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Topic: Algorithmic composition


  
  Algorithmic Composition
Early algorithmic compositions were driven exclusively by collaboration between scientists and musicians; therefore, the use of scientific terminology normally associated with computer science provided a uniform understanding of the algorithm.
Given both the problem and the device, an algorithm is the precise characterization of a method of solving the problem, presented in a language comprehensible to the device.
Algorithmic solutions, therefore, are used to produce goal solutions by means of a series of tests; heuristics solve a problem by intuition and anticipation of the forthcoming data.
eamusic.dartmouth.edu /~wowem/hardware/algorithmdefinition.html   (3742 words)

  
  Science Fair Projects - Algorithmic composition
Algorithmic composition is the technique of using algorithms to create music.
Algorithms (or, at the very least, formal sets of rules) have been used to compose music for centuries; the procedures used to plot voice-leading in Western counterpoint, for example, can often be reduced to algorithmic determinacy.
Algorithmic techniques have also been employed in a number of systems intended for direct musical performance, with many using algorithmic techniques to generate infinitely-variable improvisations on a predetermined theme.
www.all-science-fair-projects.com /science_fair_projects_encyclopedia/Algorithmic_music   (547 words)

  
  Algorithmic composition - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Algorithms (or, at the very least, formal sets of rules) have been used to compose music for centuries; the procedures used to plot voice-leading in Western counterpoint, for example, can often be reduced to algorithmic determinacy.
Algorithmic techniques have also been employed in a number of systems intended for direct musical performance, with many using algorithmic techniques to generate infinitely-variable improvisations on a predetermined theme.
The copyright status of these "generative" works is unclear, although the original "composition" is supplied by the composer and the "performance" is largely the result of the user's computer's own algorithms.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Algorithmic_music   (768 words)

  
 The History of Algorithmic Composition
A second approach to algorithmic composition using the computer is that of "rule-based" systems and formal grammars: "An elementary example of a rule-based process would center around a series of tests, or rules, through which the program progresses.
This form of "algorithmic composition," thus, (using AI or genetic programming) can be seen as an extreme case, abstracting itself even from its own "algorithm" since the output it produces as well as the formal process by which it performs is automatically constructed.
These new techniques could also potentially improve algorithmic composition, it would seem, since the "critic" functions that we have seen in examples of genetic programming could gain much improvement from their insights into how humans listen to music: the computer could, then, better judge itself as to the quality of its output.
ccrma-www.stanford.edu /~blackrse/algorithm.html   (3211 words)

  
 Simple Algorithmic Composition
Algorithmic Compositions rely on (not surprisingly) algorithms to determine the features of a song.
In simple cases, an algorithm may be used to determine what notes should be played in what order.
More complex algorithms may also provide a means to specify the velocity (or volume) of a note, the speed with which it is played, and the duration for which it is held.
www.morgoth.org /projects/fractalmusic/alg_comp.html   (420 words)

  
 Automating and enhancing drum and bass with algorithmic composition and audio processing techniques   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Algorithmic composition methods are applied to the generation and manipulation of beats for dance music.
Algorithmic composition can help to automate certain processes, and to generate subtle variations on basic beats without breaking with the consistency of a style.
The producer may finetune algorithmic composition methods to be consistent with their aesthetic needs for a particular track since the models can be adapted for specific circumstances.
www.axp.mdx.ac.uk /~nicholas15/breakbeatpaper/drumandbasspaper.htm   (4231 words)

  
 Algorithmic Composition as a Model of Creativity
Algorithmic composition is the application of a rigid, well-defined algorithm to the process of composing music.
The explicit message is that algorithmic composition is invalid as a methodology, but the implicit message is that the music produced is in some sense unlike what the composer would have produced without help.
In other words, music produced by algorithmic composition is considered somehow inferior not because it was produced by an algorithm, but because it is someone else's music--it belongs to the designer of the algorithm, and not to the user of the algorithm.
www.ece.umd.edu /~blj/algorithmic_composition/algorithmicmodel.html   (3643 words)

  
 Laurie Spiegel - Random, Algorithmic, and Intelligent Music
The points she made certainly needed to be made, and as a long time practitioner of algorithmic composition, I know as well as anyone the limitations of algorithms for music.
For example, a simple non-random algorithm I've used in my music a lot is the statement "if most of the voices are playing on the left channel, put the next one I play on the right channel" (expressed in a computer language of course).
A good algorithm should be a composer's amanuensis, an invisible assistant who reaches for a knob or a note for you, knowing just what you want to do and when.
retiary.org /ls/writings/alg_comp_ltr_to_cem.html   (570 words)

  
 Algorithmic Composition
I did not know computers at that time but, as he put it, “I have composed algorithmically before I ever saw a computer.” He meant that, after working with Stockhausen, the “top-down design” of compositions was a natural for him, and computers emerged at the right time to help him carry out algorithmic designs.
Interestingly, the “sound synthesis” approach to composition thereby created was at odds with the algorithmic approach, where the emphasis had been put on the design of the score, and where the orchestra had been seen as a medium in which to articulate the score, not as an end in itself.
However, Koenig’s idea that, in working algorithmically, you take the machine’s feedback to heart and then change your input to the machine as long as you need to, in order to reach the musical goal you are pursuing in the score, is not always easy to implement these days.
www.perceptionfactory.com /workshop/Otto.htm   (987 words)

  
 C64Music!: experiments in algorithmic composition
They are the result of some simple experiments in algorithmic composition that I did on the Commodore 64.
The melody-generating algorithm is quite simple, more or less random choices out of a given set of pitches.
Because of the simple algorithm, the piece tends to become boring after a certain time when listened to “actively” - but it does not badly as background.
c64music.blogspot.com /2006/07/experiments-in-algorithmic-composition.html   (166 words)

  
 Bruce Jacob: Algorithmic Composition
The ear is evolved using genetic algorithms to become a filter approximating the way I listen to music.
Traditional compositional methodology is scrapped here, as it is very difficult to reduce to an algorithm.
It is mostly a generic argument for (or description of) algorithmic composition.
www.ee.umd.edu /~blj/algorithmic_composition   (1548 words)

  
 Karlheinz Essl: Lexikon-Sonate - algorithmic music generator
"The compositions generated by Lexikon-Sonate are surprisingly pleasant and interesting, mainly because of the ingenious manner in which tempo and volume vary and in particular due to a liberal use of pauses and silence.
Instead of being a composition in which the structure is fixed by notation, it manifests itself as a computer program that composes the piece - or, more precisely: an excerpt of a virtually endless piano piece - in real time.
As some people have misused this feature for generating musical structures to be used in their own compositions, I decided to prevent this by disabling the MIDI facility.
www.essl.at /works/Lexikon-Sonate.html   (1889 words)

  
 Algorithmic Arts Software: ArtWonk
The MIDI and general algorithmic functionality of both programs are identical, and file formats are compatible between the two programs.
View an example of ArtWonk algorithmic graphics used for scientific illustration.
Music you create with ArtWonk can stand by itself as full compositions, and it can also be imported into your notation based MIDI sequencer.
algoart.com /artwonk.htm   (731 words)

  
 Todd, P.M. (1989). A connectionist approach to algorithmic composition. Computer Music Journal, 13(4), 27-43.   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The approach to algorithmic composition based on the wedding between von Neumann computing machinery and rule-based software systems has been prevalent for the past thirty years.
This fundamental shift allows the development of new algorithmic composition methods which rely on learning the structure of existing musical examples and generalizing from these learned structures to compose new pieces.
Comparisons are made to previous methods of algorithmic composition, and examples of the network's output are presented.
www-abc.mpib-berlin.mpg.de /users/ptodd/publications/todd11/todd11.htm   (190 words)

  
 Grammar-Based Music Composition
Some compositions repeat patters that are slightly changed at each repetition, or revolve around some musical "theme" whereby complex harmonic, timing or key shifts in a basic theme provide a pleasing musical diversity.
While grammars have been a popular method for algorithmic composition, in most instances, the grammars used are relatively primitive and thus limit the scope of control and diversity of composition that can be generated.
One popular approach to computer composition is the use of Markov chains, where the probability of a specific event i is context-dependent on the occurrence of a previous event or event space.
www.complexity.org.au /ci/vol03/mccorm/mccorm.html   (5109 words)

  
 Algorithmic Composition
Creating music from fractals is an example of 'algorithmic' music composition.
Algorithmic composition refers to the process of using a formula or recipe (an algorithm) for creating music.
During computer-based fractal music composition inputs from the fractal image or fractal generating process are converted to musical parameters to create melodies, harmonies, rhythms, textures, etc. The process of converting from the 'fractal' value type into a musical parameter is called 'mapping'.
www.fractalmusiclab.com /algocomp.htm   (177 words)

  
 ArtSong Music Composition Tools Homepage
This algorithm is somewhat analogous to the chaosmapper algorithm but works with note pattern groups instead of individual notes.
The Instrumental Texture algorithm allows you to define and apply instrumental textures; groups of Tracks which can be turn on/off during composition to control generated texture.
The Envelopes Group algorithm is used to impose a definable 3-stage envelope on any composition variable contained within the group.
www.artsong.org /Features.htm   (1289 words)

  
 Cellular automata and music
However, many programmer/musicians might be unaware of an interesting area in which their vocations and avocations intersect: algorithmic music composition.
Algorithmic music composition is the application of a rigid, well-defined algorithm to the process of composing music.
I think algorithmic music composition won't have truly succeeded until it can produce not only beautiful music, but also beautiful music of a wholly different type from what we've heard before.
www-106.ibm.com /developerworks/java/library/j-camusic/?ca=dgr-lnxwj01j-camusic   (4252 words)

  
 BAIN ATMI 2003 (Miami: Presentation Page
Composer and theorist Otto Laske notes that algorithmic composition is often characterized by a parametric conceptual framework, that is, a view of the musical surface and performance in terms of the perceptual parameters of sound.
Algorithms are used to establish an isomorphism, or mapping, between number sequences and these perceptual parameters.
In this central part of the creative process of algorithmic composition, musical results are typically generated and then accepted or rejected based on their usefulness to the composer.
www.music.sc.edu /fs/bain/atmi03/index.html   (501 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: )
In this compositional process the composer determines the melody and the rhythm and transfers them to the sequencer by hand.
The computer generation of music is often referred to as algorithmic composition where the word algorithmic refers to the use of a computer program, or algorithm, to specify the music structures.
But, in spite of this, the Nord Modular IS capable of pure algorithmic composition, which can generate radically different music with little human intervention beyond setting a few parameters.
www.cim.mcgill.ca /~clark/nordmodularbook/nm_algorithmic.html   (3777 words)

  
 Music composition, composition music, music composition theory   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Algorithmic music composition is the application of a rigid, well-defined algorithm to the.
The Barlow Endowment for Music Composition was established in September of 1983 under the auspices of Milton A music composition.
The issues related to this musical composition naturally lead to illuminating practical questions from the field of combinatorics (a branch of mathematics.
www.musicalperformer.com /music-composition.html   (309 words)

  
 Techniques for Algorithmic Composition of Music   (Site not responding. Last check: )
This approach uses some technique to generate "raw materials" as a compositional base, then applies various techniques (such as permutation and geometric transformations) to further manipulate the generated material, and then applies selection rules to choose suitable material to become a composition.
Since it was written as a library of subroutines, it made the process of writing composition programs much easier, as the programmer/composer could use the routines within a larger program that suited his or her own style.
The works presented here have tended to be the sort of system in which the programmer sets up the parameters and algorithms and then says "Go!", letting the system produce a composition (or a musician) with little to no intervention or modification of the final result by programmer/composer.
alum.hampshire.edu /~adaF92/algocomp/algocomp95.html   (4748 words)

  
 Algorithmic Composition and Reductionist Analysis: Can a Machine Compose   (Site not responding. Last check: )
I experimented with different random number generators, and found that the ones that are known to be "better" produced what I thought to be better compositions, especially at the cadences, which had a habit of being monotonous.
In particular, composers of incidental music, at points where the music is relatively unimportant, could use this, as could composers for the music accompanying computer games (although a simple aleatoric segmentation algorithm will probably suffice for the latter, as has been done many times on the BBC Microcomputer).
In the case of neural networks, each "neuron" is connected to its neighbours, is stimulated by a certain threshold of signal, and, once stimulated, produces (or maybe inhibits) a certain strength of signal, these two strengths being the variables that can be "fiddled with" during "training".
www.cus.cam.ac.uk /~ssb22/clara/article.htm   (1711 words)

  
 Algorithmic Composition   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Alternatively, instrument the execution of some arbitrary algorithm (such as a fractal process, a parser/compiler, an encryption algorithm, etc.) to generate events.
Compositions will be played for and critiqued by the class on the due date.
Submit a WAV file with your composition, the source for your program, along with instructions for running it, to the Digital Dropbox on the CSUEB Blackboard site.
www.mcs.csuhayward.edu /~tebo/Classes/3860/algo.html   (103 words)

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