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Topic: African socialism


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In the News (Tue 23 Apr 19)

  
  socialism. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05
Because of the collective nature of socialism, it is to be contrasted to the doctrine of the sanctity of private property that characterizes capitalism.
In a broader sense, the term socialism is often used loosely to describe economic theories ranging from those that hold that only certain public utilities and natural resources should be owned by the state to those holding that the state should assume responsibility for all economic planning and direction.
African socialism has also included the revival of precolonial values and institutions, while modernizing through the centralized apparatus of the one-party state.
www.bartleby.com /65/so/socialis.html   (1500 words)

  
  African socialism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
African socialism is the belief in the doctrine of sharing economic resources in a "traditional" African way, as compared to classical socialism.
Socialism was popular among African leaders because it represented a break from the imperial ruling tradition.
African followers of socialism claimed it was not the opposite of capitalism nor a response to it, but something completely different.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/African_socialism   (416 words)

  
 Info and facts on 'African socialism'   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
African socialism is the belief in the doctrine of sharing economic resources in a "traditional" African way, as compared to classical socialism (An economic system based on state ownership of capital).
Socialism was popular among African leaders because it represented a break from the imperial (A piece of luggage carried on top of a coach) ruling tradition.
African socialism's followers claimed it was not the opposite of capitalism or a response to it, but something completely different.
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/a/af/african_socialism.htm   (481 words)

  
 Encyclopedia: African socialism
Socialism is an ideology with the core belief that society should exist in which popular collectives control the means of power, and therefore the means of production.
Class conflict is both the friction that accompanies social relationships between members or groups of different social classes and the underlying tensions or antagonisms which exist in society.
African socialism is the belief in the doctrine of sharing economic resources on the basis of social structure.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/African-socialism   (1127 words)

  
 Pan-African News Wire: African Socialism Revisited: An Essay By Kwame Nkrumah From 1967   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
Some African political leaders and thinkers certainly use the term “socialism” as it should in my opinion be used: to describe a complex of social purposes and the consequential social and economic policies, organisational patterns, state structure, and ideologies which can lead to the attainment of those purposes.
Today, the phrase “African socialism” seems to espouse the view that the traditional African society was a classless society imbued with the spirit of humanism and to express a nostalgia for that spirit.
Socialism depends on dialectical and historical materialism, upon the view that there is only one nature, subject in all its manifestations to natural laws and that human society is, in this sense, part of nature and subject to its own laws of development.
panafricannews.blogspot.com /2007/04/african-socialism-revisited-essay-by.html   (3516 words)

  
 Socialism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Elie Halevy claims that the term "socialism" was coined independently by two groups advocating different ways of organizing society and economics: the Saint-Simonians, and most likely Pierre Leroux, in the years 1831-33, and the followers of Robert Owen, around 1835.
Several forms of "socialism" are considered by those further to the left to be reformist or revisionist.
According to Engels, the state was destined to eventually "wither away", as the representative democracy of socialism slowly turned into the direct democracy of communism, and economic life would be re-organised on a basis of freedom and equality.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Socialism   (4689 words)

  
 NKRUMAH'S CONSCIENCISM AS PHILOSOPHICAL TEXT: MATTERS OF CONFUSION
African professional philosophy, like most professional philosophy, addresses primarily an audience made up of professional philosophers, all of whom speak the same language (jargon) and preeminently engage in what is the common discourse with various branches and schools of professional philosophy.
African socialism is thus anchored in an exclusively conceived African metaphysics (ethnophilosophy) and subsequently its socio-political expression of African socialism is also an exclusivist denoting of a philosophy of history resting on exceptionalism.
Where she quotes, “there is a social contention implicit or explicit, in the thought of all philosophers,”42 Nkrumah actually wrote: “there is a social contention, implicit or explicit, in the thought of the philosophers.”43 I want to bring to the fore this discrepancy because the difference between “all” and “the” is important to Nkrumah’s argument.
www.africanphilosophy.com /issue3/mcclendon.html   (13970 words)

  
 Socialism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
The second is that emphasized by the proponents of socialism: a tradition of believing that human beings can indeed cooperate to jointly determine their collective future in ways far superior to that possible under the regime of capitalist exploitation and the markets that have always been associated with it.
Their analysis of the possibilities of socialism, based upon an analysis of the antagonistic class forces of capitalism, came some years after their earliest socialist forerunners and was developed within the context of a more mature capitalist development.
The openness to social, cultural and ethnic diversity that was at least implicit in Marx's notion of the transcendence of labor value by an indeterminate free time, has been both ignored and contradicted by the very concept of a specific socialist project as well as by the attempts to implement it.
www.eco.utexas.edu /facstaff/Cleaver/socialismessay.html   (6729 words)

  
 Socialism
Socialism can refer to a political doctrine, an economic theory, a vision of an ideal society, or a description of an actually existing society.
In its broadest sense, socialism is a belief that human society can and should be organised along social lines - that is, for the benefit of all, rather than for the profit of a few, which it argued had been the case hitherto.
However: "By majority consent of both socialists and non-socialists, National Socialism (Nazism) and kindred movements are not considered to be socialist." (Salvadori) Despite Salvadori's statement, some right-wing groups (which wish to discredit socialism) do refer to Nazism as being socialist.
www.teachersparadise.com /ency/en/wikipedia/s/so/socialism_1.html   (308 words)

  
 African Socialism Revisited by Kwame Nkrumah 1967
Consequently, socialism in Africa introduces a new social synthesis in which modern technology is reconciled with human values, in which the advanced technical society is realised without the staggering social malefactions and deep schisms of capitalist industrial society.
A further difficulty that arises from the anthropological approach to socialism, or “African socialism”, is the glaring division between existing African societies and the communalistic society that was.
In socialism, the principles underlying communalism are given expression in modern circumstances.
www.marxists.org /subject/africa/nkrumah/1967/african-socialism-revisited.htm   (2391 words)

  
 Understanding African Philosophy
According to Bell, African philosophy, which has a history, remains a subject of major modern concern for philosophers all over the world because it is an enterprise with untapped potentials and a plural content requiring attention, study and analysis, which cannot be left for African philosophers alone.
Bell’s presentation of post-colonial African thought shows a turning point in African political philosophy where the past is jettisoned and a new future sought to be carved out by a crop of philosophers.
African oral narratives should not surprise any non-African because they stand for the engaging thoughts of the people while symbolizing the instrument of consultation, participation and reciprocation in traditional relationships.
www.africa.ufl.edu /asq/v7/v7i2a27.htm   (1155 words)

  
 AFRICAN POLITICAL CULTURES AND THE PROBLEMS OF GOVERNMENT
African leaders ignored what Pearl Robinson would later term the "cultures of politics" that had developed during the colonial period, and used, as Gramsci stated, to maintain "hegemony protected by the armor of coercion" (7).
Lloyd believed that the emergent African political leaders needed to turn the allegiance of the masses from ethnic groups to the state, and from their traditional rulers to the parliamentary leaders--especially when members of the new ruling class, by training and ways of thought, and in styles of life, were divorced from the masses.
Increasingly, African scholars insist that whereas western ideas about democracy are specifically rooted in the notion of political and social rights for individuals, the reality of Africa is still one in which "collectivities", or "ethnic" groups, rather than individuals are demanding social justice.
web.africa.ufl.edu /asq/v2/v2i3a3.htm   (3824 words)

  
 Ntambirweki, SSA background paper: THE CHANGING ROLE OF THE AFRICAN STATE ON THE PATH TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
The preference for socialism was also a signal for the rejection of the colonial political theory and the economic and social theory on which it was based.
As a consequence of the collapse of African socialism and the non-workability of the socio-economic experiments of the early post independence state, the economic face of the state had to be reshaped.
The African state entered a crisis and had to be extricated out of it by the reversal of its thinking and the re-embracement of some of the cardinal tenets of the capitalist state; liberal democracy, the market oriented economy, decentralisation and the primacy of ecology.
www.cdr.dk /sscafrica/nta-ssa2.htm   (7224 words)

  
 Ujamaa By Junious  Nyerere
African socialism, on the to her hand, did not have the "benefit" of the Agrarian Revolution or the Industrial Revolution.
The foundation, and the objective, of African socialism is the extended family.
For no true African socialist can look at a line drawn on a map and say, "The people on this side of that line are my brothers, but those who happen to live on the other side of it can have no claim on me." Every individual on this continent is his brother.
www.nathanielturner.com /ujamaanyerere.htm   (3373 words)

  
 STRUGGLE OF AFRICAN NATIONS FOR INDEPENDENCE   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
Socialism in African countries was simply based on African traditions of community in which ownership of the country's wealth would be put into the hands of the people.
This brand of African socialism was best described by Julius Nyerere of Tanzania when he said: "The basis of socialism is a belief in the oneness of man and the common historical destiny of mankind.
Among all African leaders, Nkrumah of Ghana hoped that a pan-African union could be established that would unite all of the new countries of the continent in a broader community.
www.iouedu.com /press/02merc/merciera/merc12.html   (748 words)

  
 Religious and philosophical factors
socialism as an attitude of mind, the foundation and objective of which was the extended family on the basis of African tradition.
It was essential to defend the African social structures and values, while at the same time modernity in terms of technology, law and economics was accepted.
In Tanzania the ideas of African Socialism were institutionalized in the state and party systems, and the central issue was to struggle against poverty, ignorance and disease.
herkules.oulu.fi /isbn9514264312/html/x278.html   (370 words)

  
 The End of African Socialism
His choice of socialism was "based on the belief that only a socialist form of society can assure Ghana of a rapid rate of economic progress without destroying that social justice, that freedom and equality, which are a central feature of our traditional way of life." Many other African leaders followed suit.
Most African societies have a Queen Mother whose duty is to select a candidate and present him or her to the Council of Elders for approval.
True, African peasants are communalistic and socialistic in the sense that they pool their resources together to build and care about their neighbors and family members.
www.heritage.org /Research/Africa/HL250.cfm   (7793 words)

  
 FrontPage magazine.com :: African Nightmare by Michael Radu
Socialism, occasionally Marxism-Leninism, was the favorite among the various ideologies that failed in richer countries but devastated Africa.
And West African oil is not to be sneezed at: it is clean, offshore (thus minimizing frictions with the locals) and abundant.
If African states finally decide that they have distinct interests, rather than pretending to belong to a non-existent “Africa,” they could enjoy the fruits of their sound decisions—where those decisions are sound.
www.frontpagemag.com /Articles/ReadArticle.asp?ID=5552   (2073 words)

  
 Monthly Review: African socialism or socialist Africa? - book reviews
The euphoria that greeted the attainment of independence by the majority of African states over two decades ago has since died down, and the hopes raised with regard to development and a higher standard of living for the masses have not materialized.
However, it is doubtful that African leaders' policies can be adequately explained in terms of their failure to correctly analyze imperialism and the African situation.
He attributes the success of socialism to the fact that it is the only social system which makes "man" the center of its economic activities.
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_m1132/is_v35/ai_3201006   (1281 words)

  
 Exporting Marx Instead of Smith to Africa by Christian Sandström
Needless to say, since the system was called ‘African socialism’ and not ‘African capitalism’, it was still a socialist model where the state should intervene and control the economy.
The founding father of African socialism was Julius Nyerere in Tanzania.
Sometimes that group is the military as in Zaire, in fact, most African nations spend a lot of their scarce resources on military expenses.
www.lewrockwell.com /orig6/sandstrom2.html   (847 words)

  
 Julius Nyerere of Tanzania Dies; Preached African Socialism to the World
His domestic and international defenders, generally people of the left, praised his emphasis on social investments and his egalitarian economic policies, crediting them with creating a culturally cohesive nation that avoided ethnic conflict while life expectancy, literacy and access to water increased.
That new group, the Tanganyika African National Union, was formed on July 7, 1954, a date now celebrated as a national holiday known as Saba Saba, the seventh day of the seventh month.
In contrast to many African leaders, who often raced through their capitals in motorcades with phalanxes of motorcycle outriders, he moved around Dar es Salaam in an old car with just his driver, who stopped for red lights.
www.artsci.wustl.edu /~anthro/articles/nyerere.html   (3061 words)

  
 executives: Random Thoughts:
The big idea
In the context of capitalism the term was used in the critical sense, whereas in relation to African socialism and feminism the context was laudatory.
The translation of socialismAfrican or otherwise — into socio-economic and political reality, the Ujamaa campaign, smacked of Stalinism, was a failure and set back Tanzania for many years.
Kenneth Kaunda’s ‘African humanism’ was not a philosophy either; it was a motley of sentimental fancies (and was written in part by a Briton).
www.eastandard.net /mags/executives/articles.php?articleid=26664   (1028 words)

  
 Julius Nyerere of Tanzania Dies; Preached African Socialism to the World
His domestic and international defenders, generally people of the left, praised his emphasis on social investments and his egalitarian economic policies, crediting them with creating a culturally cohesive nation that avoided ethnic conflict while life expectancy, literacy and access to water increased.
That new group, the Tanganyika African National Union, was formed on July 7, 1954, a date now celebrated as a national holiday known as Saba Saba, the seventh day of the seventh month.
In contrast to many African leaders, who often raced through their capitals in motorcades with phalanxes of motorcycle outriders, he moved around Dar es Salaam in an old car with just his driver, who stopped for red lights.
artsci.wustl.edu /~anthro/articles/nyerere.html   (3061 words)

  
 From the Writings of Raya Dunayevskaya: Marxist-Humanist Archives: African revolutions revisited: March 2002
At a time when the African revolutions are redrawing the map of the world, the arrogance of white civilization shows itself not only in the ruling class but amongst many Western socialists.
It is not here maintained that opportunism like that also characterizes the African intellectual, rather it seems to me that part of their critique of Marxism is due to the realities of present-day Africa which did not form (and could not have formed) part of Marx's thought.
Because the African Revolutions are the present creative force for the reconstruction of society on totally new, truly human beginnings, the destiny of the American, indeed the world's proletariat, Black and white, is indissolubly tied with the fate of the Africans.
www.newsandletters.org /Issues/2002/March/fta_Mar02.htm   (1673 words)

  
 Hunger and Farming in Black South Africa   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
Starvation from the global effort to instill African socialism in the nation is a real possibility.
Yet the country produces 17 percent of Africa's red meat, 20 percent of its potatoes, 27 percent of its wheat, 31 percent of its sugar, 45 percent of its corn, 54 percent of its wool, and 81 percent of its sunflower seed.
Socialism means nationalization of agricultural land and the central planning of agricultural production.
www.self-gov.org /freeman/8906vorh.html   (3199 words)

  
 Kwame Nkrumah: The dark face of the Bolivarian Revolution   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
To liberate the oppressed Africans masses from their inferiority complexes, master and slave relations, ethical and religious illusions and colonial, racist ideologies, in his work, "Consciencism: The Philosophy of the African Revolution", he developed a specific scientific praxis and philosophic theory for African emancipation.
However, to preserve African human values, in the spirit of Frantz Omar Fanon, to create an original, authentic African emancipatory identity, he distanced himself from the ideologically infested "African Socialism" of many other "leaders" of the liberation movement.
In "Class Struggle in Africa" he analyzed the specific social structures of Africa, the internal and external social conflicts, and in "Revolutionary Path", he indicated the road of armed struggle to be taken.
www.vheadline.com /printer_news.asp?id=29251   (2038 words)

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