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Topic: Akkadian


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In the News (Mon 23 Oct 17)

  
  Akkadian on Encyclopedia.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Old Akkadian is the earliest period of the language and can be dated from its appearance in Mesopotamia c.3000 BC to c.1950 BC, when the 3d dynasty of Ur fell.
Thereafter, Akkadian evolved into two dialects, Assyrian, the tongue of ancient Assyria, and Babylonian, the language of ancient Babylonia.
The Akkadians adopted cuneiform c.2500 BC from the Sumerians, a non-Semitic people who are believed to have invented it.
www.encyclopedia.com /html/A/Akkadian.asp   (555 words)

  
 Akkadian College of Divinity: Akkadia and the Akkadian language
Akkadian (or Babylonian-Assyrian) is the collective name for the spoken languages of the culture in Mesopotamia, the area between the rivers Euphrates and Tigris.
Akkadian, the oldest known member of the family of Semitic languages, succeeded Sumerian as the vernacular tongue of Mesopotamia and was spoken by the Babylonians and Assyrians over a period of nearly two thousand years.
It was adopted by the Akkadians ca.2500 BC from the Sumerians, whose language was not a Semitic tongue.
divinity.insights2.org /Akkadian.html   (1058 words)

  
 Akkadian Language   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Akkadian was a language of the Semitic family spoken in ancient Mesopotamia.
Akkadian was an inflected language, possessing three cases (nominative, accusative, and genitive), three numbers (singular, dual, and plural), and verb conjugations for first, second, and third persons.
Akkadian sentence order was subject, object, verb, which sets it apart from all other Semitic languages.
www.wikiverse.org /akkadian-language   (333 words)

  
 Akkadian Empire
Semites [whether Akkadians or a Semitic language group that had settled before them] may have had a part in the urbanization that took place at the end of the 4th millennium.
Akkadian tradition itself saw it in this light, however, and a learned treatise of the late 8th or the 7th century lists no fewer than 65 cities and lands belonging to that empire.
The so-called Old Akkadian manner of writing is extraordinarily appealing from the aesthetic point of view; as late as the Old Babylonian era it served as a model for monumental inscriptions.
www.angelfire.com /nt/Gilgamesh/akkadian.html   (1367 words)

  
 Akkadian Empire - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Akkadian Empire usually refers to the Semitic speaking state that grew up around the city of Akkad north of Sumer, and reached its greatest extent under Sargon of Akkad.
However, the Akkadian Empire was already starting to crumble during Shar-kali-sharri's reign, the son of Naram-Sin, and by the end of Shar-kali-sharri's reign, the Akkadian Empire collapsed outright from the invasion of barbarians of the Zagros known as "Gutians".
The fall of the empire established by Sargon seems to have been as sudden as its rise, and little is known about the Gutian period.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Akkadian_Empire   (932 words)

  
 Akkadian cuneiform
Akkadian, like Japanese, was polysyllabic and used a range of inflections while Sumerian, like Chinese, had few or no inflections.
The Akkadian script was used until about the 1st century AD and was adapted to write many other languages of Mesopotamia, including Babylonian and Assyrian.
Akkadian, a Semitic language that was spoken in Mesopotamia (modern Iraq and Syria) between about 2800 BC and 500 AD.
www.omniglot.com /writing/akkadian.htm   (177 words)

  
 Akkadian language   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Cuneiform was in many ways unsuitedto Akkadian: among its flaws were its inability to represent glottal stops, pharyngeal stops, and emphatic consonants, as well as a syllabic construction completelyinappropriate for languages demonstrating the triconsonantal root.
Akkadian was an inflected language, possessing three cases (nominative, accusative, and genitive),three numbers (singular, dual, and plural), and verb conjugations for first, second, and third persons.
Akkadian sentence order was subject, object, verb, which sets it apart from allother Semitic languages.
www.therfcc.org /akkadian-language-65778.html   (251 words)

  
 Akkadian language   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Akkadian was a language of the Semitic family spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians.
Akkadian was an inflected language, possessing two genders (masculine and feminine), three cases (nominative, accusative, and genitive), three numbers (singular, dual, and plural), and verb conjugations for first, second, and third persons.
Akkadian sentence order was subject, object, verb, which sets it apart from most other Semitic languages, apart from those of Ethiopia.
akkadian-language.area51.ipupdater.com   (314 words)

  
 Akkadian language   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Akkadian scribes wrote cuneiform using signs that Sumerian logograms Sumerian syllables Akkadian syllables and phonetic complements.
Cuneiform was in many ways unsuited Akkadian: among its flaws were its inability represent glottal stops pharyngeal stops and emphatic consonants as well as a syllabic construction inappropriate for languages demonstrating the triconsonantal root.
Akkadian is not a language most schools (even most seminaries) offer as part of the curriculum; hence, many people who learn this language do so via s...
www.freeglossary.com /Akkadian_language   (559 words)

  
 Bible study resources: Glossary Akkadian or accadian as this Ancient Near Eastern language relates to biblical study.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Akkadian is a Semitic language, and became dominant because Sargon king of Akkad was the first Semite to gain ascendancy in the region.
Akkadian speakers soon split with two major centers, Babylon in the south and Assyria in the north.
Akkadian was written in cuneiform and several texts of interest for Old Testament studies are written in Akkadian, perhaps most notable are the Enuma Elish (creation story) and the Epic of Gilgamesh.
www.bible.gen.nz /amos/language/akkadian.htm   (194 words)

  
 Akkad and the Akkadians of Mesopotamia (Ancient Akkad)
The Akkadians were a Semitic people living on the Arabic peninsula during the great flourishing period of the Sumerian city-states.
The Akkadians were Semites, that is, they spoke a language drawn from a family of languages called Semitic languages (the term "Semite" is a modern designation taken from the Hebrew Scriptures; Shem was a son of Noah and the nations descended from Shem are the Semites).
Semites--whether Akkadians or a Semitic language group that had settled before them--may have had a part in the urbanization that took place at the end of the 4th millennium.
history-world.org /akkadians.htm   (2270 words)

  
 Introduction to the Akkadian language (Babylonian and Assyrian cuneiform texts)
Akkadian (or Babylonian-Assyrian) is the collective name for the spoken languages of the culture in the three millennia BCE in Mesopotamia, the area between the rivers Euphrates and Tigris, approx.
The name Akkadian --so called in ancient time-- is derived from the city-state of Akkad, founded in the middle of the third millennium BCE and capital of one of the first great empires after the dawn of human history.
Akkadian is first attested to in proper names in Sumerian texts (ca.
xoomer.virgilio.it /bxpoma/akkadeng/akintro.htm   (400 words)

  
 Essay 5   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The Akkadians had become quite culturally similar to the Sumerians by mid-3rd millennium, having learned much from their southern counterparts (12, p.26).
This was the first true form of empire, unlike the partial trade empire of Uruk in the 4th millennium or the shifting and conflicting dynasties of Sumer during the first half of the 3rd millennium, the Akkadian Empire was all-encompassing.
Thus, the Akkadian empire fell and soon the Sumerian city-states, especially Lagash, gained independence and the territorial boarder battles of the Early Dynastic period (3,000-2,000 BCE) ensued once again.
www.usc.edu /dept/LAS/religion/arcproj/war/EssayFive.html   (2008 words)

  
 Akkadian literature   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
For example, the "steppe" and "the mountains" in Akkadian literature represent barbarism and chaos.
One of the main themes of Akkadian literature is the nature and acquisition of knowledge/wisdom.
This is an important theme in the epic of Gilgamesh and it is noteworthy that in line 9 of tablet 1 Gilgamesh is described as having written all his toils on a stone stela.
people.clarkson.edu /~melville/ls195/ggloss.html   (626 words)

  
 CDLJ 2003:4
With reference to Akkadian, Huehnergard deliberately points to the conspicuous discrepancy between the abundance of currently available Akkadian cuneiform texts on the one hand, and the relatively modest corpus of comparative studies focusing on individual Akkadian dialects and linguistic development levels on the other.
The [Akkadian] dialect predominantly documented during the Sargonic period is presumably the native tongue of the Akkade rulers and their elites, which was consistently introduced as the official language of administration.
However, in light of a potential corrective represented by contextual language elements found in the contemporary Akkadian cuneiform texts and with due awareness of a generally high adaptability of Akkadian proper nouns with regard to linguistic[31] and socio-cultural[32] changes, the methodological path taken here has been chosen deliberately and appears to be reasonably justified.
cdli.ucla.edu /pubs/cdlj/2003/cdlj2003_004.html   (6203 words)

  
 Sumerian and Akkadian Myths   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Fairly close to Sumerian prototypes is an Akkadian version of the myth of "Nana’s Descent." An Old Babylonian myth about the Thunderbird Ansud, who stole the tablets of fates and was conquered by Ninurta, who was guided by Enki's counsel, is probably closely related to the Sumerian story of Ninurta's contest with Enki.
The sudden eclipse of the Akkadian empire long after Naram-Sin, which was wrongly attributed to that ruler's presumed pride and the gods' retaliation, is the theme of "The Fall of Akkad." Akkadian epic tradition continues and gives focus to the Sumerian tales of Gilgamesh.
Other Akkadian epics that deserve to be mentioned are the Etana epic, which tells how Etana, the first king, was carried up to heaven on the back of an eagle to obtain the plant of birth so that his son could be born.
ragz-international.com /sumerian_and_akkadian_myths.htm   (2598 words)

  
 Akkadian language
The language was in use for 2,500 years in and around Mesopotamia.
Akkadian was written in a cuneiform script, with about 600 different signs for either words or syllables.
Around 2300 BCE: The Akkadian language spreads during the reign of the Akkadian king, Sargon.
i-cias.com /e.o/akkadn.htm   (192 words)

  
 Languge death
Since almost all Semitic languages have a basic VSO word order, the SOV structure of Akkadian has almost universally been attributed to the substrate influence of Sumerian, and is cited as evidence for a long period of co-existence of the two languages, if not for a prolonged period of bilingualism in Sumer.
Many Old Akkadian letters and documents are official documents used in communication with the capital, and that explains the choice of language; nevertheless, the patchwork of Akkadian and Sumerian in archives from the time is instructive (Foster 1982).
Moreover, I would argue that the apparent evidence of convergence between Sumerian and Akkadian does not support the idea of interference in the process of a slow gradual replacement of one language by the other, nor is it suggestive of a relatively late date for the death of the older tongue.
www-personal.umich.edu /~piotrm/DIGLOS~1.htm   (9665 words)

  
 Search Results for akkadian - Encyclopædia Britannica
Typical of the Semitic languages are attributive constructions: (1) a construction in which the governing noun appears in a shortened form before the governed noun in the genitive, as well as (2) a...
Akkadian goddess of destiny, consort of Bel, and mother of the moon...
Annual reports on this dictionary of the dialects of the Akkadian language from the ongoing project of the Oriental Institute of this American university.
www.britannica.com /search?query=akkadian&submit=Find&source=MWTAB   (439 words)

  
 Lecture 4: The Akkadians, Egyptians and the Hebrews
The foundation of the Akkadian state was economic.
The gods ruled the world of men through their earthly representatives, and in the case of the Akkadian kingdom, this meant Sargon.
While the Sumerians, Babylonians, Akkadians and other groups were busy creating a Mesopotamian civilization in the Fertile Crescent of the Ancient Near East, another civilization had appeared to the west.
www.historyguide.org /ancient/lecture4b.html   (2967 words)

  
 AllRefer.com - Akkadian (Language And Linguistics) - Encyclopedia
Akkadian[ukA´dEun] Pronunciation Key, extinct language belonging to the East Semitic subdivision of the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic family of languages (see Afroasiatic languages).
B.C. and are the oldest known written records in a Semitic tongue.
Old Akkadian is the earliest period of the language and can be dated from its appearance in Mesopotamia c.3000
reference.allrefer.com /encyclopedia/A/Akkadian.html   (377 words)

  
 Tell Leilan Project | Yale University
The third millennium BC Akkadian imperial penetration of the north Mesopotamian plain was the terminus of the village-state-empire trajectory of sixth to third millennium BC West Asia (Adams 1966; Stone 1995; Figure 1).
In fact, the only certain Akkadian “imperial” features are its collapse, emphasized in the native sources with the Sumerian King List’s “...who was king, who was not king?…” (Jacobsen 1939), Shamshi-Adad’s “…seven-generations since the collapse of Akkad”; (Grayson 1987: 53), and a millennium-long ideological (re-) presentation as the first unified control of Mesopotamia.
Akkadian control was designed to control access to exotic materials, such as metals and stone, situated further North or in the Indus (Oates 1976, Nissen 1988).
research.yale.edu /leilan/akkadian   (1826 words)

  
 Akkadian language --  Encyclopædia Britannica   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Akkadian spread across an area extending from the Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf during the time of Sargon (Akkadian Sharrum-kin) of the Akkad dynasty, who reigned from about 2334 to about 2279
About 2000 BC, Sumerian was replaced as a spoken language by Semitic Akkadian (Assyro-Babylonian) but continued in written usage almost to the end of the life of the Akkadian language, around the beginning of the...
On it is inscribed in Akkadian, a Semitic language, the Code of Hammurabi.
www.britannica.com /eb/article-9005290?tocId=9005290   (767 words)

  
 Akkadians - History for Kids!
Sargon, according to Sumerian literature, was born to an Akkadian high priestess and a poor father, maybe a gardener.
Sargon also brought to West Asia the new idea that a king should be succeeded by his sons; before this the new king had been elected by the rich men of each city.
Naram-Sin was succeeded by his own son Shar-kali-Sharri, but Shar-kali-Sharri failed to hold the Akkadian Empire together, and around 2100 BC it gradually fell apart into a bunch of small kingdoms and cities as it hd been under the Sumerians.
www.historyforkids.org /learn/westasia/history/akkadians.htm   (491 words)

  
 Avatars of the Goddess   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
An Akkadian goddess and 'clerk' of the underworld.
She holds the title of 'Queen of the Desert' and is the consort of Amurru, the god of nomads.
The Akkadian goddess of the oath, later a goddess of fate and a judge in the underworld (with the Anunnaku).
www3.sympatico.ca /chartreuse/AvatarsOfTheGoddess/Akkadian.htm   (192 words)

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