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Topic: Amygdala

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The centromedial amygdala projects through the stria terminalis primarily to the hypothalamus and through the ventral amygdalofugal tract to the brain stem, where it can influence hormonal and somatomotor aspects of behavior and emotional states (eg, eating, drinking and sex).
In general, the lateral portion of the amygdala is regarded as inhibitory and reflective of the external environment, whereas the medial amygdala is regarded as facilitatory and reflective of the internal environment.
Amygdala outputs tend to originate in the central nucleus, the most peptide-rich region of the brain, and are carried by peptide-containing fibers in the stria terminalis and ventral amygdalofugal pathway.
www.benbest.com /science/anatmind/anatmd9.html   (2579 words)

 Amygdala - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The amygdalae send impulses to the hypothalamus for activation of the sympathetic nervous system, to the reticular nucleus for increased reflexes, to the nuclei of the trigeminal nerve and facial nerve for facial expressions of fear, and to the ventral tegmental area, locus ceruleus, and laterodorsal tegmental nucleus for activation of dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine.
The cortical nucleus is involved in the sense of smell and pheromone-processing.
Removal of the amygdala results in Kluver-Bucy syndrome, a condition consisting of a blunting or elimination of annxiety and anger, as the amygdala triggers the fight or flight response.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Amygdala   (1361 words)

 Amygdala and Limbic System - NLP, Hypnosis, Hypnotherapy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Pribram described a girl who had suffered damaged to both amygdalas (although stated in the singular, there is one in each hemisphere) who rapidly became overweight by the compulsion to force food into her mouth, despite denials of hunger.
The cells of the amygdala produce large quantities of endorphins (or as Bandler will call them, "endomorphines") as well as various other hormones, and it is possibly through this effect that the person is able to represent the pleasure of the food or the drug before it has actually been taken.
The amygdala is heavily involved in sex and sexuality with the male amygdala being bit bigger than that of the female The medial part of the female amygdala plays an important role in pregnancy and appropriate coordination of the endocrine system.
www.23nlpeople.com /Amygdala.html   (2265 words)

 amygdala - multiple sclerosis encyclopaedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
The amygdala is a structure in the forebrain that resembles a walnut both in size and shape.
The amygdala is part of a functional system in the brain called the limbic system which deals with emotional responses to events, objects and people based on memory and sensory input.
The amygdala connects to the parietal lobes which process sensory information and to the hippocampus which is involved in memory.
www.mult-sclerosis.org /amygdala.html   (217 words)

 The Role of the Amygdala in Fear and Panic
The amygdala is the name of the collection of nuclei found in the anterior portions of the temporal lobes in the brains of primates (4).
The amygdala is considered to be the key component to the limbic system, a term that has also been regarded with much recent controversy by researchers in the field of emotions.
The amygdala is specialized for reacting to stimuli and triggering a physiological response, a process that would be described as the "emotion" of fear (2).
serendip.brynmawr.edu /bb/neuro/neuro98/202s98-paper2/Holt2.html   (2073 words)

 What is the Amygdala?
The amygdala, so named because it resembles an almond, is a set of nuclei in the brain located closely to each other and therefore grouped under the same name.
The amygdala is most commonly associated with the emotions of fear and anxiety, and its size is positively correlated to the level of aggression in a given species.
Lesion studies with monkeys have shown that when the amygdala is impaired before six months of age, individuals have difficulty adapting to social life.
www.wisegeek.com /what-is-the-amygdala.htm   (390 words)

 Medical Dictionary: Amygdala - WrongDiagnosis.com
Amygdala: an almond-shaped neural structure in the anterior part of the temporal lobe of the cerebrum; intimately connected with the hypothalamus and the hippocampus and the cingulate gyrus; as part of the limbic system it plays an important role in motivation and emotional behavior
Amygdala : almond\-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the inferior horn of the lateral ventricle of the brain, within the temporal lobe; part of the limbic system.
Amygdala : Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the inferior horn of the lateral ventricle of the brain, within the temporal lobe.
www.wrongdiagnosis.com /medical/amygdala.htm   (253 words)

 Olympus FluoView Resource Center: Confocal Gallery - Rat Brain Tissue Sections
The amygdala is a subcortical nuclear complex that plays a critical role in the coordination of emotional states and their physical expression.
Numerous direct connections between the amygdala, the hippocampal formation, and neocortical areas exist that are extremely important for the functioning of the amygdala, which must receive information about the emotions associated with particular stimuli in order to influence behavior.
Three divisions of the amygdala are often recognized: the basolateral nuclear group, the centromedial group, and the cortical nucleus.
www.olympusfluoview.com /gallery/ratbrain/amygdala.html   (375 words)

 Shakti For Windows and the amygdala - reply to critics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Studies concerning the amygdala's role in anxiety are perfectly valid, but if one were to confine one's understanding of the amygdala only to these results, a misunderstanding would appear.
Another misapprehension about the amygdala arises from one author who reported an article in an online forum that described a study that found that amygdaloid activation was suppressed and activity in the cerebellum increased during orgasm, a result with which I have nothing to debate.
While the amygdala is extensively connected to the temporal lobes, to assume that a disorder of the temporal lobes (which autism appears to be to some researchers) automatically means that the amygdala(s) is compromised is not sound reasoning.
www.innerworlds.50megs.com /winshakti/ref_amygdala.htm   (2920 words)

 Amygdala's Inner Workings
Coursing through the amygdala are nerves connecting it to a number of important brain centers, including the neocortex and visual cortex.
The Amygdala and Depression Other researchers are exploring how the amygdala might affect people who suffer from bipolar or unipolar (depression-marked melancholy episodes) illnesses, which run in families.
The overactive amygdala could be a sign of excitotoxicity, a lethal kind of overactivity that kills cells.
www.come-over.to /FAS/amygdala.htm   (1368 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
The amygdala is associated with one's “fight or flight” response to stressful situations, as well as one's emotions.
Faced with a memory of an event, the hippocampus takes into account the context and alerts the amygdala to trigger a fearful response when appropriate.
Sometimes the amygdala reacts to certain difficult memories -- as in nightmares and flashbacks related to post-traumatic disorder, a potentially debilitating mental ailment that sometimes afflicts war veterans.
www.cnn.com /interactive/tech/0503/interactive.brain/content.5.html   (71 words)

 Amygdala and Memory
Now scientists have discovered that an area of the brain, the amygdala, which was thought to store painful and emotion-related memories, also initiates memory storage in other brain regions.
New research published in the Jan. 1 issue of the Journal of Neuroscience suggests that the amygdala plays a pivotal role in the initial process of storing memory elsewhere in the brain.
Rabbits with unaltered brains were able to learn the consequences of two differently sounding tones: one that resulted in nothing and another followed in five seconds by a mild shock to the feet.
www.neuroskills.com /tbi/pr-amygdala.shtml   (510 words)

 THE BRAIN FROM TOP TO BOTTOM   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
The amygdala is a brain structure that is essential for decoding emotions, and in particular stimuli that are threatening to the organism.
But there are several other regions of the brain that project their axons to the amygdala; examples include the hypothalamus, the septum and the reticular formation of the brainstem.
Since the hippocampus is involved in storing and retrieving explicit memories, its connections to the amygdala may be the origin of strong emotions triggered by particular memories.
www.thebrain.mcgill.ca /flash/i/i_04/i_04_cr/i_04_cr_peu/i_04_cr_peu.htm   (1317 words)

 Society for Neuroscience | Fear and the Amygdala   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
An almond-shaped area of the brain, the amygdala (uh-mig-dah-la) receives signals of the potential danger and begins to set off a series of reactions that will help you protect yourself, according to an increasing number of studies.
Researchers began to find evidence that the amygdala was involved in the emotion of fear in the late 1930s.
Researchers also are examining the role of the amygdala in less distressing types of emotions, such as happiness.
www.sfn.org /index.cfm?pagename=brainBriefings_fearAndTheAmygdala   (734 words)

 Brain Magic//ViewZone
There are two amygdalae in your brain, one inside the left hemisphere of your brain and one inside the right hemisphere, about one inch inside from the temples midway between your eyes and ears.
Additionally, the amygdala is a gateway/switch that turns on the most advanced part of your brain: the frontal lobes.
Proper amygdala forward clicking is indicated by all kinds of indicators, primarily positive emotional feedback: You feel good, a good feeling that lasts.
www.neilslade.com /Papers/viewzone/BrainMagicView.html   (1086 words)

 Limbic System
The main outputs of the amygdala are to the hypothalamus and brainstem autonomic centers, including the vagal nuclei and the sympathetic neurons.
The amygdala is also involved with mood and the conscious emotional response to an event, whether positive or negative.
Monkeys with lesioned amygdalas are unable to recognize the emotional significance of objects, and for example, show no fear when presented with a snake or another aggressive monkey.
thalamus.wustl.edu /course/limbic.html   (1726 words)

The goal of the Amygdala project is to use biologically accurate "spike coding" models to produce networks capable of performing well in real-time; strong attention is paid to the support of multiple/distributed processing, to increase the scalability and power of Amygdala "brains".
Still in its early stages, Amygdala has already been used to produce working neural networks, and continued development is focused on increasing Amygdala's efficiency and usefulness and on laying the groundwork for several important advanced features.
Amygdala is currently implemented as a C++ library, suitable for use by software programmers.
amygdala.sourceforge.net   (208 words)

 Febrile Seizures, Amygdala, Autism
Additionally, (i) SE-induced amygdala damage in humans often leads to permanent damage within the hippocampus (13-14), thereby suggesting impairments in memory among autistics having SE-induced pathogenesis, and (ii) status epilepticus is associated with reduced cerebellar sizes, particularly among Purkinje cells, where gliosis-like scarring is not always evident (36-38).
Eyes and faces: Atypical, avoidant eye contact is a trait occurring in a high percentage of autistic children (47-48) and is often reported by parents of some autistic children as one of the earliest traits seen the post-vaccination period (21-22,45), a time some individuals have their first recognized FS (10).
A relatively small number of single neurons within the primate amygdala are known to be responsive to faces; and these neurons have been identified within the basal-lateral and basal accessory nuclei (49- 50), areas functionally similar to those described in rats and other sub-primates (see discussion in 52), ie, areas damaged by SE (12).
members.jorsm.com /~binstock/fs-amyg.htm   (4445 words)

 Astral Voyage - Astral Projection - Our Amygdala: The Astral Projection Switch?
They claim, through years of medical research, that the "amygdala" (pronounced ah-MIG-doll-uh) is located in the frontal lobes and can be voluntarily "clicked forward" to automatically trigger emotional highs, nirvana, bliss, and yes.....
The amygdala is not something he made up or was coined by Dormant Brain Lab.
We know the brain creates energy, that during REM sleep that energy is reduced, and that electrochemical currents switch from the reptilian "survival" mode to the "highly cognitive" frontal lobes.
www.astralvoyage.com /projection/amygdala.html   (890 words)

 Amygdala Neurons Mediate Acquisition But Not Maintenance of Instrumental Avoidance Behavior in Rabbits -- Poremba and ...
Muller J, Corodimas KP, Fridel Z, LeDoux JE (1997) Functional inactivation of the lateral and basal nuclei of the amygdala by muscimol infusion prevents fear conditioning to an explicit conditioned stimulus and to contextual stimuli.
Poremba A, Gabriel M (1995) The amygdala is necessary for the initial acquisition but not for maintenance of discriminative avoidance behavior in rabbits.
Roozendaal B, Koolhaas JM, Bohus B (1993) The central amygdala is involved in conditioning but not in retention of active and passive shock avoidance behavior in male rats.
www.jneurosci.org /cgi/content/full/19/21/9635   (5600 words)

 New Vistas on Amygdala Networks in Conditioned Fear -- Paré et al. 92 (1): 1 -- Journal of Neurophysiology
Note the apparent disconnect between the lateral amygdala (LA), currently believed to be the only input station of the amygdala for the conditioned stimulus (CS), and the CEm, the only significant source of amygdala projections to brain stem structures mediating fear responses.
The amygdala is essential for the development of neuronal plasticity in the medial geniculate nucleus during auditory fear conditioning in rats.
Functional inactivation of the lateral and basal nuclei of the amygdala by muscimol infusion prevents fear conditioning to an explicit conditioned stimulus and to contextual stimuli.
jn.physiology.org /cgi/content/full/92/1/1   (5814 words)

 2007 GRC on Amygdala In Health & Disease
The amygdala is a cerebral structure of the temporal lobe that plays a critical role in the expression of emotions and the learning of new emotional responses.
During the first conference, we will focus on research investigating the role of the amygdala in the formation of emotional memories, both normal and pathological.
Human and animal studies examining the role of the amygdala in the acquisition and extinction of various forms of memory and conditioned behaviors
www.grc.org /programs/2007/amygdala.htm   (456 words)

 Amygdala (comics) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Amygdala is the alias of a DC Comics character, who is a sometime opponent of Batman.
Anatomically, the amygdala refers to the bundle of nerves in the brain that control emotional associations of many kinds.
Helzinger's amygdala cluster was removed in an attempt to cure him of his homicidal rage (apparently by a doctor who did not understand the difference between the amygdala and the hypothalamus).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Amygdala_(comics)   (277 words)

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