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Topic: Aleatoric music

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  Music - Open Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The definition of music as sound with particular characteristics is taken as a given by psycho-accoustics, and is a common one in musicology and performance.
Music as organized sound: One common definition of music is to label it as 'organized sound', which is determines music according to the poetic and the neutral levels (it must be composed sonorities), or more aesthetically, 'the artful or pleasing organization of sound and silence', which determines music according to the esthesic.
There is the study of sound and vibration or acoustics, the cognitive study of music, the study of music theory and performance practice or music theory and ethnomusicology and the study of the reception and history of music, generally called musicology.
open-encyclopedia.com /Music   (3251 words)

 20th century classical music - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
An important feature of 20th century concert music is the existence of the splitting of the audience into traditional and avant-garde, with many figures prominent in one world considered minor or unacceptable in the other.
Neo-classicism, in music, means the movement in the 20th century to return to a revived "common practice" harmony, mixed with greater dissonance and rhythm, as the basic point of departure for music.
One key difference between minimalism and previous music is the use of different cells being "out of phase" or determined by the performers; contrast this with the opening of Das Rheingold by Richard Wagner which, despite its use of triadic cells, has each part controlled by the same impulse and moving at the same speed.
www.bucyrus.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/20th_century_classical_music   (2677 words)

 Aleatoric music - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Aleatoric (or aleatory) music or composition, is music where some element of the composition is left to chance.
According to his definition, "aleatoric processes are such processes which have been fixed in their outline but the details of which are left to chance".
Among examples of aleatory music, Klavierstück XI by Stockhausen features a number of elements to be performed in changing sequences, certain orchestral works of Witold Lutosławski contain music where the orchestral ensemble is not precisely dictated, and in some works by Krzysztof Penderecki characteristic sequences are repeated quickly, producing a kind of oscillating sound.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Aleatoric_music   (443 words)

 Aleatoric Music   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
In aleatory music the players are encouraged to choose the sequence of movements, sections or individual chords and notes, or to improvise on a pattern or idea suggested by the composer--for example, in Ligeti's Aventures, on letters of the alphabet, and in Lutoslawski's Preludes and Fugue, on a series of lines, squares and triangles.
Aleatory music is, in conception, similar to both Far Eastern art music and to jazz and rock, all of which involve improvisation, on an agreed basis, as a feature of the performance.
His Music of Changes for piano was composed by relying on the I Ching and the tossing of coins to choose the individual notes.
web.mala.bc.ca /guppy/crew410/aleatoric_music.htm   (838 words)

 Experimental music - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
John Cage was a pioneer in experimental music and defined and gave credibility to the form.
Music in which the composer introduces the elements of chance or unpredictability with regard to either the composition or its performance.
While much discussion of experimental music centers on definitional issues and its validity as a musical form, the most frequently performed experimental music is entertaining and, at its best, can lead the listener to question core assumptions about the nature of music.
www.peekskill.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/Experimental_music   (628 words)

 Aleatory - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Aleatoric art is that which exploits the principle of randomness.
Barry Salt, now better known as a film scholar, is known to have made a film six reels long which takes the word aleatory quite literally by including a customized die for the projectionist to roll to determine the reel order (720 permutations).
In contemporary music, The Books compose in an aleatoric style, using "found sound" to add content to their works.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Aleatory   (230 words)

 Read about Music at WorldVillage Encyclopedia. Research Music and learn about Music here!   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Dane Harwood, "We must ask whether a cross-cultural musical universal is to be found in the music itself (either its structure or function) or the way in which music is made.
Music is often preserved in memory and performance only, handed down orally, or aurally ("by ear").
Musical composition is a term that describes the makeup of a piece of music.
encyclopedia.worldvillage.com /s/b/Music   (2554 words)

 Aleatoric music
Music related to the aleatoric idea may be found in works of John Cage, who was in part inspired by his friend Morton Feldman who was making experiments with chance in music in the 1950s.
The first time he used it was in the Music of Changes for solo piano in 1951, to determine the sequence of notes or groups of notes that should be used and the precise timing of their occurrences.
Douglas Hofstadter, writing in Gödel, Escher, Bach, punningly characterises some of the musical compositions of John Cage by using the acronym CAGE to stand for Composition of Aleatorically Generated Elements, in contrast to a Beautiful Aperiodic Crystal of Harmony (or BACH).
www.brainyencyclopedia.com /encyclopedia/a/al/aleatoric_music.html   (547 words)

Each aleatoric section is marked by a signal, usually a short rhythmic motive, that serves as a cue to move to the next section.
Lutoslawski mastered his use of aleatoric counterpoint to such an extant that I believe other contemporary composers are hesitant to utilize it more fully in their compositions for fear of not comparing to his standards.
Music is becoming less nationalist and more internationalist, and the difference between genres such as art music and pop music are being blurred.
www.usc.edu /dept/polish_music/harley/sascha.html   (2389 words)

 Canadian Music Centre - About the Music
or aleatoric music is music in which some element of the composition or performance is left to chance; other terminology for this technique includes ‘chance music’ and ‘indeterminate music’.
or indeterminate music is music in which some element of the composition or performance is left to chance; other terminologies used to describe this technique are ‘chance music’ and ‘aleatoric music’.
In music, Pointillism refers to a musical ‘effect’ in which the notes are heard as individual ‘dots’ or sounds rather than as a consecutive, linear progression.
www.musiccentre.ca /mus.cfm?subsection=glo   (1431 words)

 Music - Internet-Encyclopedia.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Music as sound: One common definition of music is to label it as "organized sound" or more ornately, "the artful organization of sound and silence".
Since the range of what is accepted as music varies from culture to culture and from time to time, more elaborate versions of this definition admit some kind of cultural or social evolution of music.
The commonly defined compositional and auditory aspects of music are pitch, timbre, intensity, and duration.
www.internet-encyclopedia.com /ie/m/mu/music_1.html   (2130 words)

 Perspectives on Music Fall 2000 Glossary   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
In rock music, the words usually change during the verse, but are repeated in each chorus, which often carries the title of the song.
Inversion appears periodically throughout music history; it was one of the main kinds of operations used in the twelve-tone method.
The music for the mass consists of two different elements, the proper, that part of the service which has new words each week, changing according to the liturgical calendar, and the ordinary, that part of the service which remains the same week after week.
campus.lakeforest.edu /~meyer/music104F00glossary.html   (10728 words)

 Aleatoric music Article, Aleatoricmusic Information   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Music related to the aleatoric idea may be found in works of John Cage, whowas in part inspired by his friend Morton Feldman who was makingexperiments with chance in music in the 1950s.
The first time he used it was in the Music of Changes for solo piano in 1951, to determine the sequence of notes or groups of notes that should be used and the precise timing of theiroccurrences.
Douglas Hofstadter, writing in Gödel, Escher, Bach, punningly characterises some of the musical compositions of John Cage by using the acronym CAGE to stand for Composition of AleatoricallyGenerated Elements, in contrast to a Beautiful AperiodicCrystal of Harmony (or BACH).
www.anoca.org /cage/chance/aleatoric_music.html   (434 words)

 Classical Music - A short history
The high baroque music of the eighteenth century was dominated by the genius of Bach and Handel.
Later in the century, the Classic style of Haydn and Mozart dominated the music of Western Europe, with the symphony, sonata, and string quartet predominating, and the sonata principle at the core of musical structure.
Wagner's harmonic and timbral idiom was critical for the late romantic efflorescence at the end of the century that led to the so_called end of tonality as it was generally understood in the nineteenth century.
w3.rz-berlin.mpg.de /cmp/musical_history.html   (1000 words)

 20th Century Classical   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
20th century classical music was extremely diverse, ranging from the late Romantic style of Sergei Rachmaninov, to expressionism (Berg, Webern), aleatoric music and indeterminacy (Cage), the complete serialism of Pierre Boulez, and from the simple triadic harmonies of minimalist composers such as Philip Glass to the musique concrète pioneered by Pierre Schaeffer.
Minimalism in music may be summarized as music created from small melodic, harmonic, or rhythmic ideas and using small or gradual variations to add interest to the music.
Critics find minimalistic music to be overly repetitive and empty while proponents argue that the static elements that are often prevalent draw more interest to small changes.
www.it-careernet.com /piano/20th_century_classical.htm   (1534 words)

 hss_bonds_hisofmusic_1|Chapter 23: New Currents After 1945|Objectives
The chapter closes with a section on "Postmodernism," a kind of "bookend" for the end of a century which had begun with the modernist revolution, examining the wide diversity of music styles, historical periods, influences, organizing principles, and philosophical bases that obtained at the end of the 20th century.
Sketch the interaction of technology, popular culture, musical aesthetics, and individual composers' choice which expanded the parameters and usages of electronic music in the post-War period, and discuss further developments in the areas of synthesized and computer music.
Provide a survey--an informed perspective--on the state of music at the end of the 20th century, drawing examples from a variety of genres and several different composers, and showing how music interacted with other cultural factors in the period.
wps.prenhall.com /hss_bonds_hisofmusic_1/0,7832,732415-,00.html   (361 words)

 Afrobeat - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Afrobeat is a combination of American funk rhythms fused with African percussion and vocal styles, popularized in Africa in the mid to late 1960s.
Afrobeat's most famous artist is the Nigerian multi-instrumentalist and bandleader Fela Kuti who actually coined the term, constructed the musical structure and shaped the political context of the genre.
Politics is essential to the genre of Afrobeat, since the founder Fela Kuti was deeply concerned in social criticism to pave way to social change.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Afrobeat   (507 words)

 George Rochberg's Revolution   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Serial music, with its sets, subsets, graphs, and pseudo-algebraic incantations, was a perfect artistic language for such a society—indeed, the music didn’t even have to be defended by the way it sounded at all, but rather could be justified by the numerical and graphic brilliance of its description.
Upon returning to America, Rochberg published the first study of twelve-tone music, received awards from the Guggenheim and Koussevitsky Foundations, and was appointed to the faculties of Curtis and Penn. His works were performed by the country’s major orchestras and chamber music ensembles, and he supported his compositions by highly regarded and influential essays.
It was this descent into artistic nihilism that Rochberg rejected, and it was this kind of music that he found incapable of expressing either the depth of his despair or the hope of his vision.
www.firstthings.com /ftissues/ft9806/opinion/linton.html   (2362 words)

 [No title]
Music can be written in advance of a performance by a composer or songwriter, it may also be "traditional" and handed down "by ear" from individual to individual.
Generally music which is to be performed is written as sheet music.
They may be performing music which is close to the source, also called "interpretation", or alternatively the music may be, to a large degree and made up by the performers as they go along (improvisation), though most improvisation is usually within more or less strict boundaries.
www.geocities.com /zimbabwem/writing_music.htm   (308 words)

 Deep SA-2 Aleatron   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
These aleatoric passages may be short or long in length, again decided by chance.
As is often the case with aleatrons, the behavior of the musical keyboard is unpredictable.
Three of these contacts are bridged by the fingers to introduce strange oscillator tones into the music, raising or falling in pitch depending upon which contacts are held.
www.anti-theory.com /sales/sales_gallery/2/main.html   (1385 words)

 Glossary of Musical Terms and Explanation
Aleatoric music Compositions in which factors such as pitch, duration, rhythms, dynamics, order of events, etc., are not, or not completely, specified by the composer.
Theme and variations Form in which a self-contained musical unit is presented and then followed by a series of modifications of the original material.
Twelve-tone music 20th-century system of composition in which a certain order of the twelve notes of the chromatic scale, and derivations of that order, are systematically followed throughout a work.
www.nathankramer.com /journal/musicglossary.htm   (1935 words)

 Collaborative and Experimental MIDI Page
Musical sections determined by rolling dice, it was a high number so there are a lot of sections that were written.
The various musical sections were written then assembled according to the series of dice rolls.
In this experiment the results were slightly different and caused some re-thinking of how I went about writing the music but the music wasn't much different than if I had not used quantizing.
midiworld.com /collabor.htm   (1222 words)

 ALEATRONS   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
I've come to call instruments that produce aleatoric music through the electronic process of circuit-bending aleatronic instruments, or the result of aleatronics.
This loop could be percussion instruments revolving in odd rhythm, abstract sound cycles, musical notes repeating a melody, or combinations from dense to sparse of all elements working together.
The keyboard may or may not be active during loops and aleatoric passages.
www.anti-theory.com /sales/sales_gallery/j/main.html   (1004 words)

 Bug Off! Aleatoric Music Contest   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Aleatoric Music: Music in which either composition or method of performance is determined by elements of chance or unpredictability.
The 2004 Aleatoric Music Contest entries are available for download as MP3 files.
Only those who own the rights to the music may submit their music and in the interest of a clear playing field for all, we ask that the submitted piece must be originated with this contest in mind, (please do not submit any masterpieces that you have previously labored on for many months or years).
www.synthtopia.com /news/05_01/Bug_Off_Aleatoric_Music_C.html   (400 words)

 Andrew Ackers - Free Music Downloads - MP3 Downloads - Download.com Music
Born in 1953, Andrew Ackers is the son of the composer and pianist Andrew Ackers (Andy Ackers - father) who studied at the Yale School of Music on scholarship and was one of the most popular recording artists during the 1950's and 1960's.
A student at the well-recognized Turtle Bay Music School as a child, Andrew Ackers (son) played Bach, Chopin, Mozart, Schumann, and other classical composers in a number of recitals as a student pianist and composer.
One included an experimental two-year project where as a volunteer with an Occupational Therapist he was able to teach young children with special needs who were non-verbal music and music history. The program was a form of musical therapy that used the study of musical compositions of all types to stimulate verbal and writing abilities.
music.download.com /AndrewAckers/3600-9093_32-100231422.html   (732 words)

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