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Topic: Andean Community

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  Andean Community - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The groundwork for the Community was established in 1969 in the Cartagena Agreement.
In 2000, a meeting of the South American Presidents, at which the Andean Community Heads of State and Mercosur decide to launch negotiations for establishing a free trade area between the two blocs as rapidly as possible and by January 2002 at the latest.
In August 2003, the Andean Community and Mercosur Foreign Ministers, during a meeting in Montevideo at which the CAN delivered a working proposal containing guidelines for the negotiation, reaffirmed their governments' political determination to move ahead with the negotiation of a free trade agreement between the two blocs.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Andean_Community   (793 words)

 Project on International Courts and Tribunals
The Cartagena Agreement was subsequently modified in 1987 by the Quito Protocol (the Andean Pact Treaty), by the Trujillo Act of March 10, 1996, and by the Protocol of Sucre signed on June 25, 1997.
The Court of Justice of the Andean Community (TJAC) is the judicial body and an integral part of the Andean Community.
The mission of the TJAC is to ensure the respect of Community law, settle disputes arising from it, and consistently interpret it.
www.pict-pcti.org /courts/TJAC.html   (308 words)

 A/51/87 Text of Trujillo Act Establishing the Andean Community
Andean Parliament The Andean Presidents support the strengthening of the Andean Parliament and urge that representatives to that body be elected, by universal and direct ballot, within the next five years.
European Union The Andean Presidents are pleased that the President of the European Council welcomed, at the Madrid Summit of December 1995, the call to strengthen relations between the Andean Community and the European Union.
Andean Community and other blocs The Andean Presidents are confident that the negotiations between the countries members of the Cartagena Agreement and the Common Market of the Southern Cone will help increase economic ties between the two subregional integration schemes in a context of open regionalism.
www.un.org /documents/ga/docs/51/plenary/a51-87.htm   (1772 words)

 CLIMATE CHANGE: Andean Community Pushes for Urgent Action
The five members of the Andean Community trade bloc have taken a common position to the 11th Conference of the 189 Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP 11) and the first meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol, running Nov. 28-Dec. 9 in Montreal, Canada.
The proportion of greenhouse gases emitted by the Andean nations is only 0.28 to 1.12 percent of the total produced by industrialised countries, while the bloc's "quota" is not supposed to exceed 4.00 percent of the industrialised countries' emissions, or 2.5 percent of global emissions.
Negotiators from the three Andean countries are sticking by the Andean Community's binding environmental rules and regulations in the free trade talks with the United States, in the absence of strong national environmental laws.
www.ipsnews.net /news.asp?idnews=31315   (1105 words)

 [No title]
The Andean Council of Ministers of Foreign Relations establishes the priorities of the Common Foreign Policy and coordinates its implementation through the Council's Pro Tempore Secretariat, which is run by the Foreign Ministry of the Andean country that holds the yearly presidency of the Andean Community, and with the technical support of the General Secretariat.
For this purpose, the Presidents recognized that the Andean Community will have to move on to second generation policies within the framework of a multidimensional agenda, policies that are based on five pillars: the social agenda, the broadening of the common foreign policy, the building of the Common Market, physical integration, and border development.
Andean program to promote Andean exports and investment in the hemispheric market There is no joint program to promote exports and investment in the FTAA that might support the efforts made by Andean countries to improve the competitiveness of priority sectors.
www.ftaa-alca.org /SpComm/SME/publicdocs/psei145_e.doc   (9868 words)

 The European Union and The Andean Community: Two Integration Systems   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Its main tasks are: to look after the enforcement of community law, to serve as the executive arm of the EU, to initiate EU policy and legislation, to defend EU interests in the Council of Ministers, to negotiate community funds, to propose measures for the operation of the union and to negotiate external agreements.
The AG became the AC and new institutions were created: the Andean Presidential Council, constituted by the presidents of the member countries, the Andean Council of Foreign Ministers and the General Secretary.
Between 1990 and 1998 the participation of the community market with regard to the rest of the world passed from the 19 to 77 percent for Colombia and Venezuela and from 37 to 133 percent for Ecuador.
www.isanet.org /noarchive/martinez.html   (8053 words)

 VIIIth meeting of the EU – Andean Community Joint Committee
The Joint Assessment should lead, in due course, to negotiations between the EU and the Andean Community with a view to concluding an Association Agreement, which as agreed at Guadalajara is a strategic common objective of the parties.
The Joint Committee established by the 1993 Framework Co-operation Agreement between the European Economic Community and the countries of the Andean Community (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela) held its eighth meeting on 21 January 2005 in Brussels.
The highlight of the meeting was the official launching of the joint assessment exercise of regional economic integration in the Andean Community as agreed by the respective Heads of State and Government at the Guadalajara Summit in May 2004.
europa.eu.int /comm/external_relations/andean/intro/21_01_05.htm   (631 words)

 A/52/232 Observer Status for the Andean Community in the General Assembly
Accordingly, the Andean Community is today a free trade area without any kind of tariff or para-tariff restriction, into which members are incorporated gradually and automatically; it also has a common external tariff, in which four of its five members participate.
For 20 years, the Andean Community has had a relationship of cooperation with the European Union, legally enshrined in a "third- generation agreement" which, beyond the limits of technical assistance and economic cooperation, promotes the flow of investments and technology transfer.
Institution-building The Andean Community is composed of the sovereign States of Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela, and of the organs and institutions of the Andean Integration System, established by the Cartagena Agreement.
www.un.org /documents/ga/docs/52/plenary/a52-232.htm   (659 words)

 Andean Community - Patent Protection for "Use" Inventions
Peru, a member of the Andean Community, granted a patent relating to a new use of a pharmaceutical which had never itself been patented in Peru.
The Secretariat of the Andean Community brought proceedings against Peru before the Andean Tribunal of Justice to have Peru ordered to revoke the patent on the ground that its grant was contrary to the provisions of Decision 344.
This conclusion was bolstered by taking the view that new uses were in any case discoveries rather than inventions and, in the case of medical uses, their patenting would additionally be prohibited by the Andean Community's prohibition of patents related to methods of treatment of humans or animals by way of therapy, surgery or diagnosis.
www.ladas.com /BULLETINS/2002/0802Bulletin/AndeanComm_UseInvent.html   (346 words)

 Andean Community - New Intellectual Property Law
The Andean Community (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela) adopted a new harmonized intellectual property law, under Decision 486 of the Cartagena Agreement, which took effect on December 1, 2000.
According to the Secretary General of the Andean Community, the wording is apparently intended to exclude any form of patent protection for second medical uses.
The issue is, however, currently before the Andean Community Court of Justice, although on the basis of the prohibitions of the prior law.
www.ladas.com /BULLETINS/2002/0202Bulletin/AndeanCommNewIPLaw.html   (2226 words)

 TJAC - Introductory Note
The Andean Community ("Comunidad Andina"), previously known as the Andean Pact or Andean Common Market, is a sub-regional economic integration organization, originally created by the Cartagena Agreement of May 26, 1969, (1) encompassing five Latin-America States: Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela.
The Cartagena Agreement was subsequently modified in 1987 by the Quito Protocol (the Andean Pact Treaty) (2), by the Trujillo Act of March 10, 1996 (3), and by the Protocol of Sucre signed on June 25, 1997 (4).
The Trujillo Act modified it into the "Court of Justice of the Andean Community" (6), and its statute was later modified by the Cochabamba Protocol signed on May 28, 1996 (7).
www.pict-pcti.org /matrix/IntroNotes/IntroNote-TJAC.htm   (465 words)

 Structure and Meaning
I argue that the Andean community is particularly amenable to archaeological study because its ethnographic and historical signature is so clearly grounded in fixed territories, residence, land tenure, and landscape capital (defined here as multigenerational infrastructure and knowledge systems pertaining to settlement, communication, transportation, farmland, and identity).
Andean peoples, past and present, provide us with a range of definitions of community rooted in the physical landscape.
In using Andean ethnography and history to develop a spatial model of social organization, I do not assume that Andean communities are homogeneous or static.
www.design.upenn.edu /arch/news/Human_Settlements/andean.html   (600 words)

 South American Community of Nations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Complete integration between the Andean Community and Mercosur into the South American Community of Nations is expected by 2007.
According to Allan Wagner, Secretary General of the Andean Community, a complete union like that of the EU should be possible by 2019.
The mechanics of the new entity should come out at the First South American Community of Nations Heads of State Summit, to be held in Brasilia, in September 29-30 2005.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/SACN   (690 words)

To appeal to the Andean Council of Foreign Ministers to organize effective mechanisms to ensure the participation of the social actors and organizations in developing the Andean integration process, with the technical support of the General Secretariat.
Bearing in mind that the Andean Community as a whole is the world's second leading coffee producer and exporter, it is important for the Member Countries to participate actively in discussions about how to overcome the crisis in this sector.
To instruct the Andean Council of Foreign Ministers to expedite measures to prevent and repair the damage caused by natural disasters and external meteorological phenomena, worsened by global warning, particularly "the Niño Phenomenon," bearing in mind the recommendations of the Pre-Andean Program the CAF is carrying out in coordination with the countries.
www.sela.org /public_html/aa2k3/eng/cap/cap67/cap67-12.htm   (2256 words)

 Speeches   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Moreover, the Andean Community countries are important suppliers of a strategic commodity, oil, giving the area salience to the United States well beyond the magnitude of bilateral trade flows.
Andean countries, therefore, should use the FTAA negotiations as a means to enhance their liberalisation efforts, to consolidate the Andean Community regime in relevant areas, and to engage in constructive dialogue with their larger partner in a forum where trade issues are the focus.
Andean Community countries, as well as other countries in Latin America and the Caribbean need to jump start the institutional or "second generation" reforms that are essential to achieve macroeconomic stability.
www.oas.org /speeches/speech.asp?sCodigo=02-0185   (2557 words)

 Andean Community --  Encyclopædia Britannica
The people in these communities were familiar with the sea and depended heavily on its products, but from very early times they also used and possibly cultivated native varieties of cotton.
By the 1980s, many members of the scientific community believed that advances in health care had nearly eliminated the threat that plagues, which had ravaged populations in the past, would ever be seen again.
Includes a facility for community groups to create their own website, a UK search engine, and news about such topics as ethnic minorities, community development, housing and homelessness, and government funding of public projects.
www.britannica.com /eb/article-9007428   (883 words)

 The EU's relations with the Andean Community - Overview
While the first regional co-operation agreement between the EU and the Andean Community dates back to 1983, the current legal basis for EU co-operation relations with the individual Andean countries and the Andean Community as a whole is the
As regards CAN regional programmes, the European Community is the only donor consistently dedicating a substantial aid effort to the consolidation of the Andean Community as such.
Trade with the Andean Community represents approximately 0.8% of the EU’s total trade, while the EU represents 14.1% of the Andean Community trade.
europa.eu.int /comm/external_relations/andean/intro   (1577 words)

 Phrma: Issues & Policy: International: NTE: Andean Community
As of January 1, 1994, the Governments of the Andean Community adopted Decision 344, which improved former Decision 313 in providing a 20-year patent term, reversal of the burden of proof in cases of alleged patent infringement and immediate implementation.
A second way in which the intellectual property environment could be improved in the Andean Pact, until adequate and effective de jure patent protection is in place, is for these countries to implement and enforce provisions guarding against the unauthorized commercial use of company proprietary data, as per the principles outlined in TRIPS Article 39.
The Andean Pact should adopt a ten-year period standard against the use of proprietary data submitted for registration purposes, as is the case in several EU countries.
www.cptech.org /ip/health/phrma/nte-99/andean.html   (1568 words)

 TRADE: Andean Community Integration Feels Strain of Discrepancies
"Andean integration is not occurring in outer space, it is neither a simple nor an easy matter, but we know where we must place our solidarity and alliances," said Wagner in Caracas.
In the meantime, negotiators from the three Andean countries were working against the clock with their U.S. counterparts in Washington to resolve differences over agricultural exports, textiles, rules of origin, intellectual property rights on medicines, and telecommunications.
Peru, realising that it was further ahead in the talks than its neighbours, suggested that it sign its own treaty with the United States before all of the negotiators pack their bags on Dec. 6 to head to the World Trade Organisation (WTO) ministerial conference in Hong Kong.
www.ipsnews.net /news.asp?idnews=31131   (942 words)

 Declaration Andean Presidential Council   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Considering that the Andean Community is based on the full support of democracy and the rule of law, and relies on mechanisms that promote respect for human rights, political cooperation, as well as active and democratic participation of Community citizens, for the sake of its strengthening and the consolidation of a single market:
His commitment to the Andean Community and his efforts to promote it are an important legacy for the future of our process.
Renew their commitment to move forward in the drafting of the Comprehensive Plan for Andean Social Development, for the implementation of the Community social agenda, which is recognized as the cornerstone of the current stage of integration.
www.sela.org /public_html/aa2k2/eng/cap/n65/rcap65-13.htm   (897 words)

 Who are We?- Andean Community -CAN-
The intention is to strengthen the common foreign policy, develop the social agenda and move toward an Andean strategy of social cohesion.
The creation this year of the Andean Council of Foreign Ministers, the Andean Court of Justice and the Parliament puts almost the final finishing touches to the institutional fabric of the Andean integration process.
The principle of direct applicability of Community Decisions, agreements and legislation and of their supranational nature are put into practice with the entry into effect of the Treaty Creating the Court of Justice.
www.comunidadandina.org /ingles/who.htm   (474 words)

 IDBAmerica: Andean countries forge historic tax pact
With little fanfare, the five nations of the Andean Community have agreed to a build a common system for their value added tax (VAT), which accounts for roughly half the taxes collected in the region.
Investors will find the Andean Community as a whole a more attractive place to do business because key parts of the tax system will be similar in all of the countries, and there will be less likelihood of changes, Barreix says.
In fact, he says, the Andean Community VAT agreement could be a model for tax integration of other subregional blocs, such as the Central American Common Market and Mercosur.
www.iadb.org /idbamerica/index.cfm?thisid=3517   (751 words)

 ALCA - FTAA - ZLEA | Consultative Group on Smaller Economies - Andean Community - Hemispheric Cooperation Program
Likewise, the Andean Ministers Responsible for Trade (Commission of the Andean Community) have reiterated that a study on the impact of the FTAA is a priority for the development of a joint strategy to face the risks and take advantage of the opportunities presented by the hemispheric market.
Subregional Mission of the consultant and the responsible official from the General Secretariat of the Andean Community to submit a proposal, receive contributions and comments for the purpose of consolidating a proposal with the participation of all the sectors involved in implementing it.
The main objective was to support Andean countries in framing public policies to improve the competitiveness of Andean countries and promote the formulation of a joint strategy for regional competitive development.
www.ftaa-alca.org /SPCOMM/SME/derdocs/dsei97_e.asp   (1258 words)

The Andean Community of Nations involves: Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela, and the Integration Andean System (IAS) bodies and institutions.
The Integration Andean System goal is to allow an effective coordination of its bodies and institutions in order to reach a deep subregional integration, promote external projection, and consolidate and strengthen those actions related to the integration process.
Is the Andean Community executive body; provides technical support to all the IAS's bodies and institutions.
www.sica.gov.ec /ingles/comercio/docs/can/principios.html   (329 words)

 [No title]
In 1998, the share of Andean Community exports to the ASEAN region amounted to only 0.4 percent of its total exports of 33.2 billion U.S. dollars, while the share of Andean Community imports from the ASEAN region stood at 0.9 percent of its total imports of 40 billion U.S. dollars.
It is, therefore, advisable that ASEAN and the Andean Community should pursue active cooperation to serve our mutual interests for the benefit of the people of our two regions.
Thus, there are many potential benefits from forging economic linkages between ASEAN and the Andean Community since both groups have direct economic links with the larger APEC region through their members, and are exploring other new avenues of cooperation between Asia and Latin America.
www.aseansec.org /7875.htm   (886 words)

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