Aggregate behavior - Factbites
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Topic: Aggregate behavior

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The aggregate supply curve represents the behavior of producers of the goods and services included in GDP - the manufacturing firms that produce your automobiles and the law firms that provide legal services.
As before, each of the curves is meant to summarize the behavior of a group of decision makers, although in this case the aggregate supply curve represents the behavior of suppliers and demanders in the aggregate output market.
The aggregate demand curve, meanwhile, represents the behavior of the buyers of those goods and services - the households that buy groceries and the firms that buy computers and the government that buys military hardware and the Europeans who buy US produced machine tools. /artsci/newecn/Classes/Art/INT1/Mac/Intro/Out.intromodel.html   (898 words)

The aggregate demand curve, meanwhile, represents the behavior of the buyers of those goods and services - the households that buy groceries and the firms that buy computers and the government that buys military hardware and the Europeans who buy US produced machine tools.
The demand curve is a visual representation of the behavior of buyers in a market while the supply curve is a visual representation of the behavior of sellers in a market.
For example, a decline in stock prices (financial markets) could result in a reduction in aggregate demand which would be shown as a left ward shift in the aggregate demand curve. /artsci/newecn/Classes/Art/INT1/Mac/Intro/Out.intromodel.html   (898 words)

 A Review of Plasticity Theory of Fibrous Composite Materials - Storming Media
Abstract: Continuum modeling of the elastic-plastic behavior of fibrous composites is concerned with predictions of the macroscopic behavior of a composite aggregate, which consists of an elastic-plastic metal matrix reinforced by unidirectionally aligned elastic fibers.
also discussed are recent experimental results pertaining to plastic behavior of fibrous composite materials.
volume fractions and mechanical properties of the phases are assumed to be known; the objective is to predict the geometry of the microstructure and the overall response of the composite under incrementally applied uniform macroscopic stresses or strains in terms of the phase properties. /50/5014/D501402.html   (898 words)

 Geopier Foundation Company West
The behavior of individual aggregate pier elements in peat soil is analogous to the behavior of a cylinder of granular material in a triaxial compression test.
The aggregate piers extended through the major peat and highly organic silt layers, and terminated on soft or loose soil strata in two projects, one of which included thin peat lenses in underlying soils.
The piers are typically designed to improve the composite stiffness of the upper layer in which the footing-induced stresses are the highest, in order to control the long term footing settlements to meet design criteria of 25 mm (1 in). /article1.html   (898 words)

In general, the observable behavior of a PHB may depend on certain constraints on the traffic characteristics of the associated behavior aggregate, or the characteristics of other behavior aggregates.
A distinction is maintained between: o the service provided to a traffic aggregate, o the conditioning functions and per-hop behaviors used to realize services, o the DS field value (DS codepoint) used to mark packets to select a per-hop behavior, and o the particular node implementation mechanisms which realize a per-hop behavior.
This architecture achieves scalability by implementing complex classification and conditioning functions only at network boundary nodes, and by applying per-hop behaviors to aggregates of traffic which have been appropriately marked using the DS field in the IPv4 or IPv6 headers [DSFIELD]. /rfc/view.php?no=2475   (898 words)

 Aubrey Immelman - Group Dynamics Text
Of all collectives, the audience (conventional crowd) is the most closely related to true groups; its members deliberately become part of a crowd, are loosely bound by social conventions that dictate their location, movements, and behavior, and disperse in an orderly fashion.
This definition is clearly accurate in the case of mob behavior, but does not seem quite to fit other varieties of collective behavior, for example, social movements, including the civil rights movement and the women’s movement.
Collective movements, also referred to as "mass movements" or "dispersed acts of collective behavior," refer to collective phenomena in which individuals who are physically dispersed are similarly influenced and act in novel, sometimes (but not necessarily) atypical ways. /~aimmelma/text0022.htm   (898 words)

 Civil & Environmental Engineering - UC Davis
Recent studies focus on the long-term patterns and residential impacts of telecommuting, aggregate time series models of the impact of teleworking on vehicle-miles traveled, the impact of highway capacity enhancements on inducing travel demand, travel time budgets, and the role of lifestyle and attitudes in the relationship between residential location and travel behavior.
She is the founding chair of the Committee on Telecommunications and Travel Behavior of the Transportation Research Board, and a member of the TRB Committee on Traveler Behavior and Values.
A key research interest has been the impact of telecommunications technology on travel behavior, with additional interests in congestion-response behavior, attitudes toward mobility, adoption of new transportation technologies, land use and transportation interactions and the transportation/air quality impacts of transportation demand management measures. /faculty/mokhtarian   (1223 words)

 Herd Behavior and Aggregate Fluctuations in Financial Markets - Cont, Bouchaud (ResearchIndex)
Herd behavior and aggregate fluctuations in financial markets.
Herd Behavior and Aggregate Fluctuations in Financial Markets
Our model provides a link between two well-known market phenomena: the heavy tails observed in the distribution of stock market returns on one hand and 'herding' behavior... /83627.html   (965 words)

 Micro Heterogeneity and Macro Dynamics: an Empirical Analysis
Recent developments in the aggregation of large cross section of linear time series processes provide a complete characterization of the link between the dynamic properties of the aggregate series and the shape and degree of heterogeneity of the coefficients of the micro time series (see Lippi and Zaffaroni, 1999).
Although the micro processes appear to be stationary, the form and degree of micro parameters heterogenity accounts for the nonstationarity and persistence observed in aggregate data, well described by the long memory paradigm.
Those results allow to close the gap between micro and macro behavior, at least in the case when the reduced form dynamics at micro level derived from general equilibrium models can be well approximated by an ARMA with exogenous regressors, which represents the exact solution of linear-quadratic dynamic programming models of intertemporal optimization. /ideas/data/Papers/scescecf1130.html   (965 words)

 Daniel McFadden's Home Page
This page is comprised of a selection of Daniel McFadden's work in disaggregate behavioral travel demand, covering roughly thirty years.
He has been invited to present Disaggregate Behavioral Travel Demand's RUM Side: A 30-Year Retrospective (PDF), March 2000 at the International Association for Travel Behavior (IATB) Conference, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia, July 2-7, 2000.
Aggregate Travel Demand Forecasting from Disaggregated Behavioral Models, [PDF file, 1.3M] with F. Reid, TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH RECORD: TRAVEL BEHAVIOR AND VALUES, No. 534, 24-37, 1975. /users/mcfadden/iatbr00.html   (492 words)

 EconPapers: Econometric Modelling of Canadian Long Distance Calling: A Comparison of Aggregate Time Series versus Point-to-Point Panel Data Approaches
It is found that, while both models yield similar sets of aggregate elasticities, the point-to-point panel data models provide more detailed information on consumer behavior.
Furthermore, the panel data models take advantage of the disaggregate data available and avoid the problems inherent in aggregate models when the rates of changes in the micro data are different.
Abstract: Aggregate time series and point-to-point panel data approaches to modeling Canadian long distance calling are compared. /BibEc/data/Articles/sprempecov:17:y:1992:i:1:p:125-40.html   (492 words)

 Time-Series Implications of Aggregate Dividend Beh...
This study finds that dynamic dividend behavior is accounted for primarily by changes in permanent earnings.
The analysis employs two measures of permanent earnings and takes into account the nonstationarity of dividend and earnings series. /RuPEc/xml/oup/article-rfinst/ouprfinstv:9:y:1996:i:2:p:589-618.xml   (492 words)

 Steven Fazzari's Vita
"Aggregate Demand and Micro Behavior: A New Perspective on Keynesian Macroeconomics," (with Piero Ferri and Edward Greenberg) Journal of Post Keynesian Economics, volume 20 (Summer 1998), 527-558.
"Debt Commitments and Aggregate Demand: A Critique of the Neoclassical Synthesis and Policy," in W. Semmler ed.
"Debt, Price Flexibility, and Aggregate Stability," Revue Economie Politique, volume 102, number 4 (July-August, 1992), 4-27 (with John Caskey). /~fazz/cv.html   (997 words)

 HealthScout-Consumer Health News, Information and Resources Updated Daily
Any personal information you provide will be used only to deliver health news and advertising tailored to your personal interests, to draw large composite pictures that reflect the opinions or behavior of a group, or to help us understand whether you like and use the health information we provide.
We may disclose it in aggregate (group) form to third parties, such as advertisers or other business partners.
The only exception is if, in certain situations, you give us explicit permission to release it to a third party. /nav/policy/1/main.html   (997 words)

 Society for Organizational Learning
The generality of the results is considered and implications for behavioral theories of aggregate social and economic dynamics are explored.
The behavior of the subjects is explained well with a simple heuristic long used in system dynamics modeling and well grounded in behavioral decision theory.
Confidence in system dynamics models can be increased by a wide variety of tests that include tests of model structure, model behavior, and a model's policy implications. /res/wp/pubs.html   (6768 words)

 RFC 3247 (rfc3247) - Supplemental Information for the New Definition of th
Therefore, in this ideal model the aggregate behavior and packet-identity-aware characteristics are identical, and E_a = E_p.
Appendix A. Difficulties with the RFC 2598 EF PHB Definition The definition of the EF PHB as given in [10] states: "The EF PHB is defined as a forwarding treatment for a particular diffserv aggregate where the departure rate of the aggregate's packets from any diffserv node must equal or exceed a configurable rate.
If EF PHB is implemented using aggregate class-based scheduling where all EF packets share a single FIFO, the effect of jitter accumulation may result in an increase in burstiness from hop to hop. /rfcs/rfc3247.html   (6000 words)

Description of EF per-hop behavior The EF PHB is defined as a forwarding treatment for a particular diffserv aggregate where the departure rate of the aggregate's packets from any diffserv node must equal or exceed a configurable rate.
We fixed the number of flows in the aggregate to eight and used the minimal 1.03 service-to-arrival ratio.
Keep in mind that the EF aggregate is a mixture of small and large packets in all cases so short packets can wait for long packets in the EF queue. /rfc/rfc2598.txt   (2831 words)

 Craig Reynolds: Flocks, Herds, and Schools: A Distributed Behavioral Model
The aggregate motion of the simulated flock is created by a distributed behavioral model much like that at work in a natural flock; the birds choose their own course.
Flocks and related synchronized group behaviors such as schools of fish or herds of land animals are both beautiful to watch and intriguing to contemplate.
The aggregate motion of a flock of birds, a herd of land animals, or a school of fish is a beautiful and familiar part of the natural world. /~dt/siggraph97-course/cwr87   (9077 words)

 Inaugural Article: The monkey in the mirror: Hardly a stranger -- de Waal et al. 102 (32): 11140 -- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Aggregate positive behavior directed at the partner or mirror compared with aggregate negative behavior.
The graph shows the mean (+ SEM) total frequency of positive or negative behavior per subject during both tests per condition.
MSR and directing social behavior at the mirror (65–69). /cgi/content/full/102/32/11140   (5748 words)

 User-Defined Aggregates
Another bit of default behavior for a "strict" transition function is that the previous state value is retained unchanged whenever a null input value is encountered.
To define a new aggregate function, one selects a data type for the state value, an initial value for the state, and a state transition function.
Going a step further, the aggregate function itself may be specified with a polymorphic base type and state type, allowing a single aggregate definition to serve for multiple input data types. /docs/postgres/xaggr.html   (630 words)

They exhibit a dynamic, aggregate behavior (the GNP of an economy, the flows of material and energy in an ecology, overall immune response, the overt behavior of an organism, etc.).
The goals of the course are to: 1) give students an intuitive appreciation for the behavior of complex adaptive systems, 2) present the student with specific case studies of these systems, and 3) describe the formal underpinnings for the complex behavior of these systems.
To address this question, case studies of several complex systems will be identified, and the mechanisms that determine their behavior will be explored. /rgoldsto/courses/syll105.html   (2204 words)

 EconPapers: Elicited bid functions in (a)symmetric first-price auctions
In the aggregate, behavior is consistent with the basic equilibrium predictions for risk neutral or homogenous risk averse bidders (extent of bid shading, average seller's revenues and deviations from equilibrium).
However, when we look at the extent of best reply behavior and the shape of bid functions, we find that individual behavior is not in line with the received equilibrium models, although it exhibits strategic sophistication.
To study the extent of strategic behavior, we use an experimental design that elicits bidders' complete bid functions in each round (auction) of the experiment. /paper/aubautbar/578.03.htm   (2204 words)

 RFC 3289 (rfc3289) - Management Information Base for the Differentiated Se
A classifier element identifies a specific set of traffic that forms part of a behavior aggregate; other classifier elements within the same classifier may identify other traffic that also falls into the behavior aggregate.
It is intended to be useful for usage-based billing, for statistical studies, or for analysis of the behavior of a policy in a given network.
Classifier Classifiers are used to differentiate among types of traffic. /rfcs/rfc3289.html   (2204 words)

 PostgreSQL 7.3 Documentation - Chapter 12. Extending SQL: Aggregates
The state transition function is just an ordinary function that could also be used outside the context of the aggregate.
To define a new aggregate function, one selects a data type for the state value, an initial value for the state, and a state transition function.
Another bit of default behavior for a "strict" transition function is that the previous state value is retained unchanged whenever a NULL input value is encountered. /xaggr.html   (2204 words)

 Variations and Selections: The Contrasting Associationist Tradition
To lump behavior analysis together with animal learning and to view the aggregate as a unitary field is to ignore the conceptual divide between the analysis of nonhuman behavior and associationist learning theory.
In contrast, the associationist's elaborate arrangements for inferring differential connections between representations of stimuli (or of stimuli and responses), often seem arcane and misguided to the behavior analyst.
Acknowledging that Miller consistently adhered to hypothetico-deductive methods focused upon theoretical constructs, Rescorla recommends Miller's work to behavior analysts for its emphasis on empirical findings. /jeab/vas/vasivcontrasting.html   (755 words)

 Trading Uncertainty and Market Form
"Herd behavior and aggregate fluctuations in financial markets," Finance 9712008, Economics Working Paper Archive EconWPA, revised 30 Dec 1997.
"Herd behavior and aggregate fluctuations in financial markets," Science& Finance (CFM) working paper archive 500028, Science& Finance, Capital Fund Management. /a/ier/iecrev/v31y1990i3p619-38.html   (368 words)

 The Essence of Object-Oriented Programming - Glossary
Objects are members of a class, and the attributes and behavior of an object are defined by the class definition.
An aggregate object includes (has-a) other objects, each of which is considered to be a part of (part-of)the aggregate object.
A class definition describes all the attributes of member objects of that class, as well as the methods that implement the behavior of member objects. /objectcentral/oobook/webgloss.htm   (911 words)

 RFC 3272 (rfc3272) - Overview and Principles of Internet Traffic Engineeri
Traffic control mechanisms may, for example, be used to control various packet processing activities within a given resource, arbitrate contention for access to the resource by different packets, and regulate traffic behavior through the resource.
Measurements at large traffic aggregate levels may be performed within the core of the network where potentially numerous traffic flows may be in transit concurrently.
The empirical measurements may be performed at the traffic aggregate level or at the flow level in order to derive traffic statistics at various levels of detail. /rfcs/rfc3272.html   (18506 words)

 Triangle Foundation
Triangle Foundation periodically performs statistical analyses of aggregate user behavior and characteristics in order to measure interest in and use of various areas on our website and to use such information to improve on our website's ability to serve you better.
TRIANGLE FOUNDATION also uses IP addresses to analyze trends, administer the Web site, track End User movement and gather broad demographic information for aggregate use.
TRIANGLE FOUNDATION also tracks End User activity and click-through behavior to provide an End User with a more personalized experience while visiting our Web pages and for more personalized e-mail alerts. /privacy.html   (1017 words)

 Job Creation and Job Destruction in the Theory of Unemployment
In simulations, the authors show that an aggregate shock process proxies reasonably well the cyclical behavior of job creation and job destruction in the United States.
In this paper, the authors model a job-specific shock process in the matching model of unemployment with noncooperative wage behavior.
The authors show that an aggregate shock induces negative correlation between job creation and job destruction, whereas a dispersion shock induces positive correlation. /a/bla/restud/v61y1994i3p397-415.html   (1017 words)

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