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Topic: Alkyl halide

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  Halide - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A halide is a binary compound, of which one part is a halogen atom and the other part is an element or radical that is less electronegative than the halogen, to make a fluoride, chloride, bromide, iodide, or astatide compound.
Metal halides are used in high-intensity discharge lamps called metal halide lamps, such as those used in modern street lights.
Alkyl halides are organic compounds of the type R-X, containing an alkyl group R covalently bonded to a halogen X. Pseudohalides resemble halides in their charge and reactivity; common examples are azides NNN-, isocyanate -NCO, Isocyanide, CN-, etc.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Halide   (246 words)

Alkyl halide compounds are mostly dense liquids and solids that are insoluble in water.
Alkyl fluorides tend to be less reactive than other alkyl halides, mainly due to the higher strength of the C-F bond.
The reactivity of alkyl halides is dominated by the attack of nucleophiles at the carbon atom that bears the halogen atom.
www.chem.usyd.edu.au /~george/halides.html   (433 words)

 Glencoe Online Science Quiz Chapter
The boiling point of the alkyl halide is lower, and the density of the alkyl halide is lower.
The boiling point of the alkyl halide is lower, and the density of the alkyl halide is higher.
The boiling point of the alkyl halide is higher, and the density of the alkyl halide is higher.
www.glencoe.com /qe/scienceOLC.php?qi=6307   (318 words)

 Process for preparing alkyl .alpha.-keto-carboxylic acids from alkyl halides - Patent 4738802
Alkyl halides suitable for use in the present process are linear or branched alkyl halides having from 1 to about 20 carbon atoms, although higher alkyl halides can be used, if desired.
For example, alkyl halides are formed when alcohols react with either inorganic acid halides or with hydrogen halides under appropriate reaction conditions.
Although not wishing to be bound by theory, it is believed that the alkyl halide compound undergoes a reaction with the carbon monoxide and basic substance whereby the salt of the alkyl.alpha.-keto-carboxylic acid is formed from which the keto-carboxylic acid is isolated after acidification in a known manner.
www.freepatentsonline.com /4738802.html   (2472 words)

 Firehouse.Com HazMat Zone - The Street Chemist - The "Street Chemist" Part-8
Alkyl halide is the first of the hydrocarbon derivative families.
Alkyl halides are either flammable or toxic; there are however, some, which are neither flammable nor overly toxic.
Alkyl halide compounds can also be named using the halogen name first and the hydrocarbon radical second.
www.firehouse.com /training/hazmat/chemist/2002/5_chemist.html   (1082 words)

 Alkyl Halide Reactivity
The functional group of alkyl halides is a carbon-halogen bond, the common halogens being fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine.
Because of this, alkyl fluorides and fluorocarbons in general are chemically and thermodynamically quite stable, and do not share any of the reactivity patterns shown by the other alkyl halides.
Alkyl halides in which the alpha-carbon is a chiral center provide additional information about these nucleophilic substitution reactions.
www.cem.msu.edu /~reusch/VirtualText/alhalrx1.htm   (2578 words)

 Alkyl Halides - Chemistry Professor - Organic, Inorganic, High School, College, Chemistry Tutor - ChemistryProfessor.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Alkyl Halides introduces the structure of the halogenated hydrocarbons, their common uses, nomenclature, physical properties, preparations, and reactions.
Of the three types of alkyl halides to be studied, the aromatic and vinyl halides will be addressed in other units.
The uses and characteristics of selected alkyl halides such as Fluorocarbon 11, the trichloroethanes, and halothanes are specifically mentioned.
chemistryprofessor.com /alkyl_halides.htm   (531 words)

 Alcohol - Alkyl Halide Unknown
Alkyl halides have a few IR absorptions characteristics that distinguish them from alkanes, but they are not reliable.
For the present identification of the alcohol or alkyl halide, note and interpret splitting features if they are apparent in your spectrum.
Compare the reactivity of your unknown with known alkyl halides (you may have notes on this from a previous experiment).
science.csustan.edu /almy/3012/AlcoholAlkylHalideF98.htm   (2941 words)

 Alkyl Halide Reactivity
The halogen is converted to halide anion, and the carbon bonds to the metal (the carbon has carbanionic character).
For alkyl lithium formation pentane, hexane or ethyl ether may be used; but ethyl ether or THF are essential for Grignard reagent formation.
A useful application of these reagents is their ability to couple with alkyl, vinyl and aryl iodides, as shown in the second equation.
www.cem.msu.edu /~reusch/VirtualText/alhalrx4.htm   (1426 words)

 Process for producing .alpha.-(tert-Alkyl) cyanoacetic acid ester - Patent 5726342   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
An amount of the di(lower alkyl)aluminum halide is normally within the range from 0.5 to 2 mol, based on 1 mol of the cyanoacetic acid ester.
The step (a) is normally conducted by adding the di(lower alkyl)aluminum halide to the cyanoacetic acid ester with stirring, followed by continuous stirring, alternatively conducted by adding the cyanoacetic acid ester to the di(lower alkyl)aluminum halide with stirring, followed by continuous stirring.
An amount of the tert-alkyl halide is normally within the range from 0.5 to 2 mol, based on 1 mol of the cyanoacetic acid ester.
www.freepatentsonline.com /5726342.html   (1993 words)

 Nucleophilic Substitution
In alkyl halides this mechanism is not available since there is no carbon-oxygen pi bond to break and reform.
The energy required to boost the nucleophile and the alkyl halide to the transition state energy level is called the activation energy.
Since the bond between the carbon and the leaving group is being broken in the transition state, the weaker this bond is the lower the activation energy and the faster the reaction.
chemistry2.csudh.edu /rpendarvis/SN2.html   (1647 words)

 Haloalkane - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A haloalkane, also known as alkyl halogenide, halogenalkane or halogenoalkane, and alkyl halide is a chemical compound derived from an alkane by substituting one or more hydrogen atoms with halogen atoms.
Alkyl halides can be synthesized from alkanes, alkenes, or alcohols.
This OH is a nucleophile with a clearly negative charge, as it has excess electrons it donates them to the carbon, which results in a covalent bond between the two.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Alkyl_halide   (3746 words)

 Alkyl Halides
Next in our cavalcade of organic compounds is a class of compounds which have single bonds and which contain the elements carbon, hydrogen, and any of the halogens (chlorine, bromine, iodine, and fluorine).
The alkyl represents one of the alkyl groups which is bonded to a halogen and the halide represents the halogen.
The functional group for an alkyl halide is the halogen atom.
dl.clackamas.cc.or.us /ch106-01/alkyl.htm   (127 words)

 Alkyl Halide Reactivity
For most simple alkyl halides, however, it is proper to envision a balanced transition state, in which there has been an equal and synchronous change in all the bonds.
We noted earlier that carbon-carbon double bonds are stabilized (thermodynamically) by alkyl substituents, and that this stabilization could be evaluated by appropriate heat of hydrogenation measurements.
Having discussed the many factors that influence nucleophilic substitution and elimination reactions of alkyl halides, we must now consider the practical problem of predicting the most likely outcome when a given alkyl halide is reacted with a given nucleophile.
www.cem.msu.edu /~reusch/VirtualText/alhalrx3.htm   (2621 words)

 Nucleophilic Substitution & Elimination
For secondary alkyl halides either pathway is possible, and we have to look at other information to make a decision.
The effect of this is that alkyl halides which have carbon-carbon pi bonds located one atom away from the carbon bearing the halogen are quite reactive in S
This is a somewhat idealized situation, since in practice the halide leaving group is "loitering" near one lobe of the p orbital.
chemistry2.csudh.edu /rpendarvis/SN1Elim.html   (2034 words)

 Alcohol - Alkyl Halide Unknown
For the present identification of the alcohol or alkyl halide, you need to note and interpret a few simple features of splitting, if they are apparent in your spectrum.
Its integral may be the only sure way to determine if your alcohol or alkyl halide is primary, secondary or tertiary.
Alkyl halides - the Beilstein test: Heat the end of a copper wire to redness in the oxidizing flame (inner cone) of a burner until the flame is no longer colored; let the wire cool slightly and dip it into a sample of the liquid and then reheat.
wwwchem.csustan.edu /chem3012/AlcoholAlkylHalideF98.htm   (3176 words)

 The Organometallic HyperTextBook: Metal Alkyl Complexes
Transition metal alkyl complexes play a critical role in a variety of important organometallic reactions such as olefin polymerization and hydroformylation.
Simple alkyls are simple sigma donors, that can be considered to donate one or two electrons to the metal center depending on which electron counting formalism you use.
Another type of unusual alkyl group involves agostic interactions in which part of the alkyl substituent coordinates to the metal in addition to the M-C bond.
www.ilpi.com /organomet/alkyl.html   (949 words)

 Chapter 7 Notes
alkyl halide: a compound containing a halogen atom
the densities of liquid alkyl halides are greater than those of hydrocarbons of comparable molecular weight
Grignard reagents are formed by reaction of an alkyl halide
chem.pdx.edu /~wamserc/C334F99/7notes.htm   (1049 words)

 E1 Reactions   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Tertiary halides in the presence of a moderately strong base at elevated temperature will undergo E1 elimination since the formation of the carbocation in the first rate determining step of the E1 mechanism involves a very stable tertiary carbocation.
Since the rate determining step is the first one involving only the organic alkyl halide, the reaction is first order in respect to the alkyl halide concentration.
The rate of the regular alkyl halide will be the same as the rate of product formation of the deuterated substrate.
members.aol.com /logan20/e1.html   (505 words)

 VPL Experiment 8
In your laboratory notebook, draw a Lewis structure of the alkyl halide assigned to you (hereafter referred to as your alkyl halide).
The alkyl halide is soluble in the solvent system, even at room temperature.
Compare your results with those of a team that used your alkyl halide but a different base or different solvent system or both.
creegan.washcoll.edu /VPL8.html   (426 words)

 SN2 Reactions
That is, these reactions have "rate laws" that show the direct dependence of the reaction rate on the concentrations of both the alkyl halide and the nucleophile:
By doing rate studies, and first finding that the rate was proportional to the concentration of both the nucleophile and the alkyl halide, chemists were then able to determine that the slow step in these reactions must involve an encounter between these two species.
2 displacement almost surely implies a concerted (one-step) reaction mechanism, involving "back side" bond formation between the nucleophile and the alkyl halide, 180 degrees away from the halogen-to-carbon bond that is breaking concomitantly.
www.personal.psu.edu /faculty/t/h/the1/sn2.htm   (613 words)

 Alkyl halides, super hydrogen production and the pathogenesis of pneumatosis cystoides coli -- Florin 41 (6): 778 -- Gut
Chloral and trichloroethylene are alkyl halides chemically similar to chloroform, a potent inhibitor of H
These alkyl halides with molecular masses from 119 Da (chloroform) to 165 Da (chloral hydrate) are chemically similar.
In conclusion, exposure to chloral hydrate or related alkyl halides such as trichloroethylene is an important cause of super
gut.bmjjournals.com /cgi/content/full/41/6/778   (3583 words)

 Glencoe Online Science Quiz Chapter
In general, what can you conclude about the boiling points and densities of alkyl halides when compared to the corresponding unsubstituted alkanes?
Alkyl halides contain functinal groups; aryl halides do not.
In a substituted alkane that has a bromine atom and an iodine atom as functional groups, which functional group is named first?
www.glencoe.com /qe/scienceOLC.php?qi=8892   (317 words)

 Alkyl Halides   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
If the crystallizing dish in the upper-right corner is moved into the center of the projector, however, the color of the bromine slowly disappears.
This can be explained by noting that alkanes react with halogens at high temperatures or in the presence of light to form alkyl halides.
The light source in an overhead projector is intense enough to initiate this reaction, although the reaction is still significantly slower than the addition of Br to an alkene.
chemed.chem.purdue.edu /genchem/topicreview/bp/2organic/alkyl.html   (944 words)

 Iverson's CH610A/ Fall 97 - POTD: 11/25/97
To determine the type of reaction that occurs with an alkyl hailide you must first analyze the alkyl halide.
More specifically, you must determine the accessibility of the alkyl halide for a potential backside attack if considering the S
2 mechanism but not as readily or quickly as the methyl alkyl halide or a primary alkyl halide.
www.chem.tamu.edu /organic/Fall98/subst.html   (663 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Purpose: Reference/Procedure: Results and Conclusions: Part 1: SN2 Reactivity Indicate the type of alkyl halide (primary, secondary, tertiary).
SN1 Reactivity Indicate the type of alkyl halide (primary, secondary, tertiary).
Then rank the alkyl bromides in terms of decreasing reactivity with silver nitrate in ethanol (fastest = 1, slowest = 3) StructureType of alkyl halideReactivity with ethanol and AgNO31-bromobutane2-bromobutane2-bromo-2-methylpropaneExplain how the structure of the alkyl halide affects the rate of an SN1 reaction.
web.uccs.edu /chemistry/orglab/expt8.1/expt8.1rept.doc   (424 words)

 Alkyl Halides   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
This page begins the attempt of this author to offer some notes that have previously been found on Alkyl Halides.
Alkyl Halides undergo two major kinds of reactions:
Whenever Nucleophilic Reactions occur, often Elimination reactions will compete so that it is possible to get two products, one involving a substitution and one involving Elimination.
members.aol.com /logan20/halides.html   (235 words)

 Chapter 4 : Alkyl Halides   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
In a similar fashion to alcohols, alkyl halides are described as primary (1
The polar bond creates a molecular dipole that raises the melting points and boiling points compared to alkanes.
The alkyl halide functional group consists of an sp
library.tedankara.k12.tr /carey/ch4-2.html   (130 words)

 Expt. 4.1:  Synthesis of an Alkyl Halide from an Alcohol   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
4.1:  Synthesis of an Alkyl Halide from an Alcohol
Experiment 4.1: Synthesis of an Alkyl Halide from an Alcohol
You do not need to turn these in, but they may be similar to questions you will see on the exams.
www.uccs.edu /~laugenst/chem333/Expt_4_1.htm   (296 words)

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