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Topic: Albigensian Crusade

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  Crusade - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The 13th century crusades never expressed such a popular fever, and after Acre fell for the last time in 1291, and after the extermination of the Occitan Cathars in the Albigensian Crusade, the crusading ideal became devalued by Papal justifications of political and territorial aggressions within Catholic Europe.
The Albigensian Crusade was launched in 1209 to eliminate the heretical Cathars of southern France.
The eighth Crusade was organized by Louis IX in 1270, again sailing from Aigues-Mortes, initially to come to the aid of the remnants of the Crusader states in Syria.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Crusade   (4198 words)

 Albigensian Crusade: Facts and details from Encyclopedia Topic   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Carcassonne (carcassona in occitan) is a fortified french city, in the aude département, of which it is the préfecture, in the former province of...
In August the crusade proceeded to Termes and despite attacks from Pierre-Roger de Cabaret the siege was solid and in December the town fell.
Labécède fell in 1227 and Vareilles and Toulouse in 1228.
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/a/al/albigensian_crusade.htm   (3447 words)

 Albigensian Crusade - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Albigensian Crusade or Cathar Crusade (1209 - 1229) was a 20-year military campaign initiated by the Roman Catholic Church to eliminate the religion practiced by the Cathars of Languedoc, which the Roman Catholic hierarchy considered apostasy.
Finally, the Albigensian Crusade had a role in the creation and institutionalization of the Medieval Inquisition.
In May the crusading force was directed against some revolters, the castle of Aimery de Montréal was retaken, he and his senior knights were hanged and several hundred Cathars were burned.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Albigensian_Crusade   (2101 words)

 Overview of the Crusades   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
On a popular level, the first crusades unleashed an unprecedented wave of impassioned, personally felt pious fury that was expressed in the massacres of Jews that accompanied the movement of mobs through Europe, and the violent treatment of "schismatic" Orthodox Christians of the east.
The crusades also aided the beginning of the Renaissance in Italy, as various Italian city-states from the very beginning had important and profitable trading colonies in the crusader states, both in the Holy Land and later in captured Byzantine territory.
Thus, in Western Europe, the Crusades have traditionally been regarded by laypeople as heroic adventures, though the mass enthusiasm of common people was largely expended in the First Crusade, from which so few of their class returned.
www.cbn.com /spirituallife/ChurchAndMinistry/ChurchHistory/Crusades_Wikipedia.asp?option=print   (3474 words)

 Crusade - Simple English Wikipedia
The Albigensian Crusade was started in 1209 to eliminate the Cathars of southern France.
A crusading force from Hungary, Austria, and Bavaria captured Damietta, a city in Egypt, in 1219.
The eighth Crusade was organized by Louis IX in 1270, to help the Crusader states in Syria.
simple.wikipedia.org /wiki/The_Crusades   (825 words)

Numerous barons of northern France, Germany, and Belgium joined the crusade, and papal legates were put at the head of the expedition, Arnold, Abbot of Citeaux, and two bishops.
Simon of Monfort, Earl of Leicester, was given control of the conquered territory and became the military leader of the crusade.
The crusade now degenerated into a war of conquest, and Innocent III, in spite of his efforts, was powerless to bring the undertaking back to its original purpose.
www.newadvent.org /cathen/01267e.htm   (2060 words)

 The Crusader Period
The Latin Kingdom of the Crusaders was that of a conquering minority confined mainly to fortified cities and castles.
After the overthrow of the Crusaders by a Muslim army under Saladin (1187), the Jews were again accorded a certain measure of freedom, including the right to live in Jerusalem.
Crusader authority in the Land ended after a final defeat (1291) by the Mamluks, a Muslim military class which had come to power in Egypt.
www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org /jsource/History/Crusader.html   (409 words)

 The Cathars: What was the Albigensian Crusade ?
Like all crusades it was a war, declared by the Pope, (Innocent III), backed by the Roman Church with promises of remission of sins and a guranteed place in heaven.
The (unspecified) target of the Crusade was Ramon V of Toulouse and his vassels, but Ramon rather cleverly joined the Crusade himself.
The Crusades are conventionally held to have ended in 1244 with the fall of Montsegùr, though Cathars were still being burned alive into the fourteenth century.
www.languedoc-france.info /1206_crusade.htm   (516 words)

 Crusade - QuickSeek Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
The Crusades were a series of several military campaigns—usually sanctioned by the Papacy—that took place during the 11th through 13th centuries.
Originally, they were Roman Catholic Holy Wars to recapture Jerusalem and the Holy Land from the Muslims, but some were directed against other Europeans, such as the Fourth Crusade against Constantinople, the Albigensian Crusade against the Cathars of southern France and the Northern Crusades.
In a broader sense, "crusade" can be used, always in a rhetorical and metaphorical sense, to identify as righteous any war that is given a religious justification ("Gott mit uns," "God with us").
crusade.quickseek.com   (4011 words)

 The Albigensian Crusade and the Inquisition (4of10)
A crusade against the Albigenses was at once ordered, and Raymond, who had meanwhile submitted and done penance, was forced to take the field against his own subjects.
The nobles, for the most part, were cultivated men, poets themselves or patrons of poetry, who had learned that their prosperity depended on the prosperity of their subjects, and that municipal liberties were a safeguard, rather than a menace, to the wise ruler.
The crusaders came, and their unfinished work was taken up and executed to the bitter end by the Inquisition.
www.wisdomworld.org /additional/ListOfCollatedArticles/AlbigensianInquisition.html   (3493 words)

 Crusade of 1101 -   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
The Crusade of 1101 was a minor crusade of three separate movements, organized in 1100 and 1101 in the successful aftermath of the First Crusade.
The successful First Crusade prompted a call for reinforcements from the newly established Kingdom of Jerusalem, and Pope Paschal II, successor to Pope Urban II (who died before learning of the outcome of the crusade that he had called), urged a new expedition.
The crusaders and Byzantines each blamed the other for the defeat, and neither of them were able to ensure a safe route through Anatolia now that Kilij Arslan had strengthened his position.
psychcentral.com /psypsych/Crusade_of_1101   (1306 words)

 History of THE CHRISTIANS   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
In the history of western Christianity the 12th and 13th centuries are associated most powerfully with the crusades - on one level a prolonged holy war against the Muslim infidel, on another a campaign of acquisition by a land-hungry feudal society.
The survival of the Catharist heresy in parts of France, even after the brutality of the Albigensian crusade, persuades pope Gregory IX that specialists are required.
In these centuries Christian fervour provides the energy and funds to build the great Gothic cathedrals; crusaders fight their way east on an ostensibly Christian mission; pilgrims criss-cross Europe visiting Christian relics; Christian monasteries are at the forefront of economic activity.
www.historyworld.net /wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?groupid=211&HistoryID=aa22   (2448 words)

 ORB: The Online Reference Book for Medieval Studies   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
It was a bitter conflict that had the characteristics partly of a civil war, partly of a persecution, and partly of an invasion.
Even though the Albigensian Crusade had little to do with the crusades to the Holy Land, which is the focus of our course, it had an important impact on the theory of crusading and the role of the Church in calling and directing crusades, so it is worth a closer look.
The crusade against them is called the Albigensian because the town of Albi was one of the centers of the movement.
www.the-orb.net /textbooks/crusade/albig.html   (1418 words)

 Wikinfo | The Crusades
Later crusades were called against the remaining pagan nations of Europe such as Lithuania [1] and against heresy, the crusade against Bohemia, 1418-1437.
Thus to correctly translate nuances of meaning, the use of "Jihad" in Arabic should be translated to "Crusade" in English while use of the Arabic term for "Crusade" should be translated to "Jihad" in English.
The Fourth Crusade was initiated by Pope Innocent III in 1202, but ended up in the sacking of Constantinople in 1204, as crusaders fought with Venetians and renegade Byzantines.
www.wikinfo.org /wiki.php?title=Crusade   (1131 words)

 Languedoc (Traditional province, France)
The main cause of the Albigensian Crusade was the introduction of the Cathar religion in Western Europe in the XIIth century.
Raimond was accusated to have been behind the murder and crusaders from France, the Anglo-Normand kingdom and the German Empire, gathered in the Rhône valley.
In 1215, the fourth Council of Latran sentenced Raimond VI to exile and granted Montfort the duchy of Narbonne and the county of Toulouse.
flagspot.net /flags/fr-lr.html   (1930 words)

 :: Simon IV de Montfort @ Gothic Paris ::   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Instigated by Pope Innocent III, the Albigensian Crusade, named after the inhabitants of the heretical village of Albi, was a campaign to rid southern France of Catharism, a manichean religion that rejected the Old Testament as well as the Catholic sacraments of baptism, marriage, and the Eucharist.
While originally religious in nature, the Albigensian crusade quickly became a war of conquest by the northern French against the nobility of the south.
The Albigensian Crusade was not only responsible for the expansion of the territory of the French King Philippe-Auguste, but it also laid the foundations for the Inquisition.
www.nku.edu /~providenti/paris/bios/simon.html   (1367 words)

 Albigensian Crusade
The crusades to the Holy Land having resulted in, for the most part, failure and ruin, Innocent III set out to flex his military muscle closer to the homefront.
It is exceedingly difficult to form any very precise idea of the Albigensian doctrines because present knowledge of them is derived from their opponents and from the very rare and uninformative Albigensian texts which have come down to us.
He was assassinated, supposedly at Raymond's instigation, and in response to this act Innocent launched the Albigensian Crusade, a holy war in which Toulouse was ravaged and its inhabitants, Cathar and non-Cathar alike, were massacred....
jmgainor.homestead.com /files/PU/Cru/albcr.htm   (628 words)

 Albigensian Crusade.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
The Albigensians were a ascetic religious group which sprang up in the 12th Century in Southwestern France, the richest and most cultured provinces in Europe at the time.
Their basic belief was Manichean, that is in the absolute duality of good and evil, and that Jesus had not actually been present on earth in the flesh.
They gained considerable support among the educated and noble classes, including that of Count Raymond VI of Toulouse, one of the most powerful lords in all Europe at the time, but it is unclear the extent to which the common people took to Albigensianism.
www.hyw.com /Books/History/Albigens.htm   (194 words)

 Albigensian Crusade - France.com
The Albigensian Crusade (1209-1229) was part of the Roman Catholic Church's efforts to crush the Cathars.
Political control in Languedoc was split amongst many local lords and town councils, the area was relatively lightly oppressed and reasonably advanced.
Cassès and Montferrand both fell easily in early June and the crsade headed for Toulouse, the town was besieged but for once the attackers were short of supplies and men, and so Simon de Montfort withdrew before the end of the month.
www.france.com /docs/73.html   (1728 words)

 ipedia.com: Albigensian Crusade Article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
The Albigensian Crusade (1209-1229) was part of the Roman Catholic Church's efforts to crush the heretical sect of the Cathars.
According to the Cathars, the world had been created by an evil deity known to the Gnostics as the Demiurge, and Jesus was a spiritual being opposed to the evil God of the Old Testament.
The crusade led to the creation of the movement now known as the Medieval Inquisition.
www.ipedia.com /albigensian_crusade.html   (1943 words)

 The history of the Albigensian Crusade review   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
This is an English translation of one of the most important sources for the history of the Cathar heresy and the Albigensian crusade.
It was written between about 1212 and 1218 by a young monk at the Cistercian Abbey of les Vaux-de-Cernay, of which Guy, his uncle, was the abbot.
Guy took part in the preaching mission against heresy in 1207 and later played an important part in the crusade; he not only met those involved, but himself witnessed many episodes.
www.rennes-discovery.com /history_of_the_albigensian_review.htm   (141 words)

 The Albigensian Crusade
Instead, at the beginning of the thirteenth century, the rest of Europe was not in a mood to be respectful.
Unlike those crusades whereupon Christians had descended upon infidels, however, the Albigensian Crusade of 1209 consisted of some thirty thousand knights and foot soldiers from northern Europe descending like a whirlwind on the Languedoc -- the mountainous northeastern foothills of the Pyrenees in what is now southern France.
The extermination of populations, cities and crops occasioned by the Albigensian Crusade was extensive enough so as to constitute what might be called the first "genocide" in modern European history.
www.halexandria.org /dward220.htm   (980 words)

 All Things are Lights, by Robert Shea   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
When the Albigensian Crusade began even the Catholics of the region saw it as an invasion of their homeland by a foreign power.
We see the failure of the crusade through the eyes of the captured knights, as well as the ladies and garrison left behind in a captured city.
Having studied the Cathars and the Albigensian Crusade, I was impressed by the author’s depth of knowledge into this “heretical sect.” The novel presents the Cathars much as I have come to see them, as a believable and even admirable religion.
users.ev1.net /~rwreid/Reviews/allthingsarelights.htm   (616 words)

 H-Net Review: Dawn Marie Hayes on The Albigensian Crusade
Chapters five to fourteen recount the events of the crusade, from its launch in 1208 to its end with the Treaty of Paris in 1229.
It is followed by an epilogue that briefly discusses the lasting consequences of the crusade and its effects on the relationship between France and Languedoc.
Like Joseph Strayer, whose well-known book on the Albigensian Crusade appeared in 1971 (and has since been updated in a second edition with a new epilogue by Carol Lansing), Sumption notes that the crusade was a landmark in the unification of France.
www.h-net.org /reviews/showrev.cgi?path=18200984515441   (609 words)

 The Crusades
During the first term, we shall study the contribution the king of France, and his barons to the crusades ‘Outremer’, that is, taking place in the Near East; during the second term, we shall concentrate on the thirteenth-century Albigensian Crusade in the south of France.
These very different crusades will be compared and contrasted in the third term.
During this term, the analysis of modern historians are going to be confronted with the account made of the events in the provençal Chanson de la croisade contre les Albigeois (available with a facing contemporary French translation in the Livre de poche/ Lettres gothiques series) written by two anonymous authors with conflicting viewpoints.
www.rdg.ac.uk /french/fr202.htm   (484 words)

 The Crusades
In modern times, the Crusades are often looked upon with disfavor even by Christians, often being lumped together with the Inquisition (or, in extreme cases, with the Holocaust).
Most of the early Crusaders were fighting for their concept of God, and for the Papal promise of “full remission of sins”.
During the 200 years of the Crusades, at various points, England and France were at war, Eastern and Western Christianity were at war, internal division and civil war racked Byzantium, and various Moslem factions were jockeying for power in the Middle East, sometimes fighting each other.
www.sundayschoolcourses.com /crusades   (4853 words)

 Alibris: Albigenses
The final installment of Oldenbourg's bestselling and brilliant historical trilogy describes the fate and misfortune of the noble Seigneur of Montgeil and his family, victims of the cruel "Fourth Crusades" at the beginning of the 13th century.
The movement was finally smashed by the crusade and the inquisitional proceedings that followed...
The Chronicle of William of Puylaurens: The Albigensian Crusade and Its Aftermath
www.alibris.com /search/books/subject/Albigenses   (838 words)

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