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Topic: Allied invasion of Italy

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  Allied invasion of Sicily - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The invasion of Sicily involved primarily the following nations: The British Commonwealth and United States as the Allied landing force and Italy and Germany as the Axis forces defending the island.
It could also act as a precursor to the invasion of Italy, although this was not agreed by the Allies at the time of the invasion, the Americans in particular resisting commitment to any operation which might conceivably delay the invasion of France.
The Allied command was forced to reconsider their use of Airborne forces after the many misdrops and the deadly friendly fire incident.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Operation_Husky   (1432 words)

 Allied invasion of Italy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Popular support in Italy for the war was declining, and he believed that an invasion would remove Italy from the war, thus removing the influence of the Regia Marina in the Mediterranean Sea and opening it to Allied traffic.
Joint Allied Forces Headquarters AFHQ were operationally responsible for all allied land forces in the Mediterranean theatre and it was they who planned and commanded the invasion of Sicily and the Italian mainland.
The invasion of Sicily in July 1943 (Operation Husky) was highly successful, although many of the Axis forces there were allowed to avoid capture and escape to the mainland.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Allied_invasion_of_Italy   (1274 words)

 Operation Avalanche (World War II) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Operation Avalanche was the codename for the landings near the port of Salerno, executed on 9 September 1943, part of the Allied invasion of Italy.
Its primary objectives were to seize the port of Naples to ensure resupply, and to cut across to the east coast, trapping the Axis troops further south.
Allied pilots slept under the wings of their fighters in order to beat a hasty retreat to Sicily in the event German forces broke the beachhead.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Operation_Avalanche_%28World_War_II%29   (483 words)

 10. The Invasion of Italy, 1943-1944. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Allied bombing planes wrecked Naples, and, after repeated warnings, attacked railway terminals and military objectives in Rome (July 20).
Half of Sicily was occupied, the Allied front stretching from Catania to Mazzara.
The campaign had cost the Allied armies an estimated 22,000 casualties, the Axis forces 167,000.
www.aol.bartleby.com /67/2617.html   (316 words)

 Encyclopedia: Allied invasion of Italy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Allied Forces Headquarters was the headquarters that controlled all Allied forces in the Mediterranean theatre from late 1943 to the end of the war.
At the end of 1943, following the Allied invasion of Italy Allied forces were bogged down at the Winter Line, a defensive line across Italy south of the psychologically important objective of Rome.
Allied intelligence thought that five or six German divisions were in the area.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Allied-invasion-of-Italy   (381 words)

Allied victory in Sicily had resulted in the overthrow of Mussolini's government, and the capitulation of Italy was only a matter of negotiation and time.
The Italian surrender resulted in German evacuation of the islands of Sardinia and Corsica, gave the Allies the Italian Navy, and, in effect, made Italy a co-belligerent with the Allies.
The Allied force, although reduced in strength by the necessity to relinquish some divisions for use in France, initiated a drive in September that broke the Gothic Line after a three-month campaign.
www.worldwar2history.info /Italy   (939 words)

 Wide Angle. Printable Pages | PBS
The next decades of politics in Italy were characterized by frequent changes in premiers and administrations, factional struggles between the country's political parties, and the prominence of the Christian Democrat party.
Though Italy's rise to become a strong manufacturing nation brought a measure of prosperity to the nation during the 1950s, the 1960s and 1970s witnessed an era of social upheaval in the country.
Though Italy's political parties were becoming polarized, the mid-1960s saw a coalition form under the Christian Democrat Aldo Moro in order to address the nation's economic downturn.
www.pbs.org /wnet/wideangle/printable/berlusconi_timeline_print.html   (1114 words)

 The Invasion of Italy September 9, 1943 - May 8, 1945
Italy would represent frustration and death for thousands of Allied soldiers in a bitter stagnated fight.
Allied bombers, in a controversial move, reduced the ancient landmark to rubble in an attempt to wipe out the supposed German defenders, who actually had guaranteed the abbey’s safety.
The thousands of soldiers who never returned form the mud of Italy’s battlefields are as much a testament to Allied ignorance as to their own courage and bravery.
www.worldwar2database.com /html/italy43_45.htm   (905 words)

 S-mine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The first Allied forces to encounter the S-mine were French soldiers who were attempting minor probes into the coal-rich German Saar region from September 7th through the 11th, 1939, during what is known as the Phony War.
Nazi Germany used the S-mine heavily during the defense of its occupied territories and the German homeland during the Allied invasions of Europe and North Africa.
S-mines were deployed on the beaches of Normandy in preparation for the D-Day invasion, as part of a general program of heavy mining and fortification.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/S-mine   (2085 words)

 WWII Campaigns: Sicily
The two Allied leaders also were anxious to exploit the momentum of their impending victory in North Africa, and the mass of men and materiel that would be available in the Mediterranean at the conclusion of the North African campaign made additional operations in that theater attractive.
Although overshadowed by the Normandy invasion a year later, Operation HUSKY was actually the largest amphibious operation of World War II in terms of the size of the landing zone and the number of divisions put ashore on the first day of the invasion.
The failure of Allied air and naval forces to interdict the Strait of Messina was due in large part to the fact that neither Eisenhower nor his principal air, land, and sea commanders had formulated a coordinated plan to prevent the withdrawal of Axis forces from the island.
www.army.mil /cmh-pg/Brochures/72-16/72-16.htm   (7851 words)

 USAF Museum - WWII Combat Europe   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
On June 11th when Allied forces began landing on Pantelleria, the military governor surrendered the island and the only Allied casualty among the assaulting troops was a British infantryman who was nipped by a local donkey.
By late afternoon, the Allies had flown some 450 bombing sorties plus four "nickeling" missions in which surrender leaflets were showered on the town and airfield.
When the invasion of Sicily began on July 10th, Allied aircraft based at Pantelleria and Lampedusa provided support to the amphibious forces and increased aerial protection to the Allied sea route from Gibraltar through the Mediterranean.
www.wpafb.af.mil /museum/history/wwii/ce7.htm   (326 words)

Allied resolve to attack the Italian mainland was strengthened by the 25 July 1943 announcement that King Victor Emmanuel III had removed Benito Mussolini from power and appointed Marshal Pietro Badoglio to replace him.
Allied heavy bombers, diverted from attacks on strategic targets in Germany, interdicted German units and supplies flowing toward the beachhead and struck German units in assembly areas and attack positions.
The Allies had bases in southern Italy from which to launch strategic air attacks on the Balkans and Germany, the Mediterranean was secure, and German divisions were tied down in Italy opposing the Allied 15th Army Group and holding those areas in northern Italy, France, and the Balkans previously garrisoned by their former Italian allies.
www.army.mil /cmh-pg/brochures/naples/72-17.htm   (8923 words)

 Ops - Middle East_P
- The allied invasion of Southern France, 15 August 1944.
As a result of overwhelming German superiority and the failure of the Greeks to allocate suitable airfields to the RAF during the severe winter, British forces were forced to withdraw to Crete by the end of April 1941.
- The Anglo-American Invasion of Tunisia and Morroco, November 1942.
www.rafweb.org /Ops_ME.htm   (425 words)

 SparkNotes: World War II (1939–1945): North Africa and the Invasion of Italy
The war in North Africa was essentially an adventure initiated by Italy in an attempt to seize former colonial territories of Britain and France.
Although Italy officially surrendered to the Allies on September 8, 1943, the Allied invasion of Italy proceeded as planned, as there were still a large number of German forces stationed in the country.
All of Italy’s actions were undertaken at the whim of its dictator, Mussolini, whose decisions became so erratic and potentially costly that his own underlings eventually decided to overthrow him.
www.sparknotes.com /history/european/ww2/section11.rhtml   (1335 words)

 Salerno: Preparations for Invasion
If we could knock Italy out of the war, we would force the Germans to retreat north of the Alps or to use in Italy armies which might be fighting on the Russian front.
Furthermore, the invasion forces would have to establish a beachhead on the narrow Salerno plain, which is commanded by lofty mountains.
Highway 18, the coastal road, and Highway 18, which was to be the chief German route of approach from the south and cast, meet at Battipaglia on the mountain slopes north of the Sele.
www.army.mil /cmh-pg/books/wwii/salerno/sal-prep.htm   (3847 words)

 Italian Campaign   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
It was clear that the Italian people were becoming less enthusiastic about their participation in the war, and it was hoped that an invasion would knock them out of the war, providing at least a major propaganda blow.
The elimination of Italy as an enemy would also enable the Royal Navy to completely dominate the Mediterranean Sea, massively improving communications with Egypt, the Far East, the Middle East and India.
The American staff however believed that a full scale invasion of France as soon as possible was necessary to end the war in Europe, and that no operations should be undertaken which might delay that.
www.sciencedaily.com /encyclopedia/italian_campaign   (290 words)

 What Did You Do in the War, Grandma?: Timeline
Italy declares war on Britain and France, and U.S. President Roosevelt announces a shift from neutrality to "non-belligerency," meaning more active support for the Allies against the Axis.
Allied B-29 bombers can reach Tokyo from Saipan, thus the capture of the island will be a turning point in the Pacific war.
As Allied lines fall back, a "bulge" is created in the center of the line, giving the battle its familiar name (see MAP).
www.stg.brown.edu /projects/WWII_Women/NewTimeline.html   (3310 words)

 Western Front   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The invasion fleet, which had been assembled from all the north European ports and rivers but had suffered heavily from RAF attacks, was dispersed at the end of September and never reassembled.
The Allies, whose intelligence had brought them word of Hitler's first plan, did not press their advance from the south with all dispatch, and therefore allowed Kesselring the time he needed for his fortification of a 'Winter Line' spanning the peninsula along the Sangro and Garigliano rivers.
This was the codename for the Allied invasion of southern France, 15 August 1944.
www3.sympatico.ca /ergrenier/West.html   (10287 words)

 AFS in WW2. Italy. Winter '44-45. The Gothic Line.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
It was the Allied intention to hasten the enemy's withdrawal as much as possible and to attack the Gothic Line before he had opportunity to complete its defences.
In grand dimension therefore the Allied attack would be a straight left plus a left hook, with a ponderous right swing reaching for the left hook's mark.
In the invasion, and on the Russian front, we had the great advantage of air and armor superiority where here in the mountains this is of too little advantage.
www.ku.edu /carrie/specoll/AFS/4/e/4e4b2.html   (3463 words)

 WW2 German Code Names
Plan for disarming of Italians on Allied invasion of Italy, September 1943.
Alert for the Allied invasion of the Continent from either the English Channel or the Mediterranean coast
Proposed invasion of Iceland in conjunction with SEELOWE.
www.geocities.com /CapitolHill/Congress/2106/secret/codeger.htm   (572 words)

 CBC News Indepth: Ortona
On Sept. 3, 1943, the Allied landing force left the Sicilian ports of Catania, Augusta and Syracuse for landing beaches between Taormina and Messina.
At this point, the Allied advance ran into a heavily fortified and defended German line running across Italy from Ortona in the east to Cassino in the west, blocking all roads to Rome.
The next Allied objective was the strategic industrial heartland of northern Italy and the German's last fortified defencs there, the Gothic Line.
www.cbc.ca /news/background/ortona   (1643 words)

 Bookreporter.com - MIDNIGHT IN SICILY by Peter Robb
All are components of the rich and storied culture of Italy and all come together in Peter Robb's marvelously imaginative MIDNIGHT IN SICILY.
Using the criminal trial of some of Sicily's most notorious Mafiosi as his centerpoint, Robb interweaves the various strands of his subjects into a seamless tapestry that leaves the reader with a voyeuristic fascination, combining fear of what one may find with a paralyzing inability to look away.
After the Allied invasion of Italy, however, two Italian-born mobsters helped the Mafia regain power.
www.bookreporter.com /reviews/0375704582.asp   (668 words)

 Harold L Rinard
The next Ranger action was the allied invasion of Italy at Salerno.
  While the war in Italy ground to a muddy stalemate in the hills and valleys of Italy, the Rangers were used as ordinary frontline troops and did not require the Ranger's unique skills.
To help resolve the stalemate in Italy, the invasion of Anzio, Italy, just south of Rome on the western coast, was planned.
www.flashman.com /HaroldRinard.html   (1000 words)

 SPWW2 random battles
Britain, Canada or the U.S. vs Germany or Italy.
ANZAC, Britain, France or the U.S. vs Germany or Italy.
Japan vs the U.S. or U.S.M.C. The Japanese invasion of the Dutch East Indies
www.geocities.com /favouritegames/spww2_battles.html   (145 words)

 - Battles in Italy Review - Page 1 - The Gamers Temple
Battles in Italy uses the Decisive Battles of World War II engine to provide war gamers with a chance to recreate the Allied invasion of Italy.
The invasions of Anzio, Salerno, and Sicily are all included, so you can try to recreate the Allied successes or change history by pushing the invasion back into the sea as the Axis.
Battles in Italy is a traditional war game in that it sticks closely to the turn-based chit and hexagon style of play established years ago by board-based war games.
www.gamerstemple.com /games8/001028/001028r01.asp   (555 words)

 channel4.com THE BATTLE FOR ITALY
Some of the Allied commanders disagreed about the whole point of the campaign in Italy, were confused and divided and, at times, badly mishandled the battle.
At the core of the fight was a bitter five-day siege of an ancient castle on the slopes of the mountain.
Well-written article by Dr Robert M Browning Jr about the Allied invasion of Italy at Salerno in September 1943, primarily from the view of the US Coast Guard contingent.
www.channel4.com /history/microsites/B/battle_for_italy   (750 words)

 Invasion of Italy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Planning for the invasion, begun on 27 July, committed the American 5th Army under General Mark Clark, and the British 8th under Montgomery to the enterprise.
The latter was to cross the Straits of Messina and advance through Clabria o join hands witht he 5th (which also included the British 10th Corps) after it had landed at Salerno.
It was saved chiefly by the fire support of the naval bombardment force and the Allied air forces, which broke up the final German attacks on 14 September.
expage.com /page/west17   (386 words)

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