Factbites
 Where results make sense
About us   |   Why use us?   |   Reviews   |   PR   |   Contact us  

Topic: Alkylating agents


Related Topics
DNA

  
  CancerQuest : Closer Look : Genotoxic Agents
Alkylating agents work by three different mechanisms all of which achieve the same end result - disruption of DNA function and cell death.
In the first mechanism an alkylating agent (represented in the figure below as a pink star) attaches alkyl groups (small carbon compounds-depicted as pink triangles) to DNA bases.
The third mechanism of action of alkylating agents is the induction of mispairing of the nucleotides leading to mutations.
www.cancerquest.org /index.cfm?page=486   (228 words)

  
 Alkylating Agent
Alkylating agents work to add alkyl groups to negatively-charged groups.
Because alkylating agents are nonspecific in action — and can attack healthy cells as easily as tumorous ones — it is critical that the agent be applied locally, targeting the tumor.
Cyclophosphamide is one alkylating agent, and is also an immunosuppressive.
www.iscid.org /encyclopedia/Alkylating_Agent   (219 words)

  
 Spartanburg SC | GoUpstate.com | Spartanburg Herald-Journal   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Alkylating agents are organic chemicals that transfer alkyl groups to other molecules, the process being called alkylation.
Alkylating agents are widely used in chemistry because the alkyl group is probably the most common group encountered in molecules.
Alkylating agents are routine reagents in the synthesis of many pharmaceuticals.
www.goupstate.com /apps/pbcs.dll/section?category=NEWS&template=wiki&text=alkylating_agent   (376 words)

  
 Chemotherapy / Types of Chemotherapy Drugs
Alkylating agents were among the first anti-cancer drugs and are the most commonly used agents in chemotherapy today.
Alkylating agents act directly on DNA, causing cross-linking of DNA strands, abnormal base pairing, or DNA strand breaks, thus preventing the cell from dividing.
Alkylating agents are generally considered to be cell cycle phase nonspecific, meaning that they kill the cell in various and multiple phases of the cell cycle.
training.seer.cancer.gov /module_cancer_treatment/unit3_chemo3_drug_types.html   (696 words)

  
 Dorlands Medical Dictionary
Such agents are cytotoxic, producing their effects by the scission and cross-linking of DNA chains, and are not cell cycle–specific, but cell killing occurs primarily in rapidly proliferating tissues in which there is not time between mitoses for DNA repair systems to reverse the effects of the agent.
Hematopoietic, reproductive, and epithelial tissues are particularly sensitive to alkylating agents, and their use may cause depressed blood cell counts, amenorrhea or impaired spermatogenesis, damage to intestinal mucosa, alopecia, and increased risk of malignancy.
Agent Orange a herbicide and defoliant containing 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T and the contaminant dioxin which is suspected of being teratogenic and possibly carcinogenic.
www.mercksource.com /pp/us/cns/cns_hl_dorlands.jspzQzpgzEzzSzppdocszSzuszSzcommonzSzdorlandszSzdorlandzSzdmd_a_19zPzhtm   (2344 words)

  
 MUSC HEM/ONC JOURNAL CLUB REVIEWS   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The antitumor alkylating agents are the most widely used anticancer drugs, being major components of the combination chemotherapy regimens for disseminated solid tumors and for high-dose/stem cell support treatment regimens.
Mechlorethamine (HN2; nitrogen mustard) is the prototype antitumor alkylating agent.
Phosphoramide mustard, which is a bifunctional alkylating species, is believed to be the active anticancer agent from cyclophosphamide, acrolein, which is excreted intact in the urine, is believed to be responsible for the cystitis caused by cyclophosphamide.
hcc1.musc.edu /hemonc/alkylati.htm   (3779 words)

  
 cc10
The very recent experimental evidence has shown that alkylating agents produce their effects through the inter-chain bonding of the N7 atom of guanine on one strand of DNA and the N7 of the guanine on the opposite strand.
This agent causes the fragmentation of the DNA molecule and interferes with RNA and DNA synthesis.
This is an antibiotic isolated from the broth of a strain of Streptomyces, and acts as an alkylating agent of both DNA and RNA, causing alkylation of crossed bonds of DNA.
www.iptq.com /cc10.htm   (6015 words)

  
 Chemotherapy
In that sense, the first modern chemotherapeutic agent was Paul Ehrlich's arsphenamine, an arsenic compound discovered in 1909 and used to treat syphilis.
It was reasoned that an agent that damaged the rapidly growing white blood cells might have a similar effect on cancer.
Alkylating agents are so named because of their ability to add alkyl groups to many electronegative groups under conditions present in cells.
www.mesothelioma-cancers.org /Chemotherapy.html   (2425 words)

  
 NEJM -- The DNA-Repair Gene MGMT and the Clinical Response of Gliomas to Alkylating Agents
NEJM -- The DNA-Repair Gene MGMT and the Clinical Response of Gliomas to Alkylating Agents
The DNA-Repair Gene MGMT and the Clinical Response of Gliomas to Alkylating Agents
Inactivation of the DNA-repair gene MGMT and the clinical response of gliomas to alkylating agents.
content.nejm.org /cgi/content/full/344/9/686   (1544 words)

  
 Alkylating Agents - The Merck Veterinary Manual
Alkylation can result in miscoding of DNA strands, incomplete repair of alkylated segments (which leads to strand breakage or depurination), excessive cross-linking of DNA, and inhibition of strand separation at mitosis.
Polyfunctional alkylating agents typically cause strand cross-linking and inhibition of mitosis with consequent cell death.
Decreased permeation of alkylating agents and increased activity of DNA repair systems are also common mechanisms of resistance.
www.merckvetmanual.com /mvm/htm/bc/191702.htm   (541 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The major similarity among the alkylating agents is the cytotoxic element of the molecule, an immonium ion (-N-CH2CH2-).
As a class, the alkylating agents are cytotoxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic.
Alkylating agents may contain 1 or 2 reactive groups and are referred to as monofunctional or bifunctional, respectively.
www.zzcat.com /TumorTidbits/Alkylating-Agents.txt   (441 words)

  
 ACS :: What Are the Different Types of Chemotherapy Drugs?
Alkylating agents directly damage DNA to prevent the cancer cell from reproducing.
As a class of drugs, these agents are not phase-specific (in other words, they work in all phases of the cell cycle).
These agents damage cells during the S phase and are commonly used to treat leukemias, tumors of the breast, ovary, and the gastrointestinal tract, as well as other cancers.
www.cancer.org /docroot/ETO/content/ETO_1_4X_What_Are_The_Different_Types_Of_Chemotherapy_Drugs.asp?sitearea=ETO&viewmode=print&   (1030 words)

  
 MIT Biological Engineering Division
Alkylating agents represent an abundant class of chemical DNA damaging agent in our environment and they are toxic, mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic.
Since we are continuously exposed to alkylating agents, and since certain alkylating agents are used for cancer chemotherapy, it is important to understand exactly how cells respond when exposed to these agents.
Specifically, we have: (i) produced transgenic and knock-out mice with altered DNA repair capabilities and are now measuring their susceptibility to alkylation toxicity; and (ii) transferred DNA alkylation repair genes to bone marrow cells to determine whether such gene therapy could confer a useful level of extra resistance in the bone marrow of chemotherapy patients.
web.mit.edu /be/people/samson.htm   (742 words)

  
 Alkylating Agents and Residual Alkylating Agent - AAL
The analysis of alkylating agents is required in fields such as environmental studies, chemical weapons, toxicology, oncology, and pharmaceutical quality control.
An alkylating agent is a compound that substitutes an alkyl group, CnH2n+1, for an active hydrogen atom in an organic compound.
The determination of residual alkylating reagents in pharmaceuticals is currently attracting the interest of the regulatory authorities, both in Europe and in the United States.
www.test-lab.com /pharmaceutical/alkylating_agents.htm   (255 words)

  
 Failure of alkylating agents to improve induction chemotherapy of oropharyngeal squamous cell cancer.
Failure of alkylating agents to improve induction chemotherapy of oropharyngeal squamous cell cancer.
This prospective semi-randomized study was undertaken to assess the effects and effectiveness of alkylating drugs in a preoperative setting.
This may be a late side-effect caused by the immunosuppressive and myelosuppressive effect of alkylating agents.
www.galenicom.com /medline/article/15330214/au:Olasz+L   (294 words)

  
 Alkylating Agents - Chempedia
Alkylating agents are one class of chemotherapeutic drugs used to treat cancer, a disease characterized by uncontrolled cell division and tumor development due to damaged DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid).
Alkylating agents counteract cancerous cell division by cross-linking the two DNA strands in the double helix so that they cannot separate.
The drug carmustine is one example of a chemotherapeutic alkylating agent that is commonly used to treat Hodgkin\’s disease, meningeal leukemia, and brain tumors.
dopamine.chem.umn.edu /chempedia/index.php?title=Alkylating_Agents&printable=yes   (788 words)

  
 Anticancer Chemotherapy
This is thought to be the most important reason for the cytotoxic effect of alkylating agents.
Thirdly, the alkylating agent may split the base ring from the nucleotide which again interrupts proper DNA and RNA synthesis.
Finally, the alkylating agent may break the ring structure of a nucleotide base which would prevent base pairing during DNA and RNA synthesis.
www2.uic.edu /stud_orgs/prof/m2005/courses/pharmacology/studyaids/Anti-cancer.html   (1541 words)

  
 ATSDR - MMG: Blister Agents: Sulfur Mustard Agent H or HD; and Sulfur Mustard Agent HT
Although these agents cause cellular changes within minutes of contact, the onset of pain and other clinical effects are delayed for 1 to 24 hours.
Sulfur mustards are alkylating agents that may cause bone marrow suppression and neurologic and gastrointestinal toxicity.
Sulfur mustards are vesicants and alkylating agents; however, the biochemical mechanisms of action are not clearly understood.
www.atsdr.cdc.gov /MHMI/mmg165.html   (5631 words)

  
 alkylating agents - General Practice Notebook   (Site not responding. Last check: )
An alkylating agent is a compound that substitutes an alkyl group, Cn H 2n+1, for an active hydrogen atom in an organic compound, with DNA as the principal target.
Alkylating agents were developed from mustard gas in 1946.
Commonly used alkylating agents include busulphan, melphalan, cyclophosphamide, chlorambucil, thiotepa, ifosfamide and mustine (nitrogen mustard).
www.gpnotebook.co.uk /cache/-1167392768.htm   (137 words)

  
 vgn-ext-hidden_PubMed   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Distinct responses of xenografted gliomas to different alkylating agents are related to histology and genetic alterations.
A series of 12 human gliomas was established as xenografts in nude mice and used to evaluate the relationship between histology, genetic parameters, and response to alkylating agents.
Chemosensitivity of xenografts to four alkylating agents, temozolomide (42 mg/kg, days 1-5, p.o.), 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (5 mg/kg, day 1, i.p.), Ifosfamide (90 mg/kg, days 1-3, i.p.), and carboplatin (66 mg/kg, day 1, i.p.) was tested by administration of drugs to tumor-bearing mice.
www.plwc.org /portal/site/ASCO/menuitem.a3fb42726842a82627c4c291ee37a01d/?vgnextoid=d70b3608f9958010VgnVCM100000f2730ad1RCRD&index=n&pmid=15231677   (310 words)

  
 Abstract for Reference 6 of 'Mechanism of action and general toxicity of cyclophosphamide and chlorambucil in ...   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Although the alkylating agents were amongst the first non-hormonal compounds to be shown to be active against malignant cells they still rank as some of the most valuable cytotoxic drugs available for the treatment of patients with leukaemia and lymphoma.
In the first report describing the use of alkylating agents in clinical practice the problem of drug resistance was recognised.
A greater understanding of the mode of action and mechanisms of resistance to alkylating agents should enable the development of modulators capable of the restoration of sensitivity to resistant cells, and the more effective use of these well established drugs.
patients.uptodate.com /abstract.asp?TR=tx_rheum/6326&viewAbs=6&title=6   (253 words)

  
 Alkylating Agents and Residual Alkylating Agent - AAL
The analysis of alkylating agents is required in fields such as environmental studies, chemical weapons, toxicology, oncology, and pharmaceutical quality control.
An alkylating agent is a compound that substitutes an alkyl group, CnH2n+1, for an active hydrogen atom in an organic compound.
The determination of residual alkylating reagents in pharmaceuticals is currently attracting the interest of the regulatory authorities, both in Europe and in the United States.
www.atlanticanalytical.com /pharmaceutical/alkylating_agents.htm   (253 words)

  
 Alkylating Agents
The most frequent type of chemotherapy used in bone marrow transplant conditioning regimens are the group of drugs known as alkylating agents.
Alkyating agents are cell cycle non-specific and can be used at any point in the growth cycle of the cancer cell.
In addition to the alkylating agents, periodically the antimetabolite methotrexate is given as part of research protocols that measures the effects of methotrexate and reducing the severity of graft versus host disease.
www2.mc.duke.edu /depts/hospital/9200bmt/ABMT29.htm   (135 words)

  
 Sensitization of Human Carcinoma Cells to Alkylating Agents by Small Interfering RNA Suppression of 3-Alkyladenine-DNA ...
Sensitization of Human Carcinoma Cells to Alkylating Agents by Small Interfering RNA Suppression of 3-Alkyladenine-DNA Glycosylase -- Paik et al.
Sensitization of Human Carcinoma Cells to Alkylating Agents by Small Interfering RNA Suppression of 3-Alkyladenine-DNA Glycosylase
One of the major cytotoxic lesions generated by alkylating agents
cancerres.aacrjournals.org /cgi/content/abstract/65/22/10472   (299 words)

  
 Canine Cancer Chemotherapy
Unlike other chemotherapy agents, suppression of blood cell production by the bone marrow is not considered to be a substantial problem with this medication.
Alkylating agents work by binding DNA strands so that the double helix cannot “unzip” and replicate.
Alkylating agents as a group have had problems with side effects.
www.caninecancerawareness.org /html/CanineCancerChemotherapy.html   (4483 words)

  
 Chemical Warfare Gases
All of these compounds can alkylate thiols to form alkyl sulfides, substances known to be substrates for the monooxygenase.
It seems odd that other alkylating agents used to treat cancer are almost uniformly carcinogenic, themselves.
The key to long-term survival on the other hand may be immune stimulation after the "anti-neoplastic" agents have cleared the system, such as that provided by the vitaletheine modulators, to increase immunological screening for any tumor cells that may have escaped the alkylating therapy and any new tumors that may result from the alkylating therapy.
www.vitaletherapeutics.org /vtlwargs.htm   (1035 words)

  
 MOPP and Other Combined Chemotherapy Including Alkylating Agents (Suppl7)
Some reports have shown increased risk after intensive chemotherapy [ref: 10], and the plausibility of a relationship is further suggested by multiple case reports of second malignancies that are unusual because of their rarity, either at an age [ref: 33] or on an absolute basis [ref: 9,24,31].
Combined chemotherapy containing alkylating agents for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma may also lead to ANLL [ref: 34-37], although the reports are not consistent and the documentation is less complete.
Intensive combination therapy including alkylating agents for small-cell carcinoma of the lung [ref: 39,40], and possibly for cancer of the testis [ref: 41], may increase the risk for ANLL.
www.inchem.org /documents/iarc/suppl7/mopp.html   (1744 words)

Try your search on: Qwika (all wikis)

Factbites
  About us   |   Why use us?   |   Reviews   |   Press   |   Contact us  
Copyright © 2005-2007 www.factbites.com Usage implies agreement with terms.