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 Alexander II of Russia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Alexander (Aleksandr) II Nikolaevitch (Russian: Александр II Николаевич) (April 17, 1818, Moscow–March 13, 1881) was the Emperor (Czar) of Russia from March 2, 1855 until his assassination.
Alexander II resolved to try the effect of some moderate liberal reforms in an attempt to quell the revolutionary agitation, and for this purpose he instituted a ukase for creating special commissions, composed of high officials and private personages who should prepare reforms in various branches of the administration.
On the morning of April 20, 1879, Alexander II was walking towards the Square of the Guards Staff and faced Alexander Soloviev, a 33 year-old former student.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Alexander_II_of_Russia   (1979 words)

 Pope Alexander II - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This court, true to the practice observed by it in the preceding elections, nominated another candidate, Cadalus, bishop of Parma, who was proclaimed at the council of Basel under the name of Honorius II, marched to Rome, and for a long time threatened his rival's position.
At length, however, he was forsaken by the Germanic court and deposed by a council held at Mantua; and Alexander's position remained unchallenged.
Alexander was followed by his associate Hildebrand, who took the title of Gregory VII.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Pope_Alexander_II   (236 words)

 Alexander II   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Alexander II Eldest son of Emperor Nicholas I, Alexander was born in Moscow on April 17, 1818, and came to the throne on February 19, 1855, after the death of his father.
In 1841, Alexander II married Maria of Hessen-Darmstadt (Maria Alexandrovna).
Alexander II was buried in the Cathedral of the St. Peter and St.
www2.sptimes.com /Treasures/TC.2.3.17.html   (221 words)

 Assess the reign of Alexander II
Assess the reign of Alexander II Assess the reign of Alexander II.
Alexander II had always been greatly influenced by Zhukovsky, and following the 1848 revolutions, when Alexander was acting as Regent, even Zhukovsky, the great humanist, turned to reaction and advised the banning of the mere word 'reform'.
Alexander II was assassinated by revolutionary terrorists who mistakenly believed that his death would trigger more far-reaching reforms, but instead there was a reactionary backlash against reform.
www.pvhs.chico.k12.ca.us /~bsilva/projects/russia/Alex_II/asess_caldwell.htm   (4388 words)

 Alexander The Great - Crystalinks
Alexander was the son of King Philip II of Macedon and of Epirote princess Olympias.
At the ancient Phrygian capital of Gordium, Alexander "undid" the tangled Gordian knot, a feat said to await the future "king of Asia." According to the most vivid story, Alexander proclaimed that it did not matter how the knot was undone, and he hacked it apart with his sword.
Alexander fought an epic battle against Porus, a ruler of a region in the Punjab in the Battle of Hydaspes in (326 BC).
www.crystalinks.com /alexanderthegreat.html   (3823 words)

 Encyclopedia: Alexander II of Russia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Alexander (Aleksandr) II (Russian: Александр II Николаевич) (April 17, 1818–March 13, 1881) was the Emperor (Czar) of Russia from March 2, 1855 until his assassination.
Alexander II of Russia This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years.
Nicholas I of Russia, Alexander's early life gave little indication of his potential, and up to the time of his accession in 1855, few imagined that he would be known to posterity as a great reformer.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Alexander-II-of-Russia   (709 words)

 Alexander II Czar of Russia biography
Alexander had not been in sympathy with the reactionary course of his father.
While not a liberal, or an idealist like the first Alexander, he represented the intelligent thought of Russia and believed that a transformation was needed to place it in the first rank among nations.
This war appealed to the chivalric spirit of Alexander, who wished to be known as the Liberator Czar, because it was in a sense a crusade in behalf of the oppressed Christian peoples of the Balkans.
www.dromo.info /alexanderiibio.htm   (975 words)

 Module 2591 - Czar Alexander II - 1855 to 1881   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Alexander became Czar on the death of his father, Nicholas I, in the middle of the Crimean War.
Alexander believed that, unless the serfs were freed, there would be a serf rebellion which would prove uncontainable and the very position of the Czar would be at risk.
Alexander did not really plan to extend this much (on the grounds, no doubt, that a little learning is a dangerous thing and that seditious literature might promote revolution) but he did want to improve the quality of such education as did exist, particularly tertiary education.
www.malton.n-yorks.sch.uk /MSWeb/HistoryZone/module/2591/alexander_ii.html   (2247 words)

 Alexander II   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Alexander II Alexander II started a new period of enormous reforming efforts, as the industrial development that began already during Peter I reign continued steadily.
Unfortunately Alexander II was murdered in a bomb outrage in 1881 before he had signed the proposal.
Alexander III hated everything his father had striven for and during his reign the clock was turned backwards in time.
www.gavle.to /~t.hallqvist/english7.html   (505 words)

The decree of Nicholas II (1059) by which the right of papal elections was virtually vested in the College of Cardinals, formed the issue to be fought and decided at the next vacancy of the Apostolic Throne.
Meanwhile a deputation of the Roman nobles, who were enraged at their elimination as a dominant factor in the papal elections, joined by deputies of the unreformed episcopate of Lombardy, had proceeded to the German Court with a request for the royal sanction to a new election.
In the contest which ensued, Pope Alexander was supported by the consciousness of the sanctity of his cause, by public opinion clamouring for reform, by the aid of the allied Normans of southern Italy, and by the benevolence of Beatrice and Matilda of Tuscany.
www.newadvent.org /cathen/01286a.htm   (1010 words)

 AllRefer.com - Alexander II, czar of Russia (Russian, Soviet, And CIS History, Biography) - Encyclopedia
Alexander II 1818–81, czar of Russia (1855–81), son and successor of Nicholas I.
Prussia's support of Russia during this diplomatic crisis led to a Russo-Prussian rapprochement, and in 1872 the Three Emperors' League was formed by Russia, Prussia, and Austria-Hungary.
Meanwhile, in domestic affairs, Alexander's reforms, while outraging many reactionaries, were regarded as far too moderate by the liberals and radicals.
reference.allrefer.com /encyclopedia/A/Alexand2Rus.html   (528 words)

 History of the Monarchy > Descendants of Malcom III > Alexander III
Born in 1241, the only son of Alexander II and his second wife, Marie de Coucy, Alexander became king at the age of seven, on the death of his father.
Alexander established good relations with his brother-in-law Edward I. On 19 August 1274, Alexander and Margaret attended the coronation of her brother in Westminster Abbey.
Alexander was only 44, and so he decided that the best way to avoid a constitutional crisis was to remarry and have more sons.
www.royal.gov.uk /output/Page115.asp   (379 words)

 MSN Encarta - Alexander II (of Russia)
Alexander II (of Russia) (1818-1881), emperor of Russia (1855-1881), son of Emperor Nicholas I and nephew of Alexander I. He ascended the throne during the Crimean War and in 1856 signed the Treaty of Paris, which brought the hostilities to an end.
After establishing committees to study the need for reform, Alexander II abolished serfdom throughout Russia in 1861.
Alexander was assassinated by a bomb thrown into his carriage by a member of a revolutionary group, the Narodnaya Volya (People's Will).
ca.encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761552177/Alexander_II_(of_Russia).html   (170 words)

 Scotland's Past - Alexander I king of Scotland from 1214 - 1249   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Alexander II was a competent and energetic king who was also known as 'the Peaceful'.
Although Alexander has a reputation as a law-giver he would be more accurately described as a collector and codifier of laws.
At a meeting in 1237 at York Alexander agreed to give up claims to Northumbria in return for grants of land in northern England and Cambridgeshire.
www.scotlandspast.org /alexii.cfm   (634 words)

 Powell's Books - Alexander II: The Last Great Tsar by Edvard Radzinsky
Alexander II was Russia's Lincoln, and the greatest reformer tsar since Peter the Great.
Alexander freed 23 million Russian slaves, reformed the justice system and the army, and very nearly became the father of Russia's first constitution and the man who led that nation into a new era of western-style liberalism.
Alexander's life proves the timeless lesson that in Russia, it is dangerous to start reforms, but even more dangerous to stop them.
www.powells.com /biblio/62-074327332x-0   (593 words)

 History of the Monarchy > Descendants of Malcom III > Alexander II
Alexander was the only son of William the Lion and his wife Ermengarde.
The long-standing dispute between Scotland and England over the Border was settled in 1237 when, by the Treaty of York, Alexander renounced Scotland's claims to the three northern counties of England in exchange for the honour of Tynedale and the manor of Penrith.
Alexander died on the island of Kerrera, Argyllshire in 1249 whilst preparing to take the Hebrides from Norway.
www.royal.gov.uk /output/Page113.asp   (207 words)

 Alexander - ComingSoon.net Film Database   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Alexander led his virtually invincible Greek and Macedonian armies through 22,000 miles of sieges and conquests in just eight years, and by the time of his death at the age of 32 had forged an empire unlike any the world had ever seen.
The film chronicles Alexander's path to becoming a living legend, from a youth fueled by dreams of myth, glory and adventure to his lonely death as a ruler of a vast Empire.
Alexander is the incredible story of a life that united the Known World and proved, if nothing else, fortune favors the bold.
www.comingsoon.net /films.php?id=5937   (173 words)

 Alexander II
Alexander announced that personal serfdom would be abolished and all peasants would be able to buy land from their landlords.
Alexander's reforms did not satisfy liberals and radicals who wanted a parliamentary democracy and the freedom of expression that was enjoyed in the United States and most other European states.
Alexander was killed instantly and the explosion was so great that Grinevitski also died from the bomb blast.
www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk /RUSalexander2.htm   (2034 words)

 Macedonia FAQ: Philip II of Macedonia
Philip II of Macedonia (382-336 BC), king of Macedonia (359-336 BC), son of Amyntas II and Eurydice was born in Pella, the capital of ancient Macedonia.
But Alexander never got along well with his father, although Philip was very proud of his son Alexander, as seen in the the Bucephalus incident.
On the death of Alexander the Great he was elected king under the name of Philip III by the Macedonian army, and in 322 BC he married.
faq.macedonia.org /history/philip.html   (2236 words)

 The Russian Monarchy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Alexander II had 3 children from Princess Dolgorukaya who inherited the surname and title of their mother.
Emperor Alexander II died in 1881 when a bomb was throne at his carriage by Revolutionary terrorist I. Grinevitsky.
Following the abdication, former Emperor Nicholas II and his family were placed under house arrest and kept under guard at the Alexander Palace in Tzarskoje Selo, where, on August 14, 1917, Nicholas Romanov and his family were sent to Tobolsk.
eng.tzar.ru /history/monarchy   (1886 words)

 Alexander   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Alexander studied mathematics and physics at Princeton, where he was a student of Veblen, obtaining a B.S. degree in 1910 and an M.S. degree in 1911.
Alexander had virtually become a recluse after he retired in 1951 and the McCarthy era resulted in his disappearance from public life.
Alexander's work around this time went a long way to put the intuitive ideas of Poincaré on a more rigorous foundation.
www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk /~history/Mathematicians/Alexander.html   (810 words)

 Who had the biggest Impact on Russia – Alexander II or Alexander III?
Alexander III father, Alexander II, was also in very strong belief of an autocratic ruling just like the rulers before, and neither where prepared to sacrifice their power.
Alexander II had a long term impact over was the military.
As Alexander II was more of a liberator than Alexander III his view and ruling over other countries such as Poland where relaxed during his reign.
www.coursework.info /i/26.html   (557 words)

 Cultural Catholic - Pope Alexander II
In 1064 after much in-fighting, Pope Alexander II was formally recognized as the legitimate pope, and Honorius II was excommunicated, but never conceded, insisting until his death in 1072 that he was pope.
In 1063, Pope Alexander II passed a series of reform decrees, one of which specifically reflected the vigilance of the Patari in forbidding the laity to hear Mass of a priest who did not live a chaste life.
Pope Alexander II died of natural causes and was laid to rest in the Roman Basilica of Saint John Lateran on April 21, 1073.
www.culturalcatholic.com /PopeAlexanderII.htm   (261 words)

 Russian Lacquer Box - Alexander II   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Alexander II Nikolaevich (1818-1881), a well-educated son of the previous tsar Nicholas I, stepped to the throne in 1855.
Despite internal strife near the end of his reign that led to his assassination in 1881, Alexander II could well be considered the greatest Russian leader of the 19th century.
Alexander II was known as a physically strong and brave man, and remained that way until the very end.
www.lacquerbox.com /TSAL2.HTM   (877 words)

 Alexander II --  Encyclopædia Britannica
Alexander II, detail of a portrait by an unknown artist, 19th century; in the collection of Mrs.
Lincoln Alexander became the first African American to hold a vice-regal office in Canada when he was installed as the 24th lieutenant governor of Ontario in 1985.
Covers Alexander's reign, the battles of Granicus and Issus, the end of the Persian Empire, and Phillip II of Macedonia.
www.britannica.com /eb/article-9005597   (750 words)

 SparkNotes: The Russian Revolution (1917–1918): A Century of Unrest
Alexander II - Son of Nicholas I; abolished feudalism in 1861; assassinated in 1881
Alexander had no legitimate children, and there was confusion over which of his two brothers would succeed him.
In 1861, Tsar Alexander II, Nicholas I’s eldest son and successor, formally abolished serfdom, freeing Russia’s serfs from indenture to landowners.
www.sparknotes.com /history/european/russianrev/section1.html   (1596 words)

 2e. The Russian Empire under Alexander II [Beyond Books - Modern European History]
When Alexander II took power, Russia was an agricultural nation that had been controlled by autocratic tsars who trumpeted Slavic cultural superiority, feared liberal revolutions, and preserved the feudal injustices of serfdom.
The reign of Alexander II was marked by a flourishing cultural life.
On March 13, 1881, in the midst of this instability, Alexander II died at the hands of a Polish terrorist, thus ending a quarter century of rule that helped bring Russia into the modern age.
www.beyondbooks.com /eur12/2e.asp   (1052 words)

Bishop of Parma and antipope, born in the territory of Verona of noble parentage; died at Parma, 1072.
Twenty-eight days after Alexander's election an assembly of bishops and notables (enemies of reform), convoked at Basle by the Empress Agnes as regent for her son Henry IV, and presided over by the Imperial Chancellor Wilbert, chose as antipope the ambitious prelate of Parma, Cadalous, who assumed the name of Honorius II (Oct. 28).
The envoy, Burchard, Bishop of Halberstadt (Anno's nephew), having pronounced favourably upon the election, Alexander II was recognized as the lawful pontiff, and his rival, Cadalous, excommunicated (1063).
www.newadvent.org /cathen/03128c.htm   (514 words)

 Alexander II Math and Science Magnet School - Alexander II History   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Three years later Alexander II was established as the first magnet school in the state of Georgia.
In June 2000, Alexander II was named to the list of 11 Most Endangered Historic places by the National Trust for Historic Preservation.
The Alexander II restoration project was completed during the 2002-2003 school year while Alexander II resided at a temporary location, 1270 Birch Street.
www.bibb.k12.ga.us /AlexII/Alex2-history.htm   (336 words)

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