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Topic: Altruism

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In the News (Tue 21 May 19)

  Biological Altruism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
If altruism is to evolve, it must be the case that the recipients of altruistic actions have a greater than average probability of being altruists themselves.
The theory of reciprocal altruism, developed by Trivers (1971), is one attempt to explain the evolution of altruism among non-kin.
If by ‘real’ altruism we mean altruism done with the conscious intention to help, then the vast majority of living creatures are not capable of ‘real’ altruism nor therefore of ‘real’ selfishness either.
plato.stanford.edu /entries/altruism-biological   (5863 words)

  Altruism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Altruism focuses on a motivation to help others or a want to do good without reward, while duty focuses on a moral obligation towards a specific individual (for example, God, a king), a specific organization (for example, a government), or an abstract concept (for example, country etc).
Ayn Rand argued that altruism is the willful sacrifice of one's values, and represents the reversal of morality because only rationally selfish ethics allow one to pursue the values required for human life.
Altruism was central to the teachings of Jesus found in the Gospel.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Altruism   (2857 words)

 Altruism (ethics) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Altruism is an ethical doctrine that holds that individuals have an ethical obligation to help, serve, or benefit others, if necessary at the sacrifice of self interest.
The word "altruism" (French, altruisme, from autrui: "other people", derived from Latin alter: "other") was coined by Auguste Comte, the French founder of positivism, in order to describe the ethical doctrine he supported.
Altruism is often seen as a form of consequentialism, as it indicates that an action is ethically right if it brings good consequences to others.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Altruism_(ethics)   (692 words)

Altruism is a code of ethics which hold the welfare of others as the standard of "good", and self-sacrifice as the only moral action.
The unstated premise of the doctrine of altruism is that all relationships among men involve sacrifice.
The difference is that to be "good" according to Altruism, one must hand out blank checks to all who claim a need; while according to Egoism, ones own life is one's ultimate standard of value against which all acts must be analyzed.
www.importanceofphilosophy.com /Evil_Altruism.html   (202 words)

 Altruism - EvoWiki   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Altruism may reasonably be defined as acting to benefit others at one's expense.
Altruism is not quite as spectacular at the organism level, but it nevertheless happens in abundance.
The occurrence of altruism is a seeming paradox for Charles Darwin's mechanism of natural selection, because its natural consequence is a sort of universal selfishness.
wiki.cotch.net /wiki.phtml?title=Altruism   (1365 words)

 The Evolution of Altruism
Altruism is the deliberate sacrifice of a portion of an individual’s reproductive capacity in order to increase that of another.
Although the problem of altruism was largely ignored by early evolutionary theory, over the past several decades it has risen to become a central issue in the debate over the level at which natural selection operates - whether that be the level of the gene, individual, kin group, or even an entire population.
Altruism is one of the great mysteries of social behavior in animals, as it appears to contradict our understanding of natural selection.
endeavor.med.nyu.edu /~strone01/altruism.html   (3896 words)

Death through altruism appears to be more common in the world than death through aggression by a member of the same species.
Biologists usually define "altruism" as behavior of an animal that is risky–perhaps deadly–for that animal, but benefits other members of its community.
Although there are differences in opinion, it is generally believed that animal altruism exists and survives as a behavior pattern because there is some reproductive advantage to the group.
www.wavecrestdiscoveries.com /articles/altruism.htm   (552 words)

 Give Until It Hurts: Altruism and Advertising
Altruism is contrary to the normal purpose of advertising, to convince the individual that acquiring a certain product or service will benefit that individual.
Altruism is easier to link to self-esteem for women, since for many women self-esteem is related to a sense of connectedness rather than competition.
The world view that altruism can instill in the minds of the recipients is one that accords with that of the donor: in return for the donor's aid, the recipient is expected to agree with the donor's world view.
www.wsu.edu:8080 /~taflinge/altruism.html   (2953 words)

 ScienceDirect - Journal of Economic Psychology : What is altruism?*1   (Site not responding. Last check: )
There are three major interactional (rationalistic) theories of altruism, viz., "egoistic," "egocentric," and "altercentric." I call them "interactional" because, despite their differences, they model action after the standard economic approach, viz., as the outcome of optimization (see [Khalil, 2003b]).
Altruism also entails the lowering of one's welfare (fitness), which may explain why many authors confuse it with acts of honesty (e.g., [Andreoni, 1995b]; [Loubergé and Schlesinger, 1988]).
The lumping of altruism with duty entails that, e.g., professors make (or should make) their tenure and promotion decisions according to the sympathetic criterion they use when they give a colleague, whose car broke down, a ride home.
www.towson.edu /~jpomy/behavioralecon/whatisaltjepsyfeb04.html   (12437 words)

 Faith and Force: The Destroyers of the Modern World
The basic principle of altruism is that man has no right to live for his own sake, that service to others is the only justification of his existence, and that self-sacrifice is his highest moral duty, virtue and value.
The irreducible primary of altruism, the basic absolute, is self-sacrifice -- which means: self-immolation, self-abnegation, self-denial, self-destruction --- which means: the self as a standard of evil, the selfless as the standard of the good.
So long as altruism was their moral ideal, men had to regard capitalism as immoral; capitalism certainly does not and cannot work on the principle of selfless service and sacrifice.
freedomkeys.com /faithandforce.htm   (5658 words)

 Altruism: the Real Evil - Joe Duarte - Eclectica Magazine v3n2
Altruism is the moral code at the base of socialism.
The term "altruism" was coined by the nineteenth century advocate of totalitarianism Auguste Comte.
Altruism has such a commanding hold on the field of ethics that it is not simply regarded as one particular code of morality, but as synonymous with morality.
www.eclectica.org /v3n2/duarte_salon.html   (1282 words)

 American Renaissance
Altruism toward family members aids the survival and reproduction of people who share one’s own genes; hence, genes succeed in their goal of propagating themselves when people are generous to their close kin.
The current prevalence of racial altruism in elite white culture is due to a shift in the beneficiaries of competitive altruism.
The direction of competitive altruism changed as a result of the power struggle that emerged in the 1960s and ‘70s between two segments of the American elite and gave rise to what became known as the liberal “New Class,” primarily employed in the public sector, and the business community.
www.amren.com /compaltruism/compaltruism.html   (6154 words)

The representative exponent of English altruism is Herbert Spencer.
These associated experiences are recorded in the brain, and by hereditary transmission, and accumulation in successive generations they finally become certain faculties or moral intuitions, which we mistake for the voice of a superhuman authority.
Lastly, the solution of the difficulty arising from the conflict between egoism and altruism is deferred to a future ideal state in which egoism, though transfigured, will be supreme.
www.newadvent.org /cathen/01369a.htm   (1637 words)

 Website Design In Malaysia.
Ferco Seating signs up Altruism to relaunch their online brand identity that speaks "comfort" when it comes to seat manufacturing.
Altruism takes on task to execute the launch of a brand new website revamp for Dominant Semiconductors a dynamic Malaysian Corporation that is among the world's leading SMT LED Manufacturers.
Altruism was entrusted by Vision New Media Group to redesign and execute the corporate website that portrays image, quality and reputation of the new media content giant in the broadcasting industry.
www.altruism.com.my   (351 words)

 Kin Selection and the Evolution of Altruism
Remember from the previous lecture that altruism refers to actions of one individual (an altruist) that increase the survival and reproduction of another individual, the recipient of altruism, and decrease the survival and reproduction of the altruist.
Altruism can evolve, therefore, not because it increases the survival and reproduction of the individual who expresses the trait of altruism (since this individual has decreased reproduction) but because it is reproduced by kin of that individual who have, but do not express, the alleles for altruism.
To be passed from generation to generation, the allele for altruism must occur in the recipient and must be passed on.
www.utm.edu /departments/cens/biology/rirwin/391/391KinSel.htm   (1674 words)

It's interesting to note, in what is to be a written exchange on the value of altruism and charity, that Sartre doesn't actually get around to talking about helping others until he finishes a lengthy, seven-paragraph jeremiad on the evils of government "forcing" free men to help those less fortunate.
The core reasoning for intrusive intervention into the affairs of Free Men is the false notion that Altruism is a desired goal for society to implement.
But Altruism is not defined as an individual and voluntary choice.
quicksitebuilder.cnet.com /sartrejp/TWINS/id13.html   (2503 words)

 Encoding Altruism
“Altruism in the long run is predicated on eternal life, and science can say nothing about eternal life,” says John Dwyer, an author and retired professor of theology at St. Mary’s College of California, in Moraga, where he taught a course in “Faith and Science.” The quest for transcendence defines humanity.
Sociobiological explanations of altruism invariably depict humans acting selflessly, but in such a way that furthers survival of their species, nation, race, or family.
Given that we revere altruism, that it may represent humans at their best, and that the idea could be understood scientifically, astronomers, psychologists, theologians, and physicists are working to express altruism in the digital language of ones and zeroes.
www.science-spirit.org /article_detail.php?article_id=235   (2684 words)

 Altruism - What Is It?
Altruism is the abdication of claims of power over others.
The most effective counter to the spread of altruism is the modern money system, since it is responsible for an unnatural transactional mentality.
By uniting altruists everywhere, coordinating local acts of altruism in a coherent fashion, the world could finally understand the power of getting back to our altruistic roots and escaping from Win-Lose thinking.
www.altruists.org /about/altruism   (1310 words)

 The KLI Theory Lab - keywords - altruism
Keywords: altruism • biological models of the firm • change • ecology • equilibrium • evolutionary ethics •; fitness •; group selection • Lamarckism • mutualism • optimization • population biology •; selfishness •; social Darwinism •; sociobiology • teleology • utility.
Khalil, E.L. Beyond self-interest and altruism: A reconstruction of Adam Smith's theory of human conduct.
Keywords: aesthetic judgement • altruism • Aristotle • beauty • Darwin •; epistemological pessimism • evolutionary aesthetics •; genes • immanence • instinct • mind •; morality • nature • Nietzsche •; philosophy of science •; politics •; reason • survival • transcendence.
www.kli.ac.at /theorylab/Keyword/A/altruism.html   (651 words)

 Spectrum One: Individualism vs Altruism
Undeniable examples of altruism exist among families (in a strong form) and among communities (in a weaker form).
Reciprocal altruism means helping someone out who needs it, with the understanding that the favor may be returned at some distant, unspecified date in the future, whenever the altruist happens to need it.
Which means that if the poor try to restore the missing altruism of the rich by recreating it themselves, they see even less of their paychecks than under ordinary circumstances, which deepens their overall poverty.
www.huppi.com /kangaroo/L-spectrumone.htm   (2963 words)

 Amazon.com: Altruism: Books: James R. Ozinga   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Altruism, understood as doing something for someone else at some cost to oneself, is contrasted with selfishness.
Altruism is considered an environmental addition to the human character, often seen as naivete.
Ozinga argues that altruism is a natural part of human nature is not just found in a few rare people--that it has evolutionary value and is exhibited in some manner by everyone.
www.amazon.com /exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0275967352?v=glance   (902 words)

 Objectivism In-Brief: Altruism
Rand defined altruism as the principle ``that man has no right to exist for his own sake, that service to others is the only justification of his existence, and that self-sacrifice is his highest moral duty, virtue, and value.''
Although altruism claims to be based on ``love'' for man-kind, in practice altruism leads to suffering.
If you accept altruism as the ``good,'' then to the extent that you achieve, you are left with the nagging feeling that you should be doing more to help others, e.g., by working in a soup kitchen or some other such activity.
rous.redbarn.org /objectivism/Writing/InBrief/altruism.html   (359 words)

 Science & Theology News - Religions on Altruism   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Altruism is one of the pillars, called zakat, which means purification through giving.
Ultimately, Islamic altruism is a way to make a person less materialistic and more concerned with the plight of others who are less fortunate.
Every hurt relieved or suffering assuaged or hope supported or aspiration realized by means of altruistic action realizes divine action in the world in a unique way, because it is focused on the other, who is a child of God, in his own image and likeness.
www.stnews.org /Altruism-2545.htm   (1415 words)

 Lamson Library
The Heart Of Altruism : Perceptions Of A Common Humanity
Altruism And Economy : A Study In Non-selfish Economics
Affluence, Altruism, And Atrophy : The Decline Of Welfare States
www.plymouth.edu /library/opac/subjkey/altruism   (94 words)

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