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Topic: Alcohol dehydrogenase


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  Alcohol Dehydrogenase
Liver alcohol dehydrogenase, catalyzing the oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes with reduction of NAD+ to NADH - functionally, the reaction is usually in the other direction, aldehyde reduction, except when we go out drinking - is one of the most studied enzymes.
As with all pyridine nucleotide-dependent dehydrogenases, the reaction is sequential.
The zinc favors hydride transfer from the alcohol by stabilizing the anion, and to the aldehyde by making it electrophilic, attracting negative charge to the carbonyl O and away from the carbon which is to receive the hydride.
aesop.rutgers.edu /~dbm/AllcoholDeh.html   (0 words)

  
  Genomics|HuGENet|Reviews|Alcohol dehydrogenase and head/neck cancer|PubMed ID: 14693654
Alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) are enzymes involved in the metabolism of ethanol to acetaldehyde (1).
Most of the metabolism of alcohol and aldehyde is carried out in the liver, although extrahepatic metabolism has also been demonstrated in the stomach, gut, and upper aerodigestive tract (2), including some potential metabolism due to oral microflora in the oral cavity (3–5).
Even though alcohol is a major risk factor for head and neck cancer, the mechanism by which it causes the disease is unclear, especially since pure ethanol does not act as a carcinogen in experimental models (75).
www.cdc.gov /genomics/hugenet/reviews/adh.htm   (5403 words)

  
 bibliography
Keung, W.-M., Human Liver Alcohol Dehydrogenases Catalyze the Oxidation of the Intermediary Alcohols of the Shunt Pathway of Mevalonate Metabolism.
Fong, W.P., Ho, Y.W., Lee, C.Y., Keung, W.M., Liver Alcohol and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Isozymes in a Chinese Population in Hong Kong.
Gutheil, W.G., Holmquist, B., Vallee, B.L., Purification, Characterization, and Partial Sequences of the Glutathione-Dependent Formaldehyde Dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli: A Class III Alcohol Dehydrogenase.
www.hms.harvard.edu /bbsm/bibliography.htm   (4737 words)

  
 Gene-on-gene interactions may influence risk for developing alcoholism
One variant of the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) gene — the ADH1B genotype — appears to be able to influence level of response (LR) to alcohol among non-Asians.
In addition, all participants provided a blood sample for genotyping, and were given an alcohol challenge in order to examine their LR to alcohol during a 210-minute session.
Results showed that participants with the ADH1B*1/*2 genotype had a higher LR to alcohol early in the alcohol challenge (that is, 30, 60 and 90 minutes after drinking), as measured by subjective feelings of intoxication and body sway.
www.eurekalert.org /pub_releases/2006-08/ace-gim082106.php   (695 words)

  
 Alcohol: Neurobiology and Pharmacology
The effect of the menstrual cycle on alcohol pharmacokinetics has been studied and overall there does not appear to be any effect, although the response to alcohol may be different in women during the different phases of the cycle.
Also, there are studies that show that individuals who have a low response to alcohol early in their drinking careers, which could be due to the development of tolerance, are at a greater risk for developing alcoholism later in life.
These are animals that have been bred for their preference to alcohol, and these animals consume large amounts of alcohol preferentially, and show innate differences in their limbic structures and neurotransmitter function compared to control animals or those that do not prefer to drink alcohol.
www.alcoholmedicalscholars.org /pharm-out.htm   (2760 words)

  
 eMedicine - Toxicity, Alcohols : Article Excerpt by: Ann G Egland, MD
Ethanol (ethyl alcohol) is an aliphatic alcohol present in aftershaves, colognes, perfumes, mouthwashes, over-the-counter (OTC) medications, and a myriad of alcoholic beverages.
When metabolized by hepatic alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase, methanol forms formaldehyde and formic acid, both of which are toxic.
Methanol is primarily metabolized by alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase.
www.emedicine.com /emerg/byname/toxicity-alcohols.htm   (561 words)

  
 Alcohol   (Site not responding. Last check: )
None of the 3 isoflavonoid compounds administered orally affected liver alcohol dehydrogenase or aldehyde dehydrogenase activities, as was reported for intraperitoneal administration.
The decrease in alcohol consumption was accompanied by an increase in water intake, so that the total volume of liquid consumed daily remained unchanged.
The decrease in alcohol consumption was accompanied by an increase in water intake, so that the total fluid volume consumed daily remained unchanged.
www.vitaminox.com /research/alcohol.htm   (2393 words)

  
 Serum alcohol dehydrogenase levels in patients with mental disorders.
Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) was assessed in 81 patients admitted to hospital for treatment for alcohol dependence with or without liver cirrhosis, 20 patients with bipolar disorder treated with lithium carbonate and 41 patients with various mental disorders treated with psychopharmacologic agents.
Testing the hypothesis of the arithmetic mean showed that in alcohol dependents the arithmetic mean of ADH activity (12.19 nkat/l+/-5.61) differs significantly from that in healthy subjects (4.45 nkat/l+/-2.31) and in the group with ethanol poisoning (6.24 nkat/l+/-3.65) there is none.
In our opinion, assessing ADH activity in the sera of alcohol dependents could be an additional marker advantageous to the diagnostics, course and monitoring of therapy in such patients.
bipolar.researchtoday.net /archive/2/10/956.htm   (259 words)

  
 University Health Services - iHealth - Alcohol
Alcohol will immediately be absorbed through the lining of your stomach and small intestine into the bloodstream.
Since alcohol is metabolized by your liver, you put yourself at risk for alcoholic fatty liver and cirrhosis of the liver (fatal disease).
Unfortunately, alcohol is often used as a reward after periods of high stress that have overworked the body to fatigue.
www.princeton.edu /uhs/ih_Q_A_alcohol.html   (2316 words)

  
 Alcohol Dehydrogenase  pdb code
Alcohol Dehydrogenase (ADH) is the primary enzyme responsible for the oxidation of ethanol, the fist step of ethanol elimination in humans.
The water molecule is also bonded to the hydroxyl group of Thr 48 (Ser 48) Glu 68, a conserved amino acidThis position is located 0.5 nm from the catalytic zinc ion in the crystal structure, may intermittently coordinate to the zinc ion, and it probably facilitate the exchange of zinc ligands.
Alcohol Dehydrogenase, with coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), stereospecifically catalyzes the oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde and the reduction of acetaldehyde to ethanol.
tutor.lscf.ucsb.edu /instdev/sears/biochemistry/presentations/f00_student_presentations/suhair/buttons.htm   (1054 words)

  
 Alcohol Chemistry and You
The remainder of the alcohol is not metabolized and is excreted either in the sweat, urine, or given off in one’s breath.
As mentioned above perhaps the major route of metabolism of ethyl alcohol is its oxidation in the liver catalyzed by the cytosolic enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH).
Of importance is the fact that the ability of people to oxidize ethyl alcohol is dependent upon the genetic makeup of the individual.
chemcases.com /alcohol/alc-06.htm   (744 words)

  
 Alcohol dehydrogenase
These are zinc metalloenzymes that oxidize alcohols to aldehydes or ketones.
Zinc is bound to the sulphur atoms of Cys-46 and Cys-174 and a nitrogen atom of His-67.
In the oxidation of alcohol two hydrogen atoms are removed - one to the 4-position of NAD
www.iucr.ac.uk /iucr-top/comm/cteach/pamphlets/15/node30.html   (129 words)

  
 Alcohol dehydrogenases
The strategy of all such NAD-dependent dehydrogenases is to orient the coenzyme and substrate on the enzyme surface, such that the C4 atom on the nicotinamide is directed at the reactive carbon of the substrate.
The alcohol substrate binds inside the cleft where the Zn cation is, whilst the nicotinamide ring of the NAD finds its way pointing into the cleft.
In the holo-enzyme the water molecule is replaced by the hydroxyl oxygen of the alcohol substrate, as a result of solvent exclusion upon cleft closure.
www.cryst.bbk.ac.uk /PPS2/projects/vun/LADH_master.htm   (721 words)

  
 [No title]
Alcohol dehydrogenase (EC:1.1.1.1) (ADH) catalyzes the reversible oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde with the concomitant reduction of NAD:
A number of other zinc-dependent dehydrogenases are closely related to zinc ADH [3] and are included in this family.
The sequence of quinone oxidoreductase is distantly related to that other zinc-containing alcohol dehydrogenases and it lacks the zinc-ligand residues.
www.ebi.ac.uk /interpro/IEntry?ac=IPR002085   (577 words)

  
 Alcohol Dehydrogenase
Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) is an enzyme that makes it possible for humans to drink beer, wine, and other alcoholic beverages.
However, its "real" function is thought to be the conversion of alcohol generated by bacteria in the intestine to other metabolic products.
Individuals with some mutant forms of ADH may be especially sensitve to alcohol.
algoart.com /music/adh.htm   (293 words)

  
 Alcohol Metabolism in Asian-American Men with Genetic Polymorphisms of Aldehyde Dehydrogenase -- Wall et al. 127 (5): ...
Blood alcohol concentrations measured after administration of placebo were not detectable and thus are not shown.
The mutation in the mitocnondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) gene responsible for alcohol-induced flushing increases turnover of the enzyme tetramers in a dominant fashion.
Polymorphism of alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase genes and alcoholic cirrhosis in Ch nese patients.
www.annals.org /cgi/content/full/127/5/376   (2238 words)

  
 The Way Up Newsletter : Liver Health, Hepatitis, Cirrhosis
Alcohol metabolizes to acetaldehyde which is 30 times more harmful than the alcohol itself and is directly toxic to the liver.
Women are more susceptible to liver damage from alcohol as they develop higher blood levels after drinking and have lower amounts of alcohol dehydrogenase which helps with the metabolism of alcohol.
The almost guaranteed danger dose for alcoholic hepatitis and cirrhosis for most individuals is a daily dose of 8 ounces of whiskey or its equivalents, 24 ounces of wine, or 64 ounces of beer.
www.thewayup.com /newsletters/121500.htm   (1376 words)

  
 [No title]
Alcohol dehydrogenase (EC:1.1.1.1) (ADH) catalyzes the reversible oxidation of alcohols to their corresponding acetaldehyde or ketone with the concomitant reduction of NAD:
IPR002085 Alcohol dehydrogenase superfamily, zinc-containing 21 - 350
IPR002085 Alcohol dehydrogenase superfamily, zinc-containing 16 - 349
www.ebi.ac.uk /interpro/IEntry?ac=IPR013149   (665 words)

  
 ENZYME KINETICS CONTINUED:
1) The reaction catalyzed is the oxidation of alcohol to aldehyde with the concomitant reduction of the coenzyme NAD
Intermediary metabolism is significantly perturbed due to the limitations in reoxidizing the NADH, and the consequent upsets caused by the excessive amounts of NADH (affects the cytoplasmic redox potential) as well as acidosis from increased lactate levels.
Recent studies suggest that different human populations may have different isozymes prevalent, and this may be directly connected with an individual's ability to tolerate alcohol.
www.chemistry.ucsc.edu /~fink/231/lecture16.htm   (1679 words)

  
 E.C.1.1.1.1 Alcohol dehydrogenase.
Reaction: An alcohol + NAD(+) = an aldehyde or ketone + Nadh.
Dehydrogenase was solved with one nad+ and one 4-Iodopyrazole per subunit
Structure: Alcohol dehydrogenase (ee isozyme) complexed With nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (nad), 2,3,4,5,6-Penta-fluorobenzyl alcohol, p-bromobenzyl alcohol And zinc
www.biochem.ucl.ac.uk /bsm/enzymes/ec1/ec01/ec01/ec0001/index.html   (579 words)

  
 FAQs
A: Fomepizole is a competitive inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase, which normally oxidizes ethylene glycol and methanol to their respective toxic metabolites.
Because fomepizole is considered a more effective inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase than ethanol, Antizol administration should be immediately initiated at normally recommended doses.
This assures adequate alcohol dehydrogenase inhibition without the need for monitoring serum fomepizole concentrations.
www.antizol.com /faq.htm   (827 words)

  
 Mitochondrial dysfunction and Alzheimer's disease: role of amyloid-beta peptide alcohol dehydrogenase (ABAD).
Mitochondrial dysfunction and Alzheimer's disease: role of amyloid-beta peptide alcohol dehydrogenase (ABAD).
Yan SD, Stern DM Departments of Pathology, Surgery, Taub Institute for Research on Alzheimer's Disease and the Ageing Brain, College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University, 650 West 168th Street, Black Building Rm.
Our review evaluates the potential significance of Abeta interaction with a mitochondrial enzyme termed Abeta-binding alcohol dehydrogenase (ABAD), a member of the short-chain dehydrogenase-reductase family concentrated in mitochondria of neurones.
alzheimersdisease.researchtoday.net /archive/2/5/257.htm   (305 words)

  
 Worthington Alcohol Dehydrogenase
Iweibo, I., and Weiner, H.: Role of Zinc in Horse Liver Alcohol Dehydrogenase.
Liver Alcohol Dehydrogenase with Benzyl Alcohol and Yeast Aldehyde Dehydrogenase with Benzaldehyde, Biochem 23, 5471, 1984
Wiseman, A., and Williams, N.: Thermal Inactivation of Alcohol Dehydrogenases in the Presence of NAD+ or NADP+, Biochim Biophys Acta 250, 1, 1971
www.worthington-biochem.com /ADH/default.html   (7968 words)

  
 Medical Dictionary: Alcohol dehydrogenase - WrongDiagnosis.com
Alcohol dehydrogenase : EC 1.1.1.1, EC 1.1.1.2, EC 1.1.1.71, and EC 1.1.99.8; also another name for EC 1.1.1.21, ALDEHYDE REDUCTASE, do not confuse.
The term Alcohol dehydrogenase can be used for:
The description of Alcohol dehydrogenase may also be used for the following terms:
www.wrongdiagnosis.com /medical/alcohol_dehydrogenase.htm   (232 words)

  
 ARS | Publication request: ETHANOL INDUCES AND INSULIN INHIBITS ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE CLASS 1 IN FGC-4 CELLS: BOTH ...
In the current study we have reproduced the effects of ethanol on ADH expression in cell culture and demonstrated that the mechanism of action involves interference with an insulin signaling pathway involving the transcription factor SREBP-1c.
These data are consistent with development of insulin resistance in liver cells exposed to levels of ethanol commonly found in alcoholics and may explain why alcoholics clear alcohol from the body faster than people who do not drink.
We have studied the effects of alcohol in vitro using a highly differentiated rat hepatoma cell line (FGC-4).
www.ars.usda.gov /research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=187212   (307 words)

  
 Liver Alcohol Dehydrogenase
Liver alcohol dehydrogenase is an enzyme which catalyzes a biochemical pathway.
(to view picture of Liver alcohol dehydrogenase, click on the hotlink) This enzyme exitst in two different types, ethanol active (E) and steriod active (S).
It catalyzes the reactions of aldehydes and corresponding alcohols using NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) and NADH.
www.geocities.com /Athens/Atlantis/6376   (161 words)

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