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Topic: Anal canal


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In the News (Tue 23 Apr 19)

  
  Anus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For males, the tightness of the anus is often said to be a source of pleasure in penetrative anal sex, while the presence of the prostate gland near the rectal wall is generally seen as a source of pleasure during receptive anal intercourse.
Anal intercourse, sometimes referred to as sodomy or buggery, is a common human sexual activity, but is considered taboo in a number of moral systems, and it has been, and in some jurisdictions continues to be, a crime carrying severe punishment.
Anal cancer, abscess, warts, fistula, fissure, itching and hemorrhoids are among the diseases of the anus that benefit from medical intervention.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Anal   (868 words)

  
 Anal canal - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The anal canal is the terminal part of the large intestine.
It is situated between the rectum and anus, below the level of the pelvic diaphram.
It lies in the anal triangle of perineum in between the right and left ischiorectal fossae.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Anal_canal   (137 words)

  
 Chapter 13: Anal Canal
Carcinomas of the anal canal are staged clinically according to the size and extent of the primary tumor.
Tumors that arise in the anal canal usually spread initially to the anorectal and perirectal nodes, and those that arise at the anal margin spread to the superficial inguinal nodes.
Because of the infrequent occurrence of carcinomas of the anal canal, the evaluation of prognostic factors is difficult.
ajcc.chat.ru /INFO13.htm   (1135 words)

  
 Gastroenterology Chapter 11 The Anal Canal
The wall of the anal canal is formed by a continuation of the circular muscle of the rectal wall; the smooth muscle is thickened in this area to form the internal anal sphincter.
Motor innervation of the external anal sphincter is via the inferior rectal branch of the pudendal nerve and the perineal branch of the fourth sacral nerve.
The cushions are held in the upper anal canal by muscular fibers from the conjoined longitudinal muscle of the intersphincteric plane.
gastroresource.com /gitextbook/en/chapter11/11-4-pr.htm   (5263 words)

  
 eMedicine - Anal Fissure : Article Excerpt by: Lisa S Poritz, MD
Problem: An anal fissure is a painful linear tear or crack in the distal anal canal, which, in the short-term, usually involves only the epithelium and, in the long-term, involves the full thickness of the anal mucosa (see Images 1-2).
Prior anal surgery is a predisposing factor because scarring from the surgery may cause either stenosis or tethering of the anal canal, which makes it more susceptible to trauma from hard stool.
Studies of the internal anal sphincter and of anal canal physiology have been performed with varied results, but at least one abnormality is likely present in the internal anal sphincter of many anal fissure patients.
www.emedicine.com /med/byname/anal-fissure.htm   (573 words)

  
 Chapter 36: The rectum and anal canal
Anatomically, the anal canal extends from the level of the upper aspect of the pelvic diaphragm to the anus.
In surgical usage, however, the anal canal is frequently limited to that part of the intestine, which is below the pectinate line; this part differs from the part above the pectinate line in innervation, venous and lymphatic drainage, and possibly lining epithelium.
The rectum and anal canal are supplied by the superior rectal artery (the continuation of the inferior mesenteric artery), with assistance from the middle and inferior rectal arteries, and by the median sacral artery.
www.dartmouth.edu /~humananatomy/part_6/chapter_36.html   (1373 words)

  
 ASCRS
The anatomic anal canal is typically defined as the region from the dentate line to the anal verge, while the surgical anal canal is defined as the area from the anorectal junction and extending to the anal verge.
Epidermoid cancers of the anal canal spread via the lymphatic channels of the lower rectum and therefore involve lymph nodes of the superior hemorrhoidal complex as well as the deep pelvis.
Anal canal cancer is most often treated with chemoradiation protocols reserving radical surgery for those that fail this initial treatment.
www.fascrs.org /displaycommon.cfm?an=1&subarticlenbr=122   (3169 words)

  
 Anal fissure (torn rectum) - causes and treatment options at MedicineNet.com
An anal fissure is a cut or tear occuring in the anus (the opening through which stool passes out of the body) that extends upwards into the anal canal.
Fissures are a common condition of the anus and anal canal and are responsible for 6-15% of the visits to a colonic and rectal (colorectal) surgeon.
Anal fissure is the most common cause of rectal bleeding in infancy.
www.medicinenet.com /anal_fissure/article.htm   (376 words)

  
 Anal Fissures   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
An anal fissure, or "fissure-in-ano" is a crack in the lining of the lower anal canal and can be one of several possible causes for anal pain.
Anal fissures are shallow, thin, often painful ulcers of the anal canal.
Anal fissure can result from passage of large, hard stools or may be a secondary result of anal surgery, proctitis, or other diseases.
www.julies-story.org /ano/ano01.htm   (1064 words)

  
 Anal Cancer
Anal cancer, an uncommon cancer, is a disease in which cancer (malignant) cells are found in the anus.
Although this operation was once commonly used for anal cancer, it is not used as much today because radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy is an equally effective treatment option but does not require a colostomy.
Treatments for anal cancer depend on the type of disease, stage of disease, your age, and your general health.
www.cancer-info.com /analcanc.htm   (1395 words)

  
 Anal cancer
Anal cancer is an uncommon malignancy, accounting for only a small percentage (4%) of all cancers of the lower alimentary tract.
The following is a staging system for anal canal cancer that has been described by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and the International Union Against Cancer.[1,2] Tumors of the anal margin (below the anal verge and involving the perianal hair-bearing skin) are classified with skin tumors.
Surgical resection is used for treatment of lesions of the perianal area not involving the anal sphincter (approach depends on the location of the lesion in the anal canal).
www.meds.com /pdq/anal_pro.html   (2746 words)

  
 Treatment of Anal Canal Cancer at Mayo Clinic in Jacksonville   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
The anal canal is the connection between the anal opening and rectum.
Anal canal cancer occurs slightly more often in women than in men and the cause of this cancer is unknown.
Anal canal cancer is typically diagnosed by performing an endoscopic examination of the anus and rectum (colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy).
www.mayoclinic.org /analcancer-jax   (502 words)

  
 Anal complaints Seat (of) disease
Anal canal architecture — The anal canal is about 3.5 cms long and it starts from the lower end of the rectum and ends in the anus’ opening.
The anal canal is anatomically divided into two parts (namely upper part and lower part) by pectinate line (bluish pink ring).
Anal problems are rare in children due to their bland diet, unless pathological.
www.chennaionline.com /health/Homoeopathy/2005/08homoeo51.asp   (1244 words)

  
 anal canal --  Britannica Concise Encyclopedia - The online encyclopedia you can trust!
End portion of the alimentary canal, distinguished from the rectum by the transition from an internal mucous membrane layer to one of skinlike tissue and by its narrower diameter.
The anal canal is 2.5 to 4 cm (1 to 1.5 inches) in length; its diameter is narrower than that of the rectum to which it connects.
A canal may be dug to drain low areas, to float away sewage, to bring water to dry farmlands, or to carry water from storage places, such as reservoirs, to city water-supply systems.
www.britannica.com /ebc/article-9355265   (917 words)

  
 Statements of Principles — Malignant neoplasm of the anal canal — Reasonable hypothesis
(b) For the purposes of this Statement of Principles "malignant neoplasm of the anal canal" means a primary malignant invasive carcinoma or carcinoma in situ arising in the epithelial lining of the anal canal, but excludes soft tissue sarcoma, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, Hodgkin’s disease and adenocarcinoma of the anal canal.
The anal canal extends from the junction between the rectum and anal canal to the anus, and does not include the anal margin or perianal skin.
"death from malignant neoplasm of the anal canal" in relation to a person includes death from a terminal event or condition that was contributed to by the person’s malignant neoplasm of the anal canal;
www.dva.gov.au /pensions/statemnt/b027rh.htm   (691 words)

  
 eMedicine - Anal Fissure : Article by Lisa S Poritz, MD
The fibers of the internal anal sphincter are visible in the base of the chronic fissure, and often, an enlarged anal skin tag is present distal to the fissure and hypertrophied anal papillae are present in the anal canal proximal to the fissure.
The surgical anal canal is approximately 4 cm long and extends from the anal verge or intersphincteric groove distally to the anorectal ring proximally.
The sphincterotomy is extended into the anal canal for a distance equal to the length of the anal fissure.
www.emedicine.com /med/topic3532.htm   (3552 words)

  
 Anal Cancer:   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
Overall, the risk of anal cancer is rising, with data suggesting that persons engaging in certain sexual practices, such as receptive anal intercourse, or persons with a high lifetime number of sexual partners are at increased risk of anal cancer.
Ryan DP, Compton CC, Mayer RJ Carcinoma of the anal canal.
All other stage II cancers of the anal canal that involve the anal sphincter or are too large for complete local excision are treated with external-beam radiation therapy plus chemotherapy.
www.acor.org /cnet/62898.html   (3150 words)

  
 Peroxide-enhanced Anal Endosonography: Technique, Image Interpretation, and Clinical Applications -- Kruskal et al. 21 ...
Line diagram shows the normal coronal-view anatomic characteristics of the anal canal and perianal region, depicting all structures and spaces relevant to classification of perianal fistulas.
Axial images of the anal canal show the normal anatomy from the most caudal aspect of the anal verge (a) extending up to the level of the levator ani muscle (d).
(b) Once the transducer is in the anal canal, the internal sphincter is seen as a continuous hypoechoic ring (large arrows) that surrounds the submucosal space (small arrows).
radiographics.rsnajnls.org /cgi/content/figsonly/21/suppl_1/S173   (4279 words)

  
 National Cancer Institute - Anal Cancer Treatment
The following is a staging system for anal canal cancer that has been described by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and the International Union Against Cancer.[1] Tumors of the anal margin (below the anal verge and involving the perianal hair-bearing skin) are classified with skin tumors.
The tolerance of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and anal carcinoma to standard fluorouracil/mitomycin chemoradiation is not well defined.[16,17] Patients with pretreatment CD4 counts of less than 200 may have increased acute and late toxic effects;[18,19] chemoradiation doses may require modification in this subset of patients.
All other stage I cancers of the anal canal that involve the anal sphincter or are too large for complete local excision are treated with external-beam radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy.[1,3-9]
www.cancer.gov /cancertopics/pdq/treatment/anal/healthprofessional/allpages/print   (3152 words)

  
 Anal Cancer - Treatment and Symptoms   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
Anal cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the anus.
The anus is formed partly from the outer, skin layers of the body and partly from the intestine.
The anal canal, the part of the anus between the rectum and the anal opening, is about 1½ inches long.
goldbamboo.com /topic-t2600.html   (268 words)

  
 Anal Canal Cancer   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
Carcinoma of the anal canal is confined to the pelvis in >80% of patients and it is a chemotherapy and radiotherapy sensitive tumor.
Thus it is a curable cancer with anal preservation in 65 to 75% of patients.
The combination of chemotherapy, and radiotherapy has now become the standard therapy for loco-regional carcinoma of the anal canal.
www.niccresearch.org /pages/cmm_analcancer.htm   (136 words)

  
 Anoscopy (Test) : WakeMed serving Raleigh, Cary, Wake County, Research Triangle, Johnston County, North Carolina, ...
An anoscopy is a procedure that enables a physician to view the anus, anal canal, and lower rectum using a speculum.
As the scope is slowly removed, the lining of the anal canal is carefully inspected.
This test may be used to determine whether you have hemorrhoids, anal polyps, tumors, inflammation, fissures, or infection.
www.wakemed.org /14054.cfm   (450 words)

  
 Anal cancer
Overall, the risk of anal cancer is rising, with data suggesting that individuals with human papillomavirus and male homosexuals, in particular, are at increased risk of anal cancer.[3-5]
Stage I anal cancer is cancer that is 2 centimeters or less in greatest dimension and that has not spread anywhere else.
Stage IIIB anal cancer is cancer that has spread to internal iliac and/or inguinal nodes (unilateral or bilateral) or has spread to both adjacent organs and perirectal lymph nodes.
cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk /cancernet/100022.html   (3019 words)

  
 Anal Cancer
The rectum becomes the"anal canal" at the "ano-rectal" junction, this canal is about 2 inches long and terminates as the "anus," where bowel movements actually leave the body.
However, the cells lining the inside of the anal canal are different, so different cancers arise there, and this is a separate topic.
There are actually four types of tissue in the anal canal, which can give rise to different cancers.
www.canceranswers.com /Anal.Cancer.html   (3844 words)

  
 Anal Cancer
Mixed pathology common with anal canal carcinoma..: Fami...
Biopsy anal canal lesions for cancer..: Internal Medicin...
Anal cancer rates are on the rise in HIV-positive patien...
gastro.medicalcarebooks.com /Anal~Cancer.html   (236 words)

  
 Cancer Information, Research, and Treatment for all Types of Cancer | OncoLink
1 Tumors of the anal margin (below the anal verge and involving the perianal hair-bearing skin) are classified with skin tumors.
Abdominoperineal resection leading to permanent colostomy was previously thought to be required for all but small anal cancers below the dentate line, with approximately 70% of patients surviving 5 or more years in single institutions, 1 but such surgery is no longer the treatment of choice.
John M, Pajak T, Flam M, et al.: Dose Escalation in Chemoradiation for Anal Cancer: Preliminary Results of RTOG 92-08 Cancer J Sci Am 2 (4): 205-11, 1996.
www.oncolink.upenn.edu /types/article.cfm?c=5&s=10&ss=80&id=9201   (3260 words)

  
 Variants of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Anal Canal and Perianal Skin and Their Relation to Human Papillomaviruses -- ...
Variants of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Anal Canal and Perianal Skin and Their Relation to Human Papillomaviruses -- Frisch et al.
anal canal cancers versus 25% of anal margin cancers (19).
of the cancer in the anal region and the presence of hrHPV.
cancerres.aacrjournals.org /cgi/content/full/59/3/753   (3706 words)

  
 Statements of Principles — Malignant neoplasm of the anal canal — diagnostic protocol
Statements of Principles — Malignant neoplasm of the anal canal — diagnostic protocol
Before confirming the diagnosis you should also be satisfied that the claimed condition falls within the scope of the words in the following RMA SOP definition of malignant neoplasm of the anal canal.
Squamous cell carcinoma in situ of the anal canal
www.dva.gov.au /pensions/statemnt/b027dp.htm   (129 words)

  
 Gray's Anatomy of the Human Body - Surface Anatomy of the Perineum - Yahoo! Education   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
The junction of the mucous membrane of the anal canal with the skin of the perineum is marked by a white line which indicates also the line of contact of the external and internal Sphincters.
In the anterior part of the perineum the external genital organs are situated.
The only other muscles influencing surface form are the Ischiocavernosus covering the crus penis, which lies on the side of the pubic arch, and the Sphincter ani externus, which, in action, closes the anal orifice and causes a puckering of the skin around it.
messenger.yahooligans.com /reference/gray/subjects/subject?id=287   (321 words)

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