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Topic: Amniote


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  Evolution of the Amniote Brain
The earliest amniotes were the Captorhinida, which eventually gave rise to modern amniotes (reptiles, birds, and mammals).
Dorsal thalamic nuclei in amniotes which receive ascending visual input from the retina receive such input either directly (as in the thalamofugal or lemnothalamic pathway) or indirectly via the tectum (as in the tectofugal or collothalamic pathway).
Common to amniote forebrain organization is that ascending sensory information is relayed through dorsal thalamic nuclei to parts of both the pallium and subpallium.
www.pigeon.psy.tufts.edu /avc/husband/avc2amnt.htm   (3508 words)

  
  Amniote Paleobiology: Perspectives on the Evolution of Mammals, Birds, and Reptiles | LibraryThing
Amniote Paleobiology: Perspectives on the Evolution of Mammals, Birds, and Reptiles
Amniote Paleobiology: Perspectives on the Evolution of Mammals, Birds, and …
A collaborative effort of twenty-four researchers, Amniote Paleobiology presents thirteen new and important scientific perspectives on the evolution and biology of this familiar group.
www.librarything.com /work/1468012   (249 words)

  
  AMNIOTE : Encyclopedia Entry
Amniotes develop directly into a (typically) terrestrial form with limbs and a thick stratified epithelium, rather than first entering a feeding larval tadpole stage followed by metamorphosis as in amphibians.
In amniotes the transition from a two-layered periderm to cornified epithelium is triggered by thyroid hormone during embryonic development, rather than metamorphosis [1].
The first amniotes looked like small lizards, for instance Casineria kiddi who lived for about 340 million years ago, and their eggs were small and covered with a membrane, not a hard shell like often seen today.
www.bibleocean.com /OmniDefinition/Amniote   (629 words)

  
 Amniote - Biocrawler   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The amniotes are a group of vertebrates that have an amnion during embryonic development.
There are three main lines of amniotes, which may be distinguished by the structure of the skull and in particular the number of temporal fenestrae (openings) behind the eye.
The skeletal remains of amniotes can be identified by their having at least two pairs of sacral ribs and an astragalus bone in the ankle.
www.biocrawler.com /encyclopedia/Amniota   (225 words)

  
 Amniote: Definition and Links by Encyclopedian.com
...Amniote Amniote Amniotes Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum:...Aves (birds) The amniotes are a group of vertebrates, comprising the mammals, birds, and...
The amniotes are a group of vertebrates, comprising the mammals, birds, and various other groups collectively referred to as reptiles.
There are three main lines of amniotes, which may be distinguished by the structure of the skull and in particular the number temporal fenetrae (openings) behind the eye.
www.encyclopedian.com /le/Lepidosauria.html   (240 words)

  
 amniote - The Wordbook Encyclopedia
The amniotes are a taxon of tetrapod vertebrates that include the Synapsida (mammals and mammal-like reptiles) and Sauropsida (reptiles and dinosaurs, including birds).
In amniotes the transition from a two-layered periderm to cornified epithelium is triggered by thyroid hormone during embryonic development, rather than metamorphosis [http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/100/4/1769].
One can assume the ancestors of the amniotes laid their eggs in moist places, as such modest-sized animals wouldn't have too many difficulties in finding depressions under fallen logs or other suitable places in the ancient forests, and dry conditions were probably not the main reason why the soft shell emerged.
www.thewordbook.com /amniote   (681 words)

  
 NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Visual system   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Such similarities include: the importance of the tectum as a visual structure for maintaining topographic representation of sensory space, and the possession of dorsal thalamic zones in both birds and mammals which receive ascending visual input from the retina either directly (lemnothalamic pathways) or indirectly (via the tectum, as in the collothalamic pathways).
Visual processing beyond the retina is discussed with comparisons between the collo- and lemno-thalamic visual pathways in amniote brains.
From the pineal eyespot under the skin of amphibians to capabilities of the primate eye, the evolution of visual functions are driven by the content of the photic stimulus (i.e., wave and particle properties of light) and the physical and biochemical constraints of living organisms.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Visual-system   (749 words)

  
 * Amnion - (Biology): Definition
One of the four amniote extraembryonic membranes; derived from the somatopleure (combination of ectoderm and somatic mesoderm)...
amniote lineage The evolutionary lineage of vertebrates leading to modern reptiles, birds, and mammals.
An egg that can be laid on land due to the presence of a fluid-filled amniotic sac (amnion) that cushions and protects the developing embryo; amniote- n.
en.mimi.hu /biology/amnion.html   (302 words)

  
 Phylogeny and Classification of Amniotes
The phylogeny of early groups of amniotes has been in a state of flux in the last few years, but the first phylogeny based on a data matrix was published in the eighties (Gauthier et al., 1988).
The pineal foramen of most other amniotes is located close to the mid-length of the interparietal suture, or slightly anterior to this (Fig.
In most other amniotes, the cranio-quadrate space (the space between the braincase and the quadrate ramus of the pterygoid) is narrow and the paroccipital process and the quadrate ramus of the pterygoid converge posterolaterally (Fig.
tolweb.org /accessory/Phylogeny_and_Classification_of_Amniotes?acc_id=462   (2073 words)

  
 Dr. Stuart S. Sumida
My research focuses on the structure, function, and evolution of fossil animals near the amphibian to amniote transition; animals that are found in sediments of late Pennsylvanian and early Permian age (approximately 270 to 300 million years old) -- animals nearly 100 million years older than the earliest known dinosaurs.
Groups of particular interest include the advanced tetrapod groups Seymouriamorpha and Diadectomorpha, the primitive amniote lineage Synapsida (the lineage that ultimately lead to mammals), and the most primitive of reptiles.
Amniotes and their near relatives from the Paleozoic of southeastern Utah with comments on Lower Permian biogeography.
biology.csusb.edu /sumida.htm   (504 words)

  
 Tetrapods and Amniotes
What is classically referred to the amphibia is a paraphyletic group including the ancestors of the amniotes as well as the ichthyostegids which were ancestral to all the tetrapods.
The amniote egg is like a space ship for the embryo, containing all the necesary life support systems.
The amniotes have been primarily classified by the arrangements of holes in the skull with respect to the skull bones.
faculty.weber.edu /bdattilo/fossils/notes/amniot.html   (817 words)

  
 Palaeos Vertebrates 190.400  Reptilomorpha: Cotylosauria
The only other amniotes around were a few basal synapsids.
Sauropsida: All amniotes closer to snakes than to St. Patrick.
Reptilia; Class Reptilia; Reptiles; Phylogeny and Classification of Amniotes; Photogallery: Reptilia \ Amphibia.
www.palaeos.com /Vertebrates/Units/190Reptilomorpha/190.400.html   (886 words)

  
 Phylogeny and Classification of Amniotes
The phylogeny of early groups of amniotes has been in a state of flux in the last few years, but the first phylogeny based on a data matrix was published in the eighties (Gauthier et al., 1988).
The pineal foramen of most other amniotes is located close to the mid-length of the interparietal suture, or slightly anterior to this (Fig.
In most other amniotes, the cranio-quadrate space (the space between the braincase and the quadrate ramus of the pterygoid) is narrow and the paroccipital process and the quadrate ramus of the pterygoid converge posterolaterally (Fig.
phylogeny.arizona.edu /tree/eukaryotes/animals/chordata/amniote_lichen/Amniote_phylogeny.html   (2073 words)

  
 Tetrapod phylogeny inferred from 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA sequences and a review of the evidence for amniote ...   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Although little resolution was obtained among the lissamphibian taxa, the amniote sequences support a sister-group relationship between birds and mammals.
It is suggested that until sequences become available from a broader array of taxa, the molecular evidence is best evaluated at the level of individual genes, with emphasis placed on those studies with the greatest number of taxa and sites.
Molecular evidence for amniote relationships is reviewed, showing that three genes (beta-hemoglobin, myoglobin, and 18S rRNA) unambiguously support a bird-mammal relationship, compared with one gene (histone H2B) that favors a bird-crocodilian clade.
www.ihop-net.org /UniPub/iHOP/gp/6761682.html   (278 words)

  
 Amazon.com: amniote's   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Amniote Paleobiology: Perspectives on the Evolution of Mammals, Birds, and Reptiles by Matthew T. Carrano, Richard W. Blob, Timothy J. Gaudin, and John R. Wible (Paperback - Aug 1, 2006)
Reassessment of muscle homologies and nomenclature in conservative amniotes: The echidna, Tachyglossus; the opossum, Didelphis; and the tuatara, Sphenodon by Adelaide Heidi Frost Ellsworth (Unknown Binding - 1974)
An amniote egg from the upper Cretaceous of Wyoming (Scientific publications of the Science Museum of Minnesota) by Bruce R Erickson (Unknown Binding - 1978)
www.amazon.com /s?ie=UTF8&keywords=amniote's&tag=lexico&index=blended&link_code=qs&page=1   (910 words)

  
 Chapter 9 Review
Amniotes have an amniotic egg, which typically has a hard covering to prevent desiccation.
In contrast to a typical frog male, which clasps a female frog and externally fertilizes her eggs as they are spawned, an amniote male needs to copulate with a female in order to fertilize her eggs before they are internally encased in an egg shell and laid externally.
One problem is, the novelty that clearly unites living members of the amniote clade (reptiles + mammals), the amnion, is a soft part feature that is not preserved in the Paleozoic tetrapods.
biology.fullerton.edu /hol/hol/rq/rq9.html   (764 words)

  
 Turtle Prion Gene
The ancestral amniote prion: alignment of turtle, bird, mammal, and doppel
The ancestral amniote common ancestor is predicted to have an inter-cysteine length of 35 amino acids, a 5 residue loop, and a single loop glycosylation site.
To confirm the phylogenetic position of turtles in amniotes, we have cloned and determined the cDNA sequences encoding for skink lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)-A and LDH-B, snake LDH-A, and African clawed frog LDH-A; four alpha-enolase cDNA sequences from turtle, alligator, skink, and snake were also cloned and determined.
www.mad-cow.org /00/mar00_turtle.html   (6698 words)

  
 paizo.com - Paizo / Messageboards / Dungeon Magazine / Age of Worms Adventure Path / Archives / Blood Amniote ...   (Site not responding. Last check: )
In Gathering of Winds, the blood amniotes are described as having Self Spawn: "...drains as many points of (CON) as its full normal hit point roll, it splits into two...
The blood amniotes are only 8 points away from spawning; they should have a chance to do so during the encounter.
Most product names are trademarks owned or used under license by the companies that publish those products; use of such names without mention of trademark status should not be construed as a challenge to such status.
www.paizo.com /paizo/messageboards/dungeon/ageOfWorms/archives/bloodAmnioteSelfSpawning&page=1   (261 words)

  
 BioMed Central | Full text | Gene order data from a model amphibian (Ambystoma): new perspectives on vertebrate genome ...
For example, the amphibian perspective is essential for understanding molecular, developmental, and morphological changes of appendages that are associated with the transformation of obligatorily aquatic fish to terrestrial tetrapods [1-4].
Synteny of HSA1 and HSA19 loci in the ancestral amniote and tetrapod genomes
Synteny of HSA7 and HSA12 loci in the ancestral amniote, tetrapod, and euteleost genomes
www.biomedcentral.com /1471-2164/7/219   (5724 words)

  
 Spartanburg SC | GoUpstate.com | Spartanburg Herald-Journal   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Reptiliomorpha is a name given either to reptile-like tetrapods, or to amniotes and those tetrapods related to them.
Although the first amniote probably appeared as early as the latest Mississippian period (Middle Carboniferous), reptilomorph tetrapods continued to flourish alongside their fully reptilian descendents and relatives for many millions of years.
By the middle Permian the terrestrial forms had died out, but several aquatic groups continued to the end of the Permain, and in the case of the Chroniosuchids survived the end Permian mass extinction, only to die out at the end of the Early Triassic.
www.goupstate.com /apps/pbcs.dll/section?category=NEWS&template=wiki&text=Reptiliomorpha   (485 words)

  
 Amniote Egg
It has a shell to help prevent drying, and a series of membranes that surround the developing chick.
This kind of egg is unique to the amniotes, a group that includes turtles, lizards, birds, dinosaurs, and mammals.
The last name in that list, the mammals, may have surprised you since most mammals do not lay eggs, but the earliest mammals laid eggs, and a few, such asĀ  the duck-billed platypus still do.
www.biologycorner.com /worksheets/amniote-egg.html   (487 words)

  
 Classification of Living Things: Class
This is an advantage over fish and amphibians because the amniote egg can be laid on land where it is usually safer from predators than it would be in lakes, rivers, and oceans.
They also produce amniote eggs but usually give them greater protection from predators by laying them high off of the ground or in other relatively inaccessible locations.
Their bodies took the amniote egg revolution of reptiles one step further.
anthro.palomar.edu /animal/animal_4.htm   (767 words)

  
 Definition of amniote - Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary
Learn more about "amniote" and related topics at Britannica.com
Find more about "amniote" instantly with Live Search
See a map of "amniote" in the Visual Thesaurus
www.m-w.com /cgi-bin/dictionary?book=Dictionary&va=amniote   (49 words)

  
 ! Rainforest Reptiles ! Tropical Rainforest, Far North Queensland Australia
An important part of the change from a permeable amphibian egg to the closed reptile egg was the co-evolutionary development of uric acid.
The amniote egg appears with several important modifications that separated it from previous water dependent eggs; however these ancestral eggs already possessed yolk, the food reserve for the developing embryo.
However, there is nothing in modern amphibians analogous to the components of the amniote egg.
www.rainforest-australia.com /reptiles.htm   (1459 words)

  
 Characters   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The holes at the back of the skull in all amniotes are called temporal fenestrae.
Amniotes are classified into groups by the configuration of these fenestrae.
This is the primitive amniote condition, and is found in turtles.
palaeo.gly.bris.ac.uk /Palaeofiles/Fossilgroups/euryaps/charact.html   (278 words)

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