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Topic: Alexandrian calendar

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In the News (Tue 18 Jun 19)

 Muslim Calenda - Crystalinks
This civil calendar was derived from the lunar calendar (using months) and the agricultural, or Nile, fluctuations (using seasons); it was, however, no longer directly connected to either and thus was not controlled by them.
Because the lunar calendar was controlled by the rising of Sirius, its months would correspond to the same season each year, while the civil calendar would move through the seasons because the civil year was about one-fourth day shorter than the solar year.
Calendars in use today - the Coptic Calendar and the Ethiopian Calendar - are similar, as was the French Revolutionary calendar.
www.crystalinks.com /calendaregypt.html   (1265 words)

 History of New Year Celebrations   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
The difference of the length of the Julian calendar year from the length of the real solar year is thus 0.0078 days (11.23 minutes) in the former case and 0.0076 days (10.94 minutes) in the latter case.
The Gregorian Calendar as it came to be known as after the reforms was adopted immediately upon the promulgation of Pope Gregory's decree in the Catholic countries of Italy, Spain, Portugal and Poland, and shortly thereafter in France and Luxembourg.
Sweden adopted the Gregorian Calendar in 1753, Japan in 1873, Egypt in 1875, Eastern Europe during 1912 to 1919 and Turkey in 1927.
www.twilightbridge.com /hobbies/festivals/newyear/julian.htm   (1514 words)

 CalendarHome.com - Julian calendar - Calendar Encyclopedia
The Julian calendar was introduced in 46 BC by Julius Caesar and took force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita).
The Julian calendar was in general use in Europe from the times of the Roman Empire until 1582, when Pope Gregory XIII promulgated the Gregorian Calendar, which was soon adopted by most Catholic countries.
Russia remained on the Julian calendar until after the Russian Revolution (which is thus called the 'October Revolution' but occurred in November according to the Gregorian calendar), in 1917, while Greece continued to use it until 1923.
encyclopedia.calendarhome.com /Julian_calendar.htm   (2559 words)

 Alexandrian Circle - Friends of the UA Library
The ancient Alexandrian Library was established around 300 B.C. by the Ptolemies, a series of Greek rulers whom Alexander the Great had established in Egypt.
The ambition for the Alexandrian Library was to offer copies of every text in the world, and with a collection that peaked at approximately 600,000 works; the Ptolemies came nearer than anyone in history to achieving that goal.
The Alexandrian Library was of tremendous cultural importance, and it served many of the great scholars of its time.
www.library.arizona.edu /friends/join/alexandrian.html   (191 words)

 Coptic calendar - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
To avoid the calendar creep of the latter, a reform of the ancient Egyptian calendar was introduced at the time of Ptolemy III (Decree of Canopus, in 238 BC) which consisted of the intercalation of a sixth epagomenal day every fourth year.
The Coptic calendar has 13 months, 12 of 30 days each and an intercalary month at the end of the year of 5 or 6 days, depending whether the year is a leap year or not.
Shortly before Julius Caesar reformed the calendar, the vernal equinox was occurring on the "nominal" date of March 25.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Coptic_calendar   (1174 words)

 Egypt Calendar
The original version of the Egyptian calendar had a week of 10 days, a month of 3 weeks or 30 days, a season defined as 4 months or 120 days, three seasons equaling 360 days, which were followed by five unnamed epagomenal, or "outside the calendar," days to total 365 days in a year.
The great disadvantage of Egyptian calendars is that the number of days in the year is not 365, but rather 365.2422 days in a tropical year (the cycle of the seasons) or 365.2564 days in a sidereal year (one orbit of Earth with respect to the stars).
Egypt Calendar gives the date in the revised 365.25-day Egyptian calendar, and as names for the months were in use by the time of the reform, these month names are used instead of the season and month number.
www.atarimagazines.com /v8n3/EgyptCalendar.html   (1642 words)

 Hebrew Calendar
This figure, in a detail of a medieval Hebrew calendar, reminded Jews of the palm branches (Lulav) and the citron (Etrog) to be brought to the synagogue at the end of sukkot, closing the solemn convocations of the calendar in autumn.
Their calendar used the same epacts in nineteen year cycles that were to become canonical in the Easter computus used by almost all medieval Christians, both those in the Latin West and the Greek East.
This is done to ensure that the months of the Jewish calendar always fall in roughly the same seasons of the solar year, and in particular that Nissan is always in spring.
www.measuroo.com /rel-H/Hebrew_Calendar.php   (3594 words)

 The Ethiopic Calendar
The Ethiopic and Coptic calendars have 13 months, 12 of 30 days each and an intercalary month at the end of the year of 5 or 6 days depending whether the year is a leap year or not.
This calendar that replaced the Roman calendar (and re-established January 1 as the beginning of new years) became the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar every year that is exactly divisible by 4 is a leap year, except for years that are exactly divisible by 100; these centurial years are leap years only if they are exactly divisible by 400.
www.ethiopic.com /calendar/ethiopic.htm   (2664 words)

 Chapter 39. The Ritual of Osiris. § 2. The Official Rites. Frazer, Sir James George. 1922. The Golden Bough
In examining them it is necessary to bear in mind that on account of the movable year of the old Egyptian calendar the true or astronomical dates of the official festivals must have varied from year to year, at least until the adoption of the fixed Alexandrian year in 30
B.C. From that time onward, apparently, the dates of the festivals were determined by the new calendar, and so ceased to rotate throughout the length of the solar year.
At all events Plutarch, writing about the end of the first century, implies that they were then fixed, not movable; for though he does not mention the Alexandrian calendar, he clearly dates the festivals by it.
www.bartleby.com /196/87.html   (1711 words)

 Coins of Roman Egypt
The dating of Alexandrian coins' which persisted to the end of the series' has proved a great boon to modern scholars investigating the chronologies of some of the more obscure imperial figures.
Nero's debasement of the Roman denarius after the great fire of A.D. 64 was mirrored in the Alexandrian coinage: His last four years witnessed an intense outpouring of tetradrachms, actually a recoining of the existing currency supply (including some high-quality Ptolemaic tetradrachms still in circulation) to the new denarius standard, viz.
For its part, the original bronze coinage clearly emerged as commemorative in character: Isolated issues of drachms were struck for the decennalia of Severus Alexander; for the celebrations of Rome's millennium in years 5 and 6 of Philip I; in year 12 of Gallienus; and in the brief joint reign of Aurelian and Vabalathus.
www.coinsofromanegypt.org /html/library/NFA/NFA_91_sale.htm   (2125 words)

 EVOLUTION OF CALENDARS   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
Some civilizations invented a lunisolar calendar which basically had lunar months based on new crescent moons but were adding days or a month to be decided by priests/rabiis wherever and whenever they felt to satisfy social and religious needs to keep their calendar in phase with seasons.
Hebrew Calendar: Hebrew Calendar, promulgated by the Patriarch, Hillel II, in the mid-fourth century is a lunisolar calndar with months based on new crescent moon but adding a 13th month every so often to bring their lunisolar calendar in phase with the seasons.
Roman Calendar: About seven hundred years before Julius Caeser, Romans were observing some nominally lunar calendar, and were adding days or a 13th month at the end of their calendar year to keep their calendar in phase with seasons.
moonsighting.com /evolution.html   (1887 words)

 The Julian and Gregorian Calendars
In fact a non-Gregorian calendar reform (involving a 33-year cycle and a prime meridian running through Virginia) would have stabilized the vernal equinox at March 21 for the whole world, but this possibility (assuming it was considered by the Pope) was rejected, presumably on political grounds.
The Gregorian Calendar was adopted immediately upon the promulgation of Pope Gregory's decree in the Catholic countries of Italy, Spain, Portugal and Poland, and shortly thereafter in France and Luxembourg.
Whereas in the Gregorian Calendar a century year is a leap year only if division of the century number by 4 leaves a remainder of 0, in the Eastern Orthodox system a century year is a leap year only if division of the century number by 9 leaves a remainder of 2 or 6.
www.hermetic.ch /cal_stud/cal_art.html   (3479 words)

 Almagest Ephemeris Calculator
Although no use was made of the Alexandrian calendar in the Almagest, a provision for converting to this calendar is included as it was commonly used by later Hellenistic astronomers and astrologers.
The zodiacal calendar of Dionysius, an otherwise unknown astronomer who observed in Alexandria in the second quarter of the third century BCE, in the calendar module is based on the reconstruction of Böckh (1863) and van der Waerden (1984).
The first year of the zodiacal calendar of Dionysius is assumed to start on 26 June 285 BCE (proleptic) at sunrise and largely overlaps the first regnal year of Ptolemy Philadelphus.
www.phys.uu.nl /~vgent/astro/almagestephemeris.htm   (1933 words)

 Caesar's Calendar Changes
These changes resulted in the new Julian Calendar which converted their old nominally lunar calendar to one that was truly solar.
This was not perceived as a problem for hundreds of years, but by the middle of the sixteenth century of this era, these added minutes had accumulated to point that Christian festivals were not being observed during their original time frames.
In order to keep that calendar in phase with the solar year, 5 "epagomenal" days were observed after the twelfth month in three out of each four years.
www.12x30.net /julian.html   (608 words)

 Calendars - Numericana
To distinguish it from the ancient Egyptian calendar, which remained in use by some astronomers until medieval times, this reformed calendar is known as the Alexandrian calendar and it's the basis for the religious Coptic calendar, which the Copts [the Christians from Egypt] are still using now.
The National Calendar of India was last reformed in 1957: Its leap years coincide with those of the Gregorian calendar, but years begin at the vernal equinox and are counted from the Saka Era (the spring equinox of 79 CE).
A solar calendar should be engineered to make the long-term ratio of the number of days to the number of elapsed calendar years (365.2425 for the Gregorian calendar) as close as possible to the observed number of days in a tropical year, which is slightly less than 365.2422.
home.att.net /~numericana/answer/calendar.htm   (8131 words)

 Very brief history
Yet, the basis of all calendars are the observed periodic motion of the Sun and the Moon across the skies.
The oldest Babylonian calendar was a lunar one of 12 months consisting alternately of 29 and 30 days in accordance with these numbers.
It survives nowadays in the calendars of Coptic and Ethiopian churches.
www.math.temple.edu /~yury/calendar/node1.html   (635 words)

 From Our Editorial Consultant
So it is only fair to assume that the Julian calendar of Alexandrian origin arrived in Axum with Christianity around 330 AD.
And to claim that the Julian calendar is of Ethiopian origin is the height of crass stupidity.
For official purposes, Arabs, the Chinese, the Japanese and the Vietnamese are all using the Gregorian calendar.
www.addistribune.com /Archives/2004/10/15-10-04/From.htm   (574 words)

 Java date and time API - Coptic calendar system - Joda Time
It is sometimes referred to as the Alexandrian Calendar.
The calendar system is in use today by the Coptic Orthodox Church and by farmers tracking the seasons in Egypt.
The epoch date for the calendar is 0284-08-29 (Julian), which therefore is 0001-01-01 (Coptic).
joda-time.sourceforge.net /cal_coptic.html   (259 words)

 Alexandrian Easter | polysyllabic   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
The council decreed that Easter should be kept on the same day everywhere, and from the evidence of a surviving letter, it seems that the Alexandrian church was to make the standard calculations.
Just because the Alexandrian church was tasked with calculating Easter does not mean they continued to rely upon astronomers to supply them with the actual date of the vernal equinox.
Rome did not actually abandon their 84-year cycle or March 25th equinox (which, of course, led to periodic differences in date between the Alexandrian and Roman churches), but often they seem to have accepted Alexandrian calculations.
www.polysyllabic.com /?q=calhistory/easter/alexandrian   (245 words)

 Ethiopian Calendar
The Julian Calendar was modified to the Gregorian calendar in 1582 A.D..
The current 1994 Ethiopian Calendar (E.C.) year is equivalent to the 1718 Coptic Calendar (C.C.) and the 2001 Julian Calendar (J.C.).
After the massive killing that was so severe and traumatic the Egyptians began a new calendar called "The Martyr's Calendar" in A.D. In spite of this, the Ethiopic Calendar is closely associated with the rules and the different calculations influenced by the Coptic Church and the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahido Church.
exodus2006.worldonline.co.uk /cal.htm   (1985 words)

 Alexandrian Texts Corrupted? - Christian Forums
One of the main arguments of King James Onlyists and King James Preferred people is that the Alexandrian texts are corrupted and that only the Majority Texts are pure and trustworthy.
You have to be careful who you ask when you're talking about Alexandrian vs. the TR.
Those of us who believe in the reliability of the Alexandrian over the TR usually follow the guidelines proposed by Westcott and Hort about gauging the age and authenticity of a given text.
www.christianforums.com /t4285992-alexandrian-texts-corrupted.html   (658 words)

 CALPAK - Calendar Calculations
While there have been many calendars over the years, it is instructive to contemplate just the crazy story of our current "common" calendar.
To this day, people disagree about whether there was a year 0, although the Julian calendar was a Roman invention, and Dionysius Exiguus, who gets the blame for shifting the Julian calendar's starting date to the birth year of Christ four hundred years afterwards, didn't have an accurate idea of when that was.
People didn't agree on when the year started, so that January and February, in particular, were a little murky about which year they belonged to, and the year sometimes started around March 22, near the vernal equinox.
www.csit.fsu.edu /~burkardt/f_src/calpak/calpak.html   (5058 words)

 [No title]
Since they use the Julian calendar, which is two weeks behind the Gregorian, they celebrate holy days usually about two weeks after the Catholic Church does.
The Orthodox Church has as much continuity and tradition to lend stability as the Catholic Church does, and both appreciate beauty, show majesty, nurture contemplation, have order and are free from fads.
You can generate a calendar that is valid for most OrthodoxChurches, which still use the Julian Calendar.
www.lycos.com /info/julian-calendar--orthodox-christians.html   (324 words)

 Horoscopes from Oxyrhynchus
The calendrical data imply a year between 15 and 22; unfortunately the astronomical data are contradictory.
The positions of the heavenly bodies are hard to reconcile with any interpretation of the dates.
Marginally acceptable agreement is obtained for Alexandrian calendar dates if the 'Antoninus' of (a) is Marcus Aurelius (hence 173 February 2) whereas that of (b) is Antoninus Pius (hence 139 March 25).
www.chass.utoronto.ca /~ajones/oxy/appendC.html   (498 words)

 [No title]
Their rites, literature, ecclesiastical calendar, customs, and more important, their canons, creed and dogmas are entirely the same -- for they have all been translated from the original Greek.
The Orthodox Church accepted the Alexandrian Canon (Septuagint LXX) as divinely inspired, appropriate for reading in Church, and on a personal reading level.
The shorter or Hebrew Canon remained as the Canon par excellence, and was most valuable for giving validity to basic Christian doctrines....
www.lycos.com /info/eastern-orthodox-church--alexandrian-canon.html   (270 words)

 Golden Bough Chapter 39. The Ritual of Osiris. Section 2. The Official Rites.
SUCH, then, were the principal events of the farmer’s calendar in ancient Egypt, and such the simple religious rites by which he celebrated them.
Thus we may take it as fairly certain that from 30 B.C. onwards the Egyptian festivals were stationary in the solar year.
Again, effigies of Osiris, with faces of green wax and their interior full of grain, were found buried near the necropolis of Thebes.
www.sacred-texts.com /pag/frazer/gb03902.htm   (1590 words)

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