Africans and Native Americans was facilitated by the disproportionality of African male slaves to females (3 to 1) and the decimation of Native American males by disease, enslavement, and prolonged wars with the colonists.
Slaves were mostly for sugar plantations, diamond mines in Brazil, house servants, on tobacco farms in Virginia, in gold mines in Hispaniola and later the cotton industry in the Southern States of the USA.
Moreover the repercussions of the trans-Atlantic slave trade on the interior of the Bight of Biafra during the period of heaviest population displacement in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries remain poorly understood.
innercity.org /holt/slavechron.html   (17726 words)

 Skeletons Discovered: First African Slaves in New World | LiveScience
The African origin of the slaves was determined by studying a chemical in their tooth enamel that reveals plant and rock types of their native land.
They think slaves from the infamous West African port of Elmina were shipped to Campeche where they may have been used as domestic servants.
The discovery of the remains of slaves born in Africa from such an early date shows that slavery became an integral aspect of the New World economy not long after the Conquistadors completed the subjugation of Mexico, Price said.
www.livescience.com /history/060131_first_slaves.html   (585 words)

 Latin America's Music and Dance
To see an African dance is to witness his cultural past and presentÂ…For the African, the fullest expression of art is dance.
The African slaves also encountered an uninspired master class that was much at odds with the one in the United States.
The existence of a free fl population, which outnumbered the slaves in almost every Latin American country, was essential to the retention of African culture.
www.unc.edu /~rigot/african_dance.html   (1794 words)

 The African American Experience
From 1687, when the first African slaves were brought to the Hudson Valley until the present, there have always been distinct injustices against the fls.
The main task for the fl male slaves during this period was to clear forests.
James Brown lived most of his life as a slave in Baltimore but would depart the earth as a free man. His life is an example of the kind of lifestyle endured by fl men and women during the early 19th century.
www.marist.edu /summerscholars/97/african1.htm   (1032 words)

 South African Embassy in Sweden, Letters from the President
The African slaves of Haiti waged this struggle to extend to themselves and all the African slaves that had been transported to the Caribbean and the Americas, the rights won for the people by the American and French Revolutions.
The African slaves of Haiti laid down their lives to ensure that the democratic and republican ideals of the American and French Revolutions truly applied to all human beings.
As happened with the liberated African slaves of Haiti, there are some in our country and the rest of the world who do not accept that we can make a success of our project to transform our country into a truly democratic, stable, non-racial and prosperous country.
www.southafricanemb.se /arkiv/2003/presletarc14.htm   (2170 words)

 Africans in the Caribbean/Latin America
African slaves constituted the highest proportion of laborers on the islands and around the
African slaves were imported to counteract the precipitate decline in
on the eve of the Haitian Slave Revolt.
www.saxakali.com /caribbean/shamil.htm   (4516 words)

 Magnolia Plantation and Gardens
It is a fact of historical note that African slaves, and later African-American slaves, would do the majority of the work that built the fortunes of the Drayton family.
However, from surviving records we know that in the 19th century there was an average of forty-five slaves that lived and toiled at Magnolia Plantation from the early 1800’s until the end of the Civil War in 1865.
There appear to also be two African or Gullah names in “Bofa” and “Binah.” There is also the distinction at times to what their role or “profession” was in regards to their name such as “Carpenter Joe,” or “House Servant Daniel.” The field slaves usually did not have such distinctions.
www.magnoliaplantation.com /his_slavery.html   (1241 words)

 Slaves and the Courts, 1740-1860
Slaves and the Courts, 1740-1860 contains just over a hundred pamphlets and books (published between 1772 and 1889) concerning the difficult and troubling experiences of African and African-American slaves in the American colonies and the United States.
Among the voices heard are those of some of the defendants and plaintiffs themselves as well as those of abolitionists, presidents, politicians, slave owners, fugitive and free territory slaves, lawyers and judges, and justices of the U.S. Supreme Court.
The mission of the Library of Congress is to make its resources available and useful to Congress and the American people and to sustain and preserve a universal collection of knowledge and creativity for future generations.
memory.loc.gov /ammem/sthtml   (341 words)

 AllAboutIrish - Irish Immigrants and Freed African Slaves
Both the slave ships and the "coffin ships" that transported the Irish immigrants provided miserable conditions that only made the weakened condition of the travelers worse and resulted in many deaths at sea.
Units such as the Union's Irish Brigade (69th New York) and African descent 55th Massachusetts Infantry Regiment and the Confederate Kelly's Irish Brigade fought valiantly and were recognized for their contributions to the war effort.
While the Africans were faced with Black codes and the legality of separate but equal facilities for the races in the 19th and early 20th century the Irish did not face these barriers.
www.allaboutirish.com /library/diaspora/imm-slaves.htm   (768 words)

 Solved: 400-year mystery of first African slaves in N America - Boing Boing
In the Washington Post this weekend, a fascinating tale of historic sleuthing for the origins of the "20 and odd," the very first African slaves to enter Virginia in the 1600s.
This site describes results from a recent archaeological project in Campeche, Mexico that uncovered the remains of African slaves who were brought to Mexico during the 1500s.
Slaves were present in North America a bit earlier than the 1600s, but south of the current U.S. border.
www.boingboing.net /2006/09/04/solved_400year_myste.html   (740 words)

Many of these slaves are listed as being African born and some even states what country in Africa they are from and tribal affiliation, or what ships the slaves were imported on.
I also found a native African on the mortality schedule in Robertson County, TN for 1850 listed as being 72 years old at death.
Many of the slaves were described as having African marks, or that they had only been in the country a short time and could not speak English, which would indicate that they were smuggled into the country after the 1808 ban on importing slaves.
www.afrigeneas.com /forum-aarchive/index.cgi?noframes;read=19437   (340 words)

 Science Museum | Genetic journey to the motherland | African slaves
Between 1500 and 1870 over 12 million Africans were shipped across the Atlantic as slaves, including many millions to the Caribbean sugar plantations.
There are very few written records of who they are and where they came from, making it virtually impossible for Afro-Caribbeans to trace their African roots.
But Peter Forster and his team at the University of Cambridge used their genetic skills to help the Motherland volunteers track down their African roots.
www.sciencemuseum.org.uk /antenna/motherland/131.asp   (87 words)

 The Hindu : International / Globescan : Mass release of African slaves
From Saturday afternoon, they will no longer be told whom to marry, no longer be made to labour for nothing, no longer left to eat the scraps from their masters' tables.
Nearly two centuries after the Atlantic slave trade was abolished, the ownership of people persists in some countries on the fringes of the Sahara.
Although Islam forbids a Muslim from owning another Muslim as a slave, some slave-owners in Niger, an almost entirely Muslim country, claim that a slave's place in paradise depends on how well he or she serves their master.
www.hindu.com /2005/03/06/stories/2005030601601202.htm   (231 words)

"African Universal Church was established in 1927 in Jacksonville, Florida, by Archbishop Clarence C. Addison.
The movement which became the African Universal Church was founded in the gold Coast, West Africa, by a number of tribal chiefs.
The Negro populations of the Brazilian coastal cities such as Recife, Bahia and Rio, maintain shrines in which the deities who are worshipped are, despite the Christianization of their names, readily identifiable as gods worshipped by their ancestors in Nigeria and Dahomey.
www.adherents.com /Na/Na_14.html   (3668 words)

 African Americans - Culture, History, Legacy and Heritage of A Proud People including Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. and ...
The history of African Americans in the United States began in 1619 when a Dutch ship brought the first slaves from Africa to the shores of North America.
Of all ethnic groups, African Americans were the only ones to arrive on these shores against their will.
We have endured the cruelties and degradation of the Middle Passage, slavery, lynchings, Jim-Crowism, social injustice, segregation, and discrimination.
www.africanamericans.com   (385 words)

 Program The Trumpet marine-Virtuoso
Because Mexico-Ville strives to emulate Paris, Prin is invited to visit the newly established "Academie" and to marvel at the professors’ (bizarre) inventions.
As he approaches a fire, he sees African slaves dancing and playing a peculiar instrument, an ungurungo.
In 1742 Prin wrote his memoirs, which are a rich source of information about the trompette marine, and in which he also described his discovery of the origins of the trompette marine in the African ungurungo, an instrument that is still today played in Brazil under the name birimbao.
www.arcimboldo.ch /teatro-english/program_Trumpetmarinevirtuoso.htm   (1002 words)

 African-American Odyssey
When Jackie Robinson took the field as a Brooklyn Dodger in 1947, he became the first African American to play major league baseball in the twentieth century.
Materials that tell his story, and the history of baseball in general, are located throughout the Library of Congress.
These narratives were collected in the 1930s as part of the Federal Writers' Project of the Works Progress Administration (WPA) and assembled and microfilmed in 1941 as the seventeen-volume Slave Narratives: A Folk History of Slavery in the United States from Interviews with Former Slaves.
memory.loc.gov /ammem/aaohtml/aohome.html   (895 words)

 Skeletons were those of African slaves - UPI.com
The skeletons were found in the city of Campeche on the Yucatan coast of Mexico.
Price said the study is important because its helps extend the tragic story of slavery in the New World to near the beginning of European settlement.
United Press International, UPI, the UPI logo, and other trademarks and service marks, are registered or unregistered trademarks of United Press International, Inc. in the United States and in other countries.
www.upi.com /NewsTrack/Top_News/2006/01/31/skeletons_were_those_of_african_slaves   (340 words)

 FOXNews.com - Bush Pays Tribute to African Slaves - Politics | Republican Party | Democratic Party | Political Spectrum
Bush visited a slave house built by the Dutch in 1776 and held in his hands some of the same chains that once shackled some 200 human beings per day at their last stop before heading out on their often murderous journey to the Americas.
The slaves achieved that by never surrendering their spirit even as the spirit of their captors became corrupted.
Many African leaders see Bush's visit as a key part of a strategy to combat rising anti-American sentiment and the image of Washington as an international bully.
www.foxnews.com /story/0,2933,91294,00.html   (1304 words)

 Need an African slave? Try eBay | The Register
This outrage was discovered by a Google Group member who typed "African Slave" into Google, and was shocked to find this irresistable offer:
Nonetheless, eBay must as a matter of some urgency address this matter and either a) change the wording of their link, or b) actually acquire a big selection of low-priced African slaves, since to offer non-existent merchandise is clearly a serious breach of its own usage policy, not to mention several local and international laws.
Ta very much to all those readers who have written to note that "the letters 'aff' after the advert signify that this is not an eBay advert but a company making revenue from eBays affiliate scheme".
www.theregister.co.uk /2005/01/24/ebay_african_slaves   (373 words)

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