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Topic: African trypanosomiasis


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In the News (Thu 18 Oct 18)

  
  African Trypanosomiasis
African trypanosomiasis, also called sleeping sickness, is a serious tropical disease that is always fatal without treatment.
East African trypanosomiasis is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense.
West African trypanosomiasis is caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense.
www.astdhpphe.org /infect/Trypano.html   (828 words)

  
 Disease Information: African Trypanosomiasis or Sleeping Sickness - Travel Medicine Program - Public Health Agency of ...
African trypanosomiasis, commonly called sleeping sickness, is a serious parasitic disease that leads to acute or chronic infection of the central nervous system.
African trypanosomiasis is transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected tsetse fly, a grey-brown insect the size of a honey bee.
Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (or East African trypanosomiasis) is found in the southern and eastern regions of the continent in woodland and savannah areas.
www.phac-aspc.gc.ca /tmp-pmv/info/af_trypan_e.html   (1101 words)

  
 AAT | AFRICAN ANIMAL TRYPANOSOMIASIS   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
Trypanosomiasis is also mechanically transmitted by tsetse and other biting flies through the transfer of blood from one animal to another.
Immunologic lesions are significant in trypanosomiasis, and it has been suggested that many of the lesions (e.g., anemia and glomerulonephritis) in these diseases may be the result of the deposition of immune complexes that interfere with, or prevent, normal organ function.
Trypanosomiasis should be suspected when an animal in an endemic area is anemic and in poor condition.
www.vet.uga.edu /vpp/gray_book/Handheld/aat.htm   (3333 words)

  
 War, famine and now pestilence - Sleeping sickness ravages Central Africa
African sleeping sickness is caused by T. brucei gambiense, a parasite transmitted by the bite of the tsetse fly.
African countries where barely 1 percent of the at-risk population is under surveillance are reporting cases of sleeping sickness to the World Health Organization.
Cases of African sleeping sickness were practically eliminated during the years 1960 to 1965, and it was thought the disease was on the verge of total eradication.
www.wsws.org /news/1998/sep1998/slep-s05.shtml   (1395 words)

  
 Trypanosoma sp. (African trypanosomiasis)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
Most of the African trypanosomes are transmitted by vectors (the one exception is a sexually transmitted disease of horses), and the most common vector is the tsetse fly (Glossina sp.
The species that cause human African trypanosomiasis ("sleeping sickness") also infect wild animals and can be transmitted from these animals to humans (zoonotic infections).
As their names imply, most African trypanosomes are restricted to Africa, although a few species have been imported into South America (view the geographic distribution).
www.biosci.ohio-state.edu /~parasite/trypanosoma.html   (361 words)

  
 African Sleeping Sickness - Boston College   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
African trypanosomiasis, commonly called sleeping sickness, is caused by two protozoan parasites that are morphologically similar but cause dramatically different diseases.
East African sleeping sickness is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense,whereas West African sleeping sickness, also known as Gambian sleeping sickness, is caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense.
The second stage of African trypanosomiasis is particularly difficult to treat; treatment regimens in the second stage fail in 15-30% of cases.
www.bc.edu /schools/cas/biology/research/insect/tsetse   (1688 words)

  
 East African Trypanosomiasis
There are two types of African trypanosomiasis, also called sleeping sickness, named for the areas in Africa in which they are found.
East African trypanosomiasis can be contracted in parts of Eastern and Central Africa, including Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Ethiopia, Zaire, Zimbabwe, and Botswana.
East African trypanosomiasis is usually found in woodland and savannah areas away from human habitation.
healthlink.mcw.edu /article/929652362.html   (586 words)

  
 West African Trypanosomiasis -   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
West African trypanosomiasis, also called Gambian sleeping sickness, is caused by a parasite called Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (tri-PAN-o-SO-ma brew-see-eye gam-be-ense).
West African trypanosomiasis can be contracted in parts of Western and Central Africa; see the map for areas where illness can be found.
Therefore, tourists are not at great risk for contracting West African trypanosomiasis unless they are traveling and spending long periods of time in rural areas of Western and Central Africa.
library.adoption.com /Africa/West-African-Trypanosomiasis/article/4460/1.html   (838 words)

  
 THE PREVALENCE OF ANIMAL TRYPANOSOMIASIS IN NIGERIA
Trypanosomiasis continues to be a menace in the livestock industry in Nigeria despite the age long attempts to control the disease.
Despite the resultant negative effects of trypanosomiasis on the animal population (3) and the possible zoonotic nature of the disease (4), domestic and peridomestic stock are the main livestock holding of Konshisha LGA.
The animals consisted of West African Dwarf (WAD) breed of sheep, goat and pig and a mixture of N'dama and Muturu breeds of cattle.
www.isrvma.org /article/55_4_7.htm   (1308 words)

  
 sleeping sickness   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
African sleeping sickness or African typanosomiasis is found in West, Central, and East Africa, confined between 15 degrees North and 20 degrees South latitude.
The disease is caused by infection with a protozoal parasite transmitted by the bite of an infected tsetse fly.
The incubation period of acute trypanosomiasis ranges from 6 to 28 days, and travelers frequently become ill during their trips or shortly after returning home.
www.thirdworldtraveler.com /Disease/sleeping_sickness.html   (309 words)

  
 Division of Parasitic Diseases - West African trypanosomiasis Fact Sheet
There are two types of African trypanosomiasis (also called sleeping sickness); each named for the region of Africa in which it is found.
An individual gets West African trypanosomiasis through the bite of an infected tsetse fly, found only in Africa.  On rare occasions, a pregnant woman may pass the infection to her baby, or an individual may become infected through a blood transfusion or organ transplant.
Hospitalized treatment of West African trypanosomiasis should begin as soon as possible and is based on the infected person’s symptoms and laboratory results.
www.cdc.gov /ncidod/dpd/parasites/trypanosomiasis/factsht_wa_trypanosomiasis.htm   (890 words)

  
 African Trypanosomiasis
The term “sleeping sickness” is derived from the West African form of trypanosomiasis, primarily because invasion of the cerebrospinal fluid and brain after infection of the blood is often delayed, resulting in symptoms of extreme fatigue that can last for several years before the severe phase of the disease sets in; toxemia, coma and death.
Historically, the impact of animal trypanosomiasis were so profound that it influenced the migration routes of cattle-owning tribes into the continent who were forced to avoid the G. morsitans “fly-belts” (Ford 1960), as well as the movements of early European and Arab settlers into the continent who depended on horses and oxen (McKelvey 1973).
In Eastern and Southern Africa where Glossina morsitans morsitans is the primary vector for human and animal trypanosomiasis, the "miombo" woodlands (Brachystegia-Julbernardia) that extend from Mozambique to Tanzania, as well as the "mopane" woodlands (Colophospermum mopane) in Zambia and Zimbabwe are the typical habitats.
www.medicalecology.org /diseases/d_african_trypano.htm   (6890 words)

  
 Medical Ecology >> Infectious Diseases >> Application >> African Trypanosomiasis
In contrast, the typical East African form of trypanosomiasis is characterized by rapid and acute development of the disease, and untreated patients can die within weeks or months of infection.
Animal trypanosomiasis, caused by a wider number of trypanosome species and carried with higher prevalence by a greater number of glossina species, is invariably the greater epidemic across the African continent with dire economic consequences.
African trypanosomes are extracellular organisms, both in the mammalian and insect host.
www.medicalecology.org /diseases/print_d_african_trypano.htm   (6900 words)

  
 MDTravel Health - African Trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness)
African trypanosomiasis is a parasitic infection transmitted by the bite of the tsetse fly.
(See Geographical distribution of African trypanosomiasis by the World Health Organization.) The parasite is inoculated into a human or animal as the tsetse fly takes a blood meal.
There are two types of African trypanosomiasis, caused by different parasites: Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, which causes a chronic infection that progresses slowly over years and which is found chiefly in western and central Africa, and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, which progresses rapidly over several weeks and which occurs primarily in eastern and southern Africa.
www.mdtravelhealth.com /infectious/african_trypan.html   (284 words)

  
 eMedicine - African Trypanosomiasis (Sleeping Sickness) : Article Excerpt by: Kitonga P Kiminyo, MD
However, East African trypanosomiasis is a zoonotic infection with animal vectors.
African trypanosomiasis is distinct from American trypanosomiasis, which is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi and has different vectors, clinical manifestations, and therapies.
The life cycle starts when the trypanosomes are ingested during a blood meal by the tsetse fly from a human reservoir in the West African trypanosomiasis or an animal reservoir in the East African form.
www.emedicine.com /med/byname/african-trypanosomiasis-(sleeping-sickness).htm   (587 words)

  
 African Trypanosomiasis (African Sleeping Sickness)
West African trypanosomiasis, which causes a chronic infection lasting years, is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma brucei gambiense.
East African trypanosomiasis, which causes acute illness lasting several weeks, is caused by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense.
African trypanosomiasis is confined mainly to tropical Africa between 15 degrees North and 20 degrees South latitude.
www.mercy.net /healthinfo/adult/travel/african.asp   (481 words)

  
 Trypanosomiasis
Human trypanosomiasis is therefore a vector-borne parasitic disease.
At first, the main clinical signs of human trypanosomiasis are high fever, weakness and headache, joint pains and pruritus (itching).
Of the 36 countries in which trypanosomiasis is endemic, 22 are actively involved in the WHO programme.
www.tulane.edu /~dmsander/WWW/224/Trypano.html   (1398 words)

  
 eMedicine - African Trypanosomiasis (Sleeping Sickness) : Article by Kitonga P Kiminyo, MD
East African trypanosomiasis is endemic to the savanna and recently cleared bush areas in Eastern and Southern Africa.
West African trypanosomiasis is endemic to water holes and river areas in Western and Central Africa, but the countries with the highest incidence include the Democratic Republic of Congo (>19,000 cases per y from 1994-1996), Angola (averages 2000 cases per y), and northwestern Sudan (1500 cases in 1994).
In the West African form of the disease, the total immunoglobulin M (IgM) level is notably higher in blood and CSF (along with high CSF protein).
www.emedicine.com /med/topic2140.htm   (3092 words)

  
 Programme for the control of African animal trypanosomiasis and related development
From the mid-1950's onwards African countries gained independence from previous colonial rule, leading to an era in which TTC operations were increasingly organised as aid projects funded by Western donor nations and multilateral organisations such as FAO, for whom detailed economic justification was to become prerequisite.
The thrust of the present paper has been concerned with economic aspects of tsetse and trypanosomiasis control, but there are numerous other issues which are going to become increasingly important in future planning and appraisal of control operations, issues which are equally difficult for individual agencies to handle adequately with their own limited staff resources.
The theme of this meeting, as I understand it, is that trypanosomiasis is to be viewed as one element of an overall approach to rural development in which the emphasis is on sustainable agriculture.
www.fao.org /DOCREP/004/T0599E/T0599E07.htm   (5026 words)

  
 Amazon.ca: Books: The African Trypanosomes   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
The African Trypanosomes, volume one of World Class Parasites, is written for researchers, students and scholars who enjoy reading research that has a major impact on human health, or agricultural productivity, and against which we have no satisfactory defense.
The African Trypanosomes is the first in a series of volumes that is intended to cover those parasites that have a major impact on human health or agricultural productivity in such a way that they supplement standard textbooks with particular reference to parasitological research.
The host responses are considered in two chapters on the immunobiology of African trypanosomiasis (John Mansfield and colleagues) and the mechanisms of trypanotolerance in cattle (J. Naessens and colleagues).
www.amazon.ca /exec/obidos/ASIN/0792375122   (968 words)

  
 Prophylaxis
Boy in the streets of an African village suffering from the early symptoms of cerebral trypanosomiasis and a woman with the late stage of the disease.
Trypanosomiasis victim, dying from an acute encephalopathy after treatment of the late stage of trpanosomiasis with the drug melarsoprol.
These drugs are effective, both for treatment and for prophylaxis, but are supposed to intercalate into the DNA and therefore suspect to be mutagenic and thus cannot be used for the treatment of humans.
www.icp.ucl.ac.be /~opperd/parasites/tryps9.htm   (576 words)

  
 Human African trypanosomiasis of the CNS: current issues and challenges -- Kennedy 113 (4): 496 -- Journal of Clinical ...
Stage determination and therapeutic decision in human African trypanosomiasis: value of polymerase chain reaction and immunoglobulin M quantification on the cerebrospinal fluid of sleeping sickness patients in Côte d’Ivoire.
The role of the polyamine inhibitor eflornithine in the neuropathogenesis of experimental murine African trypanosomiasis.
The glycosyl-inositol-phosphate and dimyristoylglycerol moieties of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor of the trypanosome variant-specific surface glycoprotein are distinct macrophage-activating factors.
www.jci.org /cgi/content/full/113/4/496   (4613 words)

  
 Emerging Infectious Diseases: Cluster of African trypanosomiasis in travelers to Tanzanian National Parks - Dispatches   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
Game parks in Tanzania have long been considered to be at low risk for African trypanosomiasis; however, nine cases of the disease associated with these parks were recently reported.
African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness), a serious infection caused by a protozoan (Trypanosoma brucei), is usually spread to humans by the tsetse fly via infected animals and humans.
We report details of nine recent cases caused by the West African form of this disease, one fatal; all of the cases occurred in travelers to Tanzanian national parks.
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_m0GVK/is_6_8/ai_87739673   (907 words)

  
 Division of Parasitic Diseases - West African trypanosomiasis Fact Sheet
An individual will get East African trypanosomiasis if they are bitten by a tsetse fly infected with the Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense parasite.
East African trypanosomiasis is found in parts of Eastern and Central Africa, including Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Ethiopia, Zaire, Zimbabwe, and Botswana.
Medical treatment of East African trypanosomiasis should begin as soon as possible and is based on the infected person’s symptoms and laboratory results.
www.cdc.gov /ncidod/dpd/parasites/trypanosomiasis/factsht_ea_trypanosomiasis.htm   (856 words)

  
 Human African trypanosomiasis -- Stich et al. 325 (7357): 203 -- BMJ   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
Human African trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness is one of the most important but equally most neglected tropical infections.
The range of drugs that are used against human African trypanosomiasis is limited (box 1).
African sleeping sickness in tourists returning from Tanzania: the first 2 Italian cases from a small outbreak among European travelers.
bmj.bmjjournals.com /cgi/content/full/325/7357/203   (1937 words)

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