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Topic: Analgesia

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  Anesthesia/Analgesia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
Analgesia is more effective when given before a painful procedure is introduced, and preemptive analgesia should be used whenever possible.
The duration of analgesia produced by the analgesic should coincide with the expected duration and intensity of post-operative pain generated by the procedure.
This unconsciousness, analgesia, and muscle relaxation should be sufficient to allow the performance of painful procedures without the subject experiencing pain.
www.mc.uky.edu /dlar/resources/sop/anes-uk.htm   (5530 words)

 APSA :: News : Fentanyl trauma analgesia use in air medical scene transports   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
This study assessed frequency, safety and efficacy of prehospital fentanyl analgesia during 6 months' adult and pediatric helicopter trauma scene transports (213 doses in 177 patients).
Analgesia was administered to 46/49 (93.9%) intubated patients.
Of the 67 non-intubated patients to whom analgesia was administered, post-analgesia pain assessment was documented in 62 (92.5%) and pain improved in 53 (79.1% of 67).
www.eapsa.org /news/fentanyl.htm   (205 words)

 OBSTETRICAL LABOR ANALGESIA   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
Epidural labor analgesia is not a generic procedure and the effect of one technique is not applicable to other techniques.
Many studies have examined the impact of epidural analgesia on the duration of first and second stages of labor.Oxytocin augmentation is administered to significantly more women receiving epidural analgesia when compared to women receiving other forms of analgesia.
As an isolated factor, the introduction of epidural analgesia or the increased use of epidural analgesia in a hospital population does not increase the rate of cesarean delivery.
gasnet.med.yale.edu /esia/2000/march/labor-analgesia.html   (1342 words)

 Combined Spinal-Epidural Anesthesia?
The epidural analgesia reaching the level of T1 was added to an animal which already had a decreased blood pressure and sympathetic tone from the isoflurane/fentanyl anesthesia.
Thoracic epidural analgesia induced a moderate decrease in mean arterial pressure, coronary perfusion pressure, free fatty acids and myocardial consumption of free fatty acids.
Using an extradural mixture, in labor, of 0.1% bupivacaine with fentanyl 30 µg in 15 ml, the initial test dose of 0.5% bupivacaine 3 ml is unnecessary, as the single bolus of 15 ml of the extradural mixture serves equally to detect accidental subarachnoid injection without producing a total spinal block (12).
www.csen.com /anesthesia/book   (15184 words)

 qb9421   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
The drug produced significant analgesia in the thermal lest system, the duration of which was dose related but no significant elevation in mechanical pressure thresholds could be detected.
The analgesia in the opposite (sound) leg was also reduced, indicating that there were both central and peripheral aspects to this increased sensitivity to painful stimuli.
The degree of analgesia was diminished at 120 minutes while the sedative effect returned to near baseline by 90 minutes.
www.nal.usda.gov /awic/pubs/oldbib/qb9421.htm   (8599 words)

 Mechanisms of Pain Reduction in Hypnotic Analgesia
In numerous studies, suggestion of analgesia while under hypnosis has been shown to reduce levels of pain.1 While this phenomenon is well documented, a general consensus as to the mechanisms of this reduction have not been reached.
The second variable, hypnotic analgesia, is equally difficult to measure for unlike analgesia in prescription-pain-reliever form, it cannot be carefully dolled out in milligram doses (Boica, 1980).
Hypnotic analgesia is a powerful tool having the ability to relieve pain even in such severe cases as surgery, child birth, and in the treatment of cancer patients (Bonica, 1980).
www.trincoll.edu /zines/papers/1997/mechanisms.html   (2660 words)

 Labour analgesia: what's new and PCEA too? -- Campbell 50 (Supplement 1): 8 -- Canadian Journal of Anesthesia
Continuous infusion epidural analgesia during labour: a randomized, double blind, comparison of 0.065% bupivacaine + 0.0002% fentanyl versus 0.125% bupivacaine.
Intrathecal bupivacaine and sufentanil for ambulatory labor analgesia: Effect of dose reductions.
Effect of epidural vs parenteral opioid analgesia on the progress of labor.
www.cja-jca.org /cgi/content/full/50/suppl_1/R8   (2677 words)

 Epidural Analgesia Does Not Increase C-Sections (Northwestern University News)
Based on that research, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommended that epidural analgesia be delayed in women who have not previously given birth until their cervix dilates to 4 to 5 centimeters and that other forms of analgesia, for example, systemic opioid analgesia, be used until that time.
Epidural analgesia was administered in the spinal group at their second request for analgesia, and in the systemic group, when the cervix had dilated to 4 centimeters or greater, or at the third request for analgesia.
Moreover, the median time from initiation of analgesia to complete dilation was 295 minutes in the epidural group versus 385 minutes in the systemic group; vaginal delivery was significantly shorter (398 minutes versus 479 minutes) and self-reported pain scores were significantly lower after spinal-epidural analgesia.
www.northwestern.edu /univ-relations/media_relations/releases/2005/02/epidural.html   (628 words)

In contrast, the women who requested pain medication and meant it expressed firm beliefs in their right not to have to be in pain.
Potential depressive effects of analgesia on the baby were not an issue for most of these women, as they assumed that their obstetrician would regulate their dosages appropriately.
The analgesia that most laboring women receive intensifies the message that their bodies are machines by adding to it the clear statement that their machines can function without them.
www.birthpsychology.com /messages/analgesia/analgesia.html   (1449 words)

 Acupuncture   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
The two major pathways of acupuncture in creating analgesia are the acupuncture analgesia (AA) afferent pathway, and the acupuncture analgesia (AA) efferent pathway (or the descending pain inhibitory system (DPIS)).
For example, a hypophysectomy was discovered to prevent ancupuncture analgesia and therefore, it believed that a pathway leading to the pi tuitary gland was important in acupuncture analgesia (7).
Having presen ted the mechanism of acupuncture analgesia, the question of the effectiveness of acupuncture in treatment is another important subject.
hcs.harvard.edu /~husn/BRAIN/vol1/acpunc.html   (1058 words)

 Mechanisms of Hypnotic Analgesia
This proposal helps make sense of one of the paradoxes of hypnosis, which is that it alters people’s self-reports of pain but not their physiological responses to the pain stimulus.
From the perspective of Hilgard’s neodissociation theory of divided consciousness, the reduced self-ratings are accurate reflections of the subjects’ conscious experience of pain, while the physiological measures show that the pain stimulus has been registered and processed outside of conscious awareness by the sensory-perceptual system.
In a later study, Miller and Bowers assigned subjects of low and high hypnotizability to stress inoculation and hypnotic analgesia conditions, but with a somewhat fiendish twist: during the cold-pressor tests the subjects were also administered a difficult vocabulary test.
www.institute-shot.com /mechanisms_of_hypnotic_analgesia.htm   (1382 words)

 Postgraduate Medicine: Sedation and analgesia in intensive care
Preview: Sedation and analgesia are often used in critical care patients to alleviate pain, anxiety, and the stress response.
The primary goals of sedation and analgesia are to relieve pain and anxiety, attenuate the stress response, and improve compliance with care.
In general, sedation should be accompanied by analgesia because analgesics potentiate the effect of sedatives, resulting in lower sedative dose requirements.
www.postgradmed.com /issues/2002/02_02/blanchard.htm   (4055 words)

 Anesthesia, Analgesia and Sedation
Because of the difficulty of determining when an animal is in pain, animal welfare regulations require that analgesia be provided whenever a procedure is being performed or a condition is present that is likely to cause pain.
Analgesia is normally provided using one of several types of pharmaceutical preparations.
Analgesia provided by the barbiturates is poor and a relatively deep plane of anesthesia is required for surgery, unless used in combination with analgesics.
www.ahc.umn.edu /rar/anesthesia.html   (7702 words)

 Acetaminophen Analgesia in Neonatal Circumcision   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
To test the hypothesis that acetaminophen alleviates intraoperative and postoperative pain in neonatal circumcision, a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of acetaminophen analgesia in healthy full term neonates undergoing circumcision was conducted.
Due to the early discharge of neonates, the number of postoperative comfort scores at 24 hours was insufficient for statistical analysis, and we were unable to evaluate acetaminophen effects after 6 hours.
Thus, even though acetaminophen is simple and safe to administer to newborns, it may not be indicated for the treatment of pain of circumcision in the immediate postoperative period.
www.cirp.org /library/pain/howard   (3461 words)

 Analgesia for Newborn Circumcision   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
The most common reasons listed for not employing analgesia were lack of familiarity with analgesia use among neonates (56%), lack of familiarity with the technique of dorsal penile block (50%), and concern over adverse effects of analgesic drugs (49%) and regional analgesia (44%).
Despite evidence that neonates perceive pain and that there is a physiologic stress response to circumcision which can be reduced if analgesia is employed, the vast majority of physicians performing newborn circumcisions either do not employ analgesics or employ analgesics of questionable efficacy.
Lack of familiarity with the use of analgesics among neonates and with dorsal penile block in particular are the most common reasons cited for lack of analgesic use.
www.cirp.org /library/pain/wellington   (283 words)

 Pain Management during Labor & Delivery
Epidural analgesia is an anesthetic technique in which a needle is passed between the vertebra of the Spinal column and into the space just outside the dural membrane (which surrounds the Spinal cord, Spinal nerve roots, and the Spinal fluid).
Spinal analgesia is administered when the needle is advanced past the Epidural space and through the dural membrane into the Spinal fluid.
Spinal or Epidural analgesia is easier to start before labor discomfort makes it difficult for you to discuss your situation or cooperate in analgesia administration.
www.reddinganesthesia.com /labor.htm   (2320 words)

 Labour analgesia and fetal bradycardia -- Riley 50 (Supplement 1): 6 -- Canadian Journal of Anesthesia
Labour analgesia with intrathecal fentanyl decreases maternal stress.
A randomized study of combined spinal-epidural analgesia versus intravenous meperidine during labor: impact on cesarean delivery rate.
The effect of maternal position on fetal heart rate during epidural or intrathecal labor analgesia.
www.cja-jca.org /cgi/content/full/50/suppl_1/R6   (1296 words)

 Rates of caesarean section and instrumental vaginal delivery in nulliparous women after low concentration epidural ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
infusions of bupivacaine with parenteral opioid analgesia on
Continuous infusion epidural analgesia with lidocaine: efficacy and influence during the second stage of labor.
Continuous lumbar epidural analgesia using bupivacaine: a study of the fetus and newborn child.
bmj.com /cgi/content/full/328/7453/1410   (2565 words)

 Preemptive Analgesia
The aim of this study was to investigate 1) whether preemptive anesthesia and aggressive postoperative epidural analgesia and 2) the effect of different doses and amounts of morphine used for different postoperative analgesic techniques can have any effects on the concentrations ofproinflammatory cytokines and stress hormones in upper abdominal surgery.
Thus, the attractive concept of preemptive analgesia appears not to be applicable to the clinic.
Quality of postoperative analgesia (POA) (VRS 0 to 4, cortisol and glucose blood plasma levels) and analgesics tolerability (frequency and severity of side effects on 0-3 scale) were estimated.
www.painstudy.ru /wcp/preemptive.htm   (3902 words)

 A Reference Source for Analgesia & Analgesics in Animals, AWIC Series 2000-02   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
While this publication is not meant to be a complete resource on the subject of analgesia and analgesics in animals it is hoped that it will be useful to those involved with animal research and will be of assistance to the investigators, veterinarians, and in the reduction of pain and distress to these animals.
McMeekan, C.M.; Stafford, K.J.; Mellor, D.J.; Bruce, R.A.; Ward, R.N.; Gregory, N.G., (1998), Effects of regional analgesia and/or a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory analgesic on the acute cortisol response to dehorning in calves.
Sawyer, D.C.; Rech, R.H., (1987), Analgesia and behavioral effects of butorphanol, nalbuphine, and pentazocine in the cat.
www.nalusda.gov /awic/pubs/awic200002.htm   (8570 words)

 Pain of circumcision, pain control   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
The Neuroanatomy, Neurphysiology, and Neurochemistry of Pain, Stress, and Analgesia in Newborns and Children.
Acetaminophen analgesia in neonatal circumcision: the effect on pain.
Combined analgesia and local anesthesia to minimize pain during circumcision.
www.cirp.org /library/pain   (2548 words)

 Non-opioid analgesia improves pain relief and decreases sedation after gastric bypass surgery: [Un traitement non ...
Non-opioid analgesia improves pain relief and decreases sedation after gastric bypass surgery: [Un traitement non opioide ameliore l'analgesie et provoque moins de sedation apres un pontage gastrique] -- Feld et al.
Small-dose clonidine prolongs postoperative analgesia after sciatic-femoral nerve block with 0.75% ropivacaine for foot surgery.
Effect of combined prednisolone, epidural analgesia and indomethacin on pain, systemic response and convalescence after cholecystectomy.
www.cja-jca.org /cgi/content/full/50/4/336   (2546 words)

 The MSDS HyperGlossary: Analgesia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
Analgesia is the loss of sensitivity to pain.
You may be familiar with the term "analgesic" for common pain relievers such as aspirin, for example.
Be careful not to confuse pain relievers with anesthetics which are used to block pain and other sensations during surgical procedures.
www.ilpi.com /msds/ref/analgesia.html   (203 words)

 Medical Risks of Epidural Anesthesia During Childbirth
Epidural analgesia was maintained with a continous infusion of 0.125% bupivacaine with 2 pg/ml fentanyl.
Our experience with patient controlled analgesia is that the reason the patient stops pushing the button is that she gets so high a dose that she falls asleep.
For example, patients under 30 years of age who were induced with oxytocin who received epidural analgesia had a 32% cesarean section rate (230/719) versus a 39.1% cesarean section rate (70/179) for the same group of patients who did not receive an epidural anesthetic.
www.healing-arts.org /mehl-madrona/mmepidural.htm   (7803 words)

 A Reference Source for Analgesia & Analgesics in Animals, AWIC Series 2000-02   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
Amarpal, H.P. Aithal; Singh, G.R.; Pawde, A.M.; Sharma, A.K., (1997), Epidural xylazine and ketamine for hind quarter analgesia in cow calves.
Descriptors: epidural xylazine, ketamine, hind quarter analgesia, cow calves.
Descriptors: regional analgesia, anti-inflammatory analgesia, effects, cortisol, calves.
www.nal.usda.gov /awic/pubs/awic200002.htm   (8570 words)

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