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Topic: Analogy


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In the News (Tue 25 Jun 19)

  
  Analogy - LoveToKnow 1911
Thus by analogy, the word "loud," originally applied to sounds, is used of garments which obtrude themselves on the attention; all metaphor is thus a kind of analogy.
Strictly the argument by analogy is based on similarity of relations between things, not on the similarity of things, though it is, in general, extended to cover the latter.
The term was used in a special sense by Kant in his phrase, "Analogies of Experience," the third and most important group in his classification of the a priori elements of knowledge.
www.1911encyclopedia.org /Analogy   (531 words)

  
 Logical Fallacy: Weak Analogy
Analogies are neither true nor false, instead they come in degrees from near identity to extreme dissimilarity.
Some arguments from analogy are based on analogies that are so weak that the argument is too weak for the purpose to which it is put.
Therefore, while the strength of an argument from analogy depends upon the strength of the analogy in its premisses, it is not solely determined by that strength.
www.fallacyfiles.org /wanalogy.html   (486 words)

  
 Analogy of Spousal Love
The analogy of spousal love permits us to understand in a certain way the mystery which for ages was hidden in God, and which in turn was realized by Christ, as a love proper to a total and irrevocable gift of self on the part of God to man in Christ.
The analogy of spousal love contains in itself a characteristic of the mystery, which is not directly emphasized either by the analogy of the love of compassion or by the analogy of paternal love (or by any other analogy used in the Bible to which we would have referred).
The analogy of marriage, as a human reality in which spousal love is incarnated, helps to a certain degree and in a certain way to understand the mystery of grace as an eternal reality in God and as a historical fruit of mankind's redemption in Christ.
www.ewtn.com /library/PAPALDOC/JP2TB95.HTM   (1178 words)

  
 Analogy-based learning and Natural Language Processing
Generalization by analogy can be defined as the inferential process by which an unfamiliar object (the target object) is seen as an analogue of known objects of the same type (the base objects) so that whatever properties are known about the latter are assumed to be transferable to the former.
As a result, generalization by analogy is a relatively passive process of registering and accumulating properties of linguistic objects by being exposed to a sufficiently large amount of them (i.e.
analogy is sensitive to properties that are relevant in the context of the intended application, as a common core is extracted between acquired objects only if they have in common properties pertaining to both their surface representation and their interpretation;
www.ercim.org /publication/Ercim_News/enw24/language.html   (719 words)

  
 Simplified Spelling Society : Analogy in English Spelling.
Linguistic analogy is the influence exerted by the use of language in one context on another in which it is historically inappropriate.
Analogy is a powerful factor in many areas of language, not least in spelling.
Analogy, however, need not be confined, in the case of borrowed words like delight, to the recipient language.
www.spellingsociety.org /bulletins/b79/winter/analogy.php   (2104 words)

  
 CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Analogy
Analogy in metaphysics and Scholastic philosophy was carefully studied by the Schoolmen, especially by the Pseudo-Dionysius, Albertus Magnus, and St. Thomas.
The analogy between corporal and intellectual vision is of this sort, because intelligence is to the mind what the eye is to the body.
As human knowledge proceeds from the data of the senses directed and interpreted by reason, it is evident that man cannot arrive at a perfect knowledge of the nature of God which is essentially spiritual and infinite.
www.newadvent.org /cathen/01449a.htm   (1759 words)

  
 Hydraulic analogy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The electronic Hydraulic analogy (derisively referred to as the Drain-pipe theory by Oliver Heaviside) is the most widely used analogy for "electron fluid" in a metal conductor.
The analogy is made to a hydraulic system of water in pipes.
This hydraulic analogy is still of some use in teaching, not only for the fact that the names of the quantities are often struck by analogy.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Hydraulic_analogy   (1247 words)

  
 Contradiction and Analogy as the Basis for Inventive Thinking
Analogy is recognized as perhaps one of the most important teaching methods, especially where some linguistic difference exists between speaker and listener.
Analogy is a mathematical relationship, responsible for the repetition of individual and group elements in natural and artificially produced systems.
The whole process of establishing analogy is fractal or scale-independent, since the reference frame is complete at each stage yet is simultaneously additive, multiplicative and divisive, as new elements are introduced and made consistent with the primary observation.
www.triz-journal.com /archives/2002/08/c   (6271 words)

  
 The Laboratory for Complex Cognition and Scientific Reasoning: Research: Analogy
Analogy is a basic human reasoning process used in science, literature, art, education, and politics.
Analogy is also used to influence public opinion, fight battles, win wars, start and finish relationships, and advertise laundry detergent.
Because analogy use is so common, and such an essential part of human existence, there has been much research in Cognitive Science on the nature of analogy -- many experiments have been conducted and computational models proposed.
www.dartmouth.edu /~kndunbar/analogy.html   (221 words)

  
 Analogy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
Inference by analogy appears to be the most common kind of conclusion, and it is possibly the most essential kind.
This conjecture was supported by analogy; the case of the tetrahedron is analogous to that of the triangle.
This kind of analogy between S and S´ is exemplified by what we have discussed under 1; take as S the sides of a rectangle, as S´ the faces of a rectangular parallelepiped.
webpages.charter.net /rivendell/heuristics/analogy.html   (2413 words)

  
 The Knots Exhibition - Analogy
The more important reason was to emphasise that the analogy is not between things but between the way things behave, between their relationships.
This makes the point that it is as the study of analogies that algebra obtains its generality and power.
By using the commonplace word "analogy", we aim to demystify, and to show that one aspect of the method of algebra is as a standard process by which we understand and try to make order of the world.
www.popmath.org.uk /exhib/pagesexhib/analogy.html   (625 words)

  
 Analogies
An analogy is a relationshuip between a pair of words.
Analogies show relationships between two pairs of words.
There are several types of analogies: synonyms, antonyms, function, cause-effect, part to whole, and type of relationships.
www.hickman.k12tn.net /ehms/vocabulary/analogies.htm   (52 words)

  
 categories, analogy and reification: metalogic C - abelard
Defining an object as a member of a class, such as a political party, is to make an analogy between the behaviour of that person and the definition of the other objects in the class.
Analogy is sometimes pragmatic communication but it requires a relaxation of rigour; for, in the real world, there is no genuine separation, nor are any two notionally separated ‘objects’ ever ‘the same’.
All reasoning using analogy, while often useful (pragmatic), is essentially sloppy – that is, empirically unsound and should, therefore, always be used with caution and close, conscious attention.
www.abelard.org /briefings/analogy.htm   (1725 words)

  
 Analogies
An analogy is a type of word problem that often appears on standardized tests.
At first glance the words in an analogy may seem to have nothing to do with each other, but the words are always logically related.
Try reading the analogy as a sentence that expresses the relationships between the words: "A puppy is a young dog, like a kitten is a young.
www.factmonster.com /spot/analogy.html   (291 words)

  
 LINGUIST List 7.1794: Analogy
So, while analogy may indeed depend on some grammatical conditions (such as whether a word is a noun or a verb) what rules out the analogy in the famous video case is semantic, not structural.
The example is good to bring home the point that somehow the analogy escaped speakers earlier, so even though they said "the bridge was built (at last)"and "they're building the bridge", they didn't think of saying "the bridge is being built (at last)", but kept saying "the bridge is building (at last)".
So "analogy" seems to be as "weak" (in the usual sense of being too "powerful", explains everything and therefore nothing) an explanation in historical linguistics as in synchronic linguistics.
www.ling.ed.ac.uk /linguist/issues/7/7-1794.html   (2311 words)

  
 20th WCP: Runaway Statues: Platonic Lessons on the Limits of an Analogy
Even as Plato uses the statue analogy, his addition of the requirement for responsible stewardship makes it clear that in the case of knowledge, value assessment is independent of, and subsequent to, acquisition.
The analogy establishes a link between the retention of material property and the retention of "intellectual property." Plato knows the analogy will appeal to the proprietary interests of his readers: fellow Athenians who are also proprietors and slave holders.
Finally, the statue analogy conveys the ethical lesson that just as a proprietor is sensitive to how her possessions might be approached by others, so too must an epistemic proprietor be.
www.bu.edu /wcp/Papers/Anci/AnciBene.htm   (3068 words)

  
 Analogy
Thus an analogy is a way of noticing relational commonalties independently of the objects in which those relations are embedded.
Reasoning by analogy is a way of adapting old knowledge, which almost never perfectly matches the present situation, by following a recipe of detecting differences and tweaking parameters.
Excerpt from the extended abstract: "Any complete model of legal reasoning and legal analogizing must simulate the manner in which principles influence the creation of analogies and the way in which principles are themselves tested and refined on a case by case basis.
www.aaai.org /AITopics/html/analogy.html   (1055 words)

  
 The KLI Theory Lab - keywords - analogy
Keywords: analogy • critique of memetics • cultural traits • individuation of units • sociobiology.
Keywords: analogy • autonomy • biology vs. physical science •; ethics • genetics • historical explanations of intentional behavior • mechanism • models • natural history • prediction • progress • taxonomy • theoretical posits.
Keywords: analogy • biological systems • causation • complexity • emergent materialism • hierarchy • human sociobiology • information •; metaphor •; methodological reduction • ontological reduction • part-whole relations •; physical systems • religion and science •; self-organization • social systems • theory constitution • theory reduction.
www.kli.ac.at /theorylab/Keyword/A/analogy.html   (465 words)

  
 CD Baby: ANALOGY: Life's Harmony(humble beginnings)
This was put together to open the gates, there's not too much of this and not too much of that." With various music influences, Analogy defines his style as a rythmatic, interchaneable blend of Hip Hop that's youthfully, culturally sound.
Now putting his efforts on a local and national tour, Analogy aspires to deepen the interest of the public's eyes.
Analogy, in my opinion, is up there with today's real artists like Mos Def, Talib Kweli, Gift of Gab from Blackalicious, and all the other real storytellers of our day.
www.cdbaby.com /cd/analogy   (393 words)

  
 Integrating Memory and Reasoning in Analogy-Making: The AMBR Model   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
AMBR is built on a general cognitive architecture, which makes it possible to integrate analogy with other cognitive processes and to provide a basis for unified explanations of phenomena such as context-sensitivity that cut across virtually all cognitive processes.
Although we do not misrepresent the whole of cognition with the particular object of study, say memory or analogy, we tend to think of mechanisms that could explain the tiny fraction we have focused on.
Very often, however, we ignore data that are not directly related to analogy but are nevertheless very useful because of their relation to other cognitive processes that in turn relate to analogy.
www.contrib.andrew.cmu.edu /~apetrov/pub/analogy01/intro.html   (1312 words)

  
 UNM College of Nursing: Teaching & Learning Strategies (Analogy)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
Analogy is defined as a likeness or similarity between two things that are otherwise unalike.
Analogy enhances an understanding of complex concepts or abstractions by allowing learners to consider the concepts in a different context.
Students should be able to compare analogies to the concepts by explaining how they are similar, but also how they are different.
hsc.unm.edu /consg/critical/analogy.shtml   (389 words)

  
 Analogy Fest
The Analogy Fest is an attempt to manufacture serendipity, to create the circumstances in which clever people might have an "Aha!" moment.
Analogy Fest will be held at the Agile Development Conference, June 25-28, 2003.
Each paper is about an analogy between software development and something completely different from software development.
www.visibleworkings.com /analogyfest   (655 words)

  
 The UVic Writer's Guide: Analogies   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
Argument by analogy tends to evoke a predictable emotional response because it is usually based on accepted symbolism; for example, during the Gulf War Saddam Hussein was routinely compared to Hitler, as if doing so automatically provided a justification for war.
Use analogy to clarify or enhance your argument but do not deceive yourself into thinking that you are proving it.
This analogy demeans the process of reading by comparing it to something mechanical; the comparison may be partially appropriate, but it does not suggest the complexity of the response one has to a poem.
web.uvic.ca /wguide/Pages/LogAnalg.html   (169 words)

  
 Dictionary of Philosophy of Mind - analogy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
analogy - A systematic comparison between structures that uses properties of and relations between objects of a source structure to infer properties of and relations between objects of a target structure.
Analogy is an important kind of thinking, contributing to such cognitive tasks as explanation, planning, and decision making.
In artificial intelligence, analogy is often called case-based reasoning.
www.artsci.wustl.edu /~philos/MindDict/analogy.html   (120 words)

  
 Critical Concepts: Repression (Freud's analogy)
And since analogy is the basis for the genre of fiction known as parable, this is another reason for us to consider it.
You will notice that the presentation of the analogy is broken into two parts, interrupted by discussion of the application of the first part, followed by raising of the issues to be addressed in the second part, which in turn is followed by application to the subject at hand.
Freud's analogy here for his Clark University audience is an adaptation to the present circumstances of this "border patrol" comparison.
www.k-state.edu /english/baker/english320/cc-repression2.htm   (3034 words)

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