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Topic: Agreement on Agriculture

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In the News (Sat 25 May 19)

  Agreement on Agriculture - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
It was negotiated during the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, and entered into force with the establishment of the WTO on January 1, 1995.
The 1995 AoA required developed countries to reduce export subsidies by at least 35% (by value) or by at least 21% (by volume) over the five years to 2000.
Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy, WTO Agreement on Agriculture: A Decade of Dumping, Feb 2005.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Agreement_on_Agriculture   (521 words)

Agriculture was brought into the WTO under at the GATT rules - the rules that relate to trade in goods.
Since the use of export subsidies is not allowed under the GATT agreement, a ‘peace clause’ for agriculture was agreed in the Uruguay Round that says that countries cannot challenge these subsidies during the implementation period of the Agreement on Agriculture.
The Agreement on Agriculture stipulates that all forms of trade-distorting subsidies should be ‘subject to reduction commitments’.
www.ifap.org /en/publications/docwto03.html   (1647 words)

 Americas Program | WTO Information | Agreement on Agriculture & Food Sovereignty: Perspectives from Mesoamerica and Asia
Agriculture negotiations mandated under Article 20 of the AoA and begun in 2000 aim to continue the "reforms" in global agriculture trade.
With barely a month left to reach agreement on these modalities, the outcome of the negotiations looks extremely bleak, particularly for developing countries that have pinned their hopes on developing a process to address the existing inequities and imbalances in the agreement.
Agriculture, the traditional source of subsistence and livelihood for the majority of people in developing countries, is being battered by an unjust international trading environment that recognizes only profits for transnational corporations.
americas.irc-online.org /wto/2003/0309aoa_body.html   (4953 words)

 South Bulletin 47 - Africa Worse Off After Agreement on Agriculture
Agriculture was brought into the multilateral trade rules at the conclusion of the Uruguay Round and the establishment of the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 1995.
The Agreement tends to emphasise on commercial agriculture as opposed to subsistence farming that is basically a way of life in Africa.
This is already enshrined in the preamble to the Agreement on Agriculture and should therefore not be construed as an additional obligation on the part of the developed country Members.
www.southcentre.org /info/southbulletin/bulletin47/bulletin47-03.htm   (2225 words)

 Take agriculture out of the WTO
The Agreement on Agriculture is wreaking havoc on farmers and peasants the world over, intensifying exploitation, increasing landlessness and spreading poverty.
The key elements of the Agreement on Agriculture are: (1) the reduction of subsidies to the domestic farming sector; (2) the reduction of export subsidies; and (3) improved market access through the introduction of minimum access requirements and tariffication of import restrictions with subsequent reduction of tariffs.
Agriculture was restructured in line with the increasing liberalization of the sector through a set of other laws and policies.
www.geocities.com /kmp_ph/reso/wto/wto.html   (4506 words)

 Review of WTO Agreement on Agriculture
AoA: Agreement on Agriculture, which formed part of the Uruguay Round Agreement signed by member countries including India in April 1994 and became operational with the establishment of the WTO from 1st January, 1995.
The objective of the Agreement on Agriculture (AoA) was to bring about discipline in one of most distorted sectors of trade by inter alia disciplining the unrestricted use of production and export subsidies, as well as by reducing import barriers, including non-tariff barriers.
The major thrust of the Agreement appears to be based on the hypothesis that liberalisation is the panacea of all ills in the agricultural sector.
commerce.nic.in /wtomay1.htm   (4694 words)

 2002 Custom Pasture Agreement - Manitoba Agriculture, Food and Rural Initiatives   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
By mutual agreement, sAny disagreement that may arise between the Owner and the Feeder may be submitted to arbitration in the event a mutually satisfactory settlement cannot be reached.
No amendment or change to, or modification of this Agreement shall be valid unless it is in writing and signed by both parties, and specifically states the intention to affect this Agreement.
This Agreement shall enure to the benefit of and be binding upon the parties and their respective heirs, successors and assigns.
www.gov.mb.ca /agriculture/financial/farm/caf25s01.html   (1246 words)

Leading up the meeting, developing countries and agriculture exporting countries, such as the Cairns Group, demanded that developed nations move to liberalize their markets by phasing out export subsidies and massive domestic supports, both of which distort trade in agriculture products.
The 1994 Agreement on Agriculture (AoA) laid the groundwork for agriculture negotiations in the Doha Round.
The AoA was one of the major achievements of the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations: it was the first agreement to impose strict disciplines on agricultural trade.
www.cid.harvard.edu /cidtrade/issues/agriculture.html   (1267 words)

 Philippine Rice Under the WTO-Agreement on Agriculture
In light of the on-going negotiations on the Agreement on Agriculture in the WTO Ministerial Conference in Doha this November and the WTO Committee on Agriculture before yearend, reforms in pursuit of "fair trade" under the WTO framework is the wrong agenda for developing nations.
In addition, the end of agriculture or agricultural development is not merely to be capable of bringing forth food from the farms, out of your own labor but to define the trajectory and encourage development of national industries.
Concomitant to the emancipation of peasants from the exploitative relations in agriculture and the departure from its backward state is the destruction of the trading complex that traps Filipinos into chronic poverty and hunger.
www.isgnweb.org /pub/02-001.htm   (4110 words)

The central insight of the URAA was that agricultural policies of all types had the potential to distort trade under certain circumstances and were therefore a fit subject for international disciplines.
Using a different methodology, the nominal rate of assistance or protection for agriculture was found in one non-government study to have risen from 30% in the late 1960s to 60% in 1998.
If agricultural talks begin in a different venue, conversely, other countries may be more emboldened to reject the final draft and restate their opening positions and re-fight the same battles.
www.agriculturelaw.com /specials/jan-march_2000.htm   (7489 words)

 ASIL Insights: The WTO Decision on U.S. Cotton Subsidies
The SCM Agreement[8] provides that the prohibition on certain specified domestic subsidies[9] applies “except as provided in the Agreement on Agriculture.” The AB narrowly interpreted this carve-out, subjecting a wide range of agriculture subsides to challenge under the SCM Agreement even though they are in full compliance with the Agreement on Agriculture.
In the view of the AB, only agriculture subsidies that are specifically authorized by the Agreement on Agriculture are exempt from an SCM challenge, and compliance with the provisions of the Agreement on Agriculture does not constitute specific authorization.
As part of the Agreement on Agriculture [10] Member governments undertook to develop disciplines on the provision of export credit guarantees and, thereafter, to comply with those disciplines.
www.asil.org /insights/currinsight.htm   (1533 words)

 Agreement on Agriculture
The Committee on Agriculture shall monitor, as appropriate, the follow-up to this Decision.
For those basic agricultural products, equivalent measurements of market price support shall be made using the applied administered price and the quantity of production eligible to receive that price or, where this is not practicable, on budgetary outlays used to maintain the producer price.
Where basic agricultural products falling under paragraph 1 are the subject of non-exempt direct payments or any other product-specific subsidy not exempted from the reduction commitment, the basis for equivalent measurements of support concerning these measures shall be calculations as for the corresponding AMS components (specified in paragraphs 10 through 13 of Annex 3).
www.jurisint.org /pub/06/en/doc/13.htm   (7314 words)

 Globalization and Agriculture   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
Agriculture had been kept out of international trade talks on grounds that it was too important for food security.
The expectation was that the rules based system of trade in agriculture would improve agricultural exports of LDCs while protecting their domestic markets from food dumping by the North”.
As it stands, the agreement allows countries which have been using measures for import restraint and domestic subsidy to retain protection for their agricultural sector throughout the implementation period whilst those countries which were not using protective measures earlier are prohibited from introducing them.
www.aucegypt.edu /src/globalization/Globalization_agriculture.htm   (989 words)

 WTO Agreement on Agriculture: Suitable Model for a Global Food System? SOPHIA MURPHY / Foreign Policy In Focus v.7, ...
Under the AoA, domestic support programs are categorized as either acceptable or unacceptable, with the latter also scheduled for reduction, and export subsidies, while effectively legalized by the agreement, have also been disciplined and slated for reduction.
The AoA is simply premised on the notion that the fewer trade barriers that exist, the easier it is for demand for food to be met.
At the same time, U.S. agriculture and trade policies encourage the use of soil, water, and carbon-based energy at levels that are unsustainable in the medium-term and are already a major source of ecological damage.
www.mindfully.org /WTO/Agreement-On-Agriculture-FPIFjun02.htm   (3164 words)

 ALCA - FTAA - ZLEA - FTAA Draft Agreement - 2003 - Chapter IX
The Parties may apply an automatic Special Agricultural Safeguard, while this Agreement remains in force, to imports of a product originating in another Party that is covered in Annex I to the WTO Agreement on Agriculture and that at the date of its application is incorporated in the Liberalization Program.
Agricultural products produced domestically that are donated by one government to the government of an importing Party or to an inter-governmental organization or private institution, for free distribution directly to final consumers in the importing Party.
Agricultural products produced domestically that are donated by one government to the government of an importing Party or to an inter-governmental organization or private institution, for free distribution in the importing Party through sale in the open market.
www.ftaa-alca.org /FTAADraft03/ChapterIX_e.asp   (8744 words)

 ERS/USDA Briefing Room - WTO: Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture
The basic aim of the WTO is to liberalize world trade and place it on a secure basis, thereby contributing to economic growth and development.
The Agreement on Agriculture (AoA) was adopted at the conclusion of the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade talks on April 15, 1994.
WTO member countries made commitments to reduce domestic support to agriculture, reduce the use of export subsidies, and improve access to their markets.
www.ers.usda.gov /Briefing/WTO/agree.htm   (187 words)

 ZNet Commentary: W.t.o. Agreement On Agriculure
Opening Southern markets and converting peasant agriculture to corporate agriculture is the primary aim of Cargill and hence the Agreement on Agriculture.
Asia happens to be the largest agricultural economy of the world, with the majority involved in agriculture.
Because the Agriculture Agreement of W.T.O. is an agribusiness treaty it distorts production and trade from the perspective of nature, small farmers and all consumers, especially the poor.
www.zmag.org /sustainers/content/2003-09/10shiva.cfm   (1941 words)

 The Hindu : WTO agreement on agriculture: Strategic issues for India
AS MANDATED under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), signed in April 1994 at Marrakesh, the developed countries are to implement the terms of the Agreement on Agriculture by end 2000 and negotiations between all member countries to further the cause of trade reforms are to be carried out during the current year.
Under Article 20 of the Agreement, all members are to submit their proposals before the end of December, 2000.
Negotiations at the WTO meet on Agreement on Agriculture should take into account all the other major issues common to many other developing countries in the same socio-economic belt and analyse their impact on Indian agriculture from an Indian perspective.
www.hindu.com /2000/12/14/stories/0614000j.htm   (1194 words)

 ERS/USDA Briefing Room - WTO: Beyond the Agreement on Agriculture
Trademarks and geographical indications (GIs) are the two intellectual property rights that most greatly affect agricultural trade.
For example, negotiations on the establishment of a multilateral system of notification and registration of geographical indications for wines and spirits is taking place during the Doha Developemnt Agenda under the TRIPS Agreement.
Trademarks and GIs are also issues in the areas of technical barriers to trade and market access.
www.ers.usda.gov /Briefing/WTO/trips.htm   (301 words)

(ii) in the case of export quantity reduction commitments, the maximum quantity of an agricultural product, or group of products, in respect of which such export subsidies may be granted in that year.
(b) Payments shall be conditional upon the retirement of land from marketable agricultural production for a minimum of three years, and in the case of livestock on its slaughter or definitive permanent disposal.
3. Where basic agricultural products falling under paragraph 1 are the subject of non-exempt direct payments or any other product-specific subsidy not exempted from the reduction commitment, the basis for equivalent measurements of support concerning these measures shall be calculations as for the corresponding AMS components (specified in paragraphs 10 through 13 of Annex 3).
www.sunsonline.org /trade/docof/14-ag.htm   (6956 words)

 WTO | Agriculture - gateway
The WTO’s Agriculture Agreement was negotiated in the 1986—94 Uruguay Round and is a significant first step towards fairer competition and a less distorted sector.
Ministers’ decisions on developing countries’ difficulties implementing the current WTO Agriculture Agreement.
Work on this subject is handled by the Agriculture Committee, which reports to the General Council.
www.wto.org /english/tratop_e/agric_e/agric_e.htm   (543 words)

 SICE - GATT/Uruguay Round - Agreement on Agriculture
Recognizing that the long-term objective of substantial progressive reductions in support and protection resulting in fundamental reform is an ongoing process, Members agree that negotiations for continuing the process will be initiated one year before the end of the implementation period, taking into account:
Domestic support measures for which exemption from the reduction commitments is claimed shall meet the fundamental requirement that they have no, or at most minimal, trade-distorting effects or effects on production.
For the purposes of paragraphs 3 and 4 of this Annex, the provision of foodstuffs at subsidized prices with the objective of meeting food requirements of urban and rural poor in developing countries on a regular basis at reasonable prices shall be considered to be in conformity with the provisions of this paragraph.
www.sice.oas.org /Trade/ur_round/UR13CE.asp   (2397 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
State agencies including the Department of Agriculture and Forestry’s Soil and Water Conservation office, Wildlife and Fisheries, Environmental Quality and the conservation group Ducks Unlimited will contribute services to assist with annual water quality monitoring and other efforts of the program.
The goal of the program, Odom said, is to reduce the sediment loading of the streams, bayous and lakes in the project area by 30 percent.
Shallow water areas and wetlands will be established for the purpose of removing the nutrients and other agriculture chemicals from runoff before it enters water bodies in the project area.
www.bayoubuzz.com /articles.aspx?aid=3784   (452 words)

 CHINA BILATERAL TRADE AGREEMENT, U.S. AGRICULTURE MARKETS   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
It is a longstanding policy under international trade rules that sound science must be the basis for resolution of sanitary and phytosanitary disputes.
Under this agreement, China will accept specific science-based standards and our farmers and ranchers will have access to the vast Chinese market.
The goal is to open China’s marketplace and secure China’s agreement to trade concessions that result in lower tariffs and improved access.
www.house.gov /agriculture/press/106/pr990421.html   (235 words)

 SICE - GATT/Uruguay Round - Agreement on Agriculture
The commitments are expressed in terms of Total Aggregate Measurement of Support and "Annual and Final Bound Commitment Levels".
Least-developed country Members shall not be required to undertake reduction commitments.
"Countervailing duties" where referred to in this Article are those covered by Article VI of GATT 1994 and Part V of the Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures.
www.sice.oas.org /Trade/ur_round/UR13BE.asp   (1796 words)

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